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 CHITSAUKO 13

“Mutemo waJehovha Wakakwana”

“Mutemo waJehovha Wakakwana”

1, 2. Nei vanhu vazhinji vasinganyanyi kuremekedza mutemo, asi tingasvika pakunzwa sei pamusoro pemitemo yaMwari?

“MUTEMO igomba risina mugumo, . . . unomedza zvinhu zvose.” Mashoko iwayo akanga ari mubhuku rakabudiswa kare muna 1712. Munyori waro aichemachema nezvematare edzimhosva ayo dzimwe nguva aipedza makore nemhosva mumatare, achipedza mari yevaya vanotsvaka ruramisiro. Munyika zhinji maitiro ematare edzimhosva akaoma zvikuru, makazara kusaruramisira, rusaruro nokungochinja-chinja, zvokuti kuzvidzwa kwomutemo kwazopararira.

2 Kusiyana neizvi, funga nezvemashoko aya akanyorwa anenge makore 2 700 apfuura: “Ndinoda murau wenyu seiko!” (Pisarema 119:97) Nei munyori wepisarema akanzwa rudo rwakadzama kudaro? Nokuti mutemo waairumbidza wakatanga naJehovha Mwari, kwete nehurumende yenyika. Sezvaunodzidza mitemo yaJehovha, ungasvika pakuramba uchiwedzera kunzwa somunyori wepisarema. Kudzidza kwakadaro kuchakubatsira kunzwisisa ndangariro yoMutongi mukuru wezvinhu zvose.

Mupi Wemitemo Mukuru

3, 4. Munzirai umo Jehovha akaratidza kuti Mupi Womutemo?

3 “Kune mumwe anopa mitemo nomutongi,” Bhaibheri rinotiudza kudaro. (Jakobho 4:12) Chokwadi, Jehovha ndiye Mupi Womutemo mumwe bedzi wechokwadi. Kunyange kufamba kwenyeredzi kunodzorwa ne“mitemo yokudenga.” (Jobho 38:33) Zviuru nezviuru zvengirozi tsvene dzaJehovha dzinodzorwawo nomutemo waMwari, nokuti dzakarongwa muzvinzvimbo chaizvo uye dzinoshumira sezvinorayirwa naJehovha sevashumiri vake.—Pisarema 104:4; VaHebheru 1:7, 14.

4 Jehovha akapawo vanhu mitemo. Mumwe nomumwe wedu ane hana, chiratidzo chepfungwa yaJehovha yeruramisiro. Mutemo  womukati, hana inogona kutibatsira kusiyanisa zvakarurama nezvisakarurama. (VaRoma 2:14) Vabereki vedu vokutanga vakakomborerwa nehana yakakwana, naizvozvo vaingoda mitemo mishomanana. (Genesi 2:15-17) Zvisinei, munhu asina kukwana anoda mitemo yakawanda yokumutungamirira kuita kuda kwaMwari. Vakuru vemhuri vekare vakadai saNoa, Abrahamu, uye Jakobho vakagamuchira mitemo kubva kuna Jehovha Mwari ndokuipfuudza kumhuri dzavo. (Genesi 6:22; 9:3-6; 18:19; 26:4, 5) Jehovha akazviita Mupi Womutemo munzira yakanga isina kumboonekwa paakapa rudzi rwaIsraeri bumbiro roMutemo achishandisa Mosesi. Bumbiro romutemo iri rinoita kuti tinzwisise zvikuru pfungwa yaJehovha yeruramisiro.

Mutemo waMosesi—Muchidimbu

5. Mutemo waMosesi wakanga uri mitemo yakaunganidzwa yakaoma kunzwisisa, inorema here, uye nei uchipindura kudaro?

5 Vazhinji vanoratidza sevanofunga kuti Mutemo waMosesi wakanga uri mitemo yakaunganidzwa yakaoma kunzwisisa, inorema. Mafungiro aya ari kure nechokwadi zvikuru. Mubumbiro racho rose mune mitemo inopfuura 600. Iyi inganzwika seyakawanda chaizvo, asi imbofunga: Pakaguma zana remakore rechi20, mitemo yeUnited States yakazadza mapeji anopfuura 150 000 emabhuku emitemo. Makore maviri oga oga mimwe mitemo inenge 600 inowedzerwa! Saka kana pari pakukura bedzi, gomo remitemo yevanhu rakakunda nokure Mutemo waMosesi. Asi, Mutemo waMwari waidzora vaIsraeri mune zvimwe zvinhu zvoupenyu izvo mitemo yemazuva ano isingambototauri nezvazvo. Imboona muchidimbu.

6, 7. (a) Chii chinosiyanisa Mutemo waMosesi nerimwe bumbiro romutemo ripi neripi, uye ndoupi uri murayiro mukuru pane yose woMutemo iwoyo? (b) VaIsraeri vaigona kuratidza sei kugamuchira kwavo uchangamire hwaJehovha?

6 Mutemo waisimudzira kuva changamire kwaJehovha. Naizvozvo, Mutemo waMosesi hauenzaniswi nerimwe bumbiro romutemo ripi neripi. Mukuru pamitemo yawo yose waiva uyu: “Chinzwa Israeri, Jehovha Mwari wedu ndiJehovha mumwe chete. Ude Jehovha Mwari wako nomwoyo wako wose, nomweya wako  wose, nesimba rako rose.” Vanhu vaMwari vaizoratidza kumuda sei? Vaifanira kumushumira, vachizviisa pasi pouchangamire hwake.—Dheuteronomio 6:4, 5; 11:13.

7 MuIsraeri mumwe nomumwe airatidza kugamuchira kwake uchangamire hwaJehovha nokuzviisa pasi pevaya vaiva nechiremera pamusoro pake. Vabereki, machinda, vatongi, vapristi uye, pakupedzisira, mambo vose vaimiririra chiremera chaMwari. Jehovha aiona chero kumukira kwose avo vane chiremera sokumumukira. Ukuwo, avo vaiva nechiremera vaizviisa mungozi yokuona hasha dzaJehovha kudai vaibata vanhu vake nokusaruramisira kana kuti nehasha. (Eksodho 20:12; 22:28; Dheuteronomio 1:16, 17; 17:8-20; 19:16, 17) Nokudaro mativi ose ari maviri aiva nomutoro wokusimudzira uchangamire hwaMwari.

8. Mutemo wakasimudzira sei mwero waJehovha woutsvene?

8 Mutemo waisimudzira mwero waJehovha woutsvene. Mashoko okuti “tsvene” uye “utsvene” anowanika kanopfuura ka280 muMutemo waMosesi. Mutemo wakabatsira vanhu vaMwari kusiyanisa zvakachena nezvakasviba, uchiratidza zvinenge 70 zvaigona kusvibisa muIsraeri. Mitemo iyi yaibata noutsanana hwomuviri, zvokudya, uye kunyange kuraswa kwetsvina. Mitemo yakadaro yaibatsira zvikuru pautano. * Asi yaiva nechinangwa chakaisvonaka—chokuchengeta vanhu vachifarirwa naJehovha, vakaparadzana netsika dzokutadza dzemarudzi aitadza akanga akavapoteredza. Funga nezvomuenzaniso.

9, 10. Sungano yoMutemo yaibatanidza mirau ipi pamusoro pokurara nomukadzi nokusununguka mwana, uye mitemo iyoyo yakabatsirei?

9 Mirau yesungano yoMutemo yaitaura kuti kurara kwomurume nomukadzi uye kusununguka mwana—kunyange kuvanhu vakaroorana—zvaiunza nguva yokusachena. (Revhitiko 12:2-4; 15:16-18) Mirau yakadaro yaisazvidza zvipo zvakachena zvaibva kuna Mwari izvi. (Genesi 1:28; 2:18-25) Asi, mitemo iyoyo yaisimudzira  utsvene hwaJehovha, ichichengeta vanamati vake pakusvibiswa. Zvinokosha kuona kuti marudzi akanga akapoteredza vaIsraeri aiva nomuitiro wokuvhenganisa kunamata nokurara nevakadzi uye mitambo yembereko. Chitendero chevaKanani chaisanganisira uhure hwevarume nevakadzi. Kuora kwetsika kwakaipisisa ndiko kwakaguma kwaitika kukapararira. Kusiyana neizvi, Mutemo wakaita kuti kunamatwa kwaJehovha kuve kwakaparadzana zvachose nenyaya dzokurara nomukadzi. * Pane zvimwezve zvazvaibatsirawo.

10 Mitemo iyoyo yaiitirwa kudzidzisa chokwadi chinokosha. * Pamusoro pazvo, chivi chaAdhamu chinopfuudzwa sei kubva kune chimwe chizvarwa kuenda kune chinotevera? Izvi hazviitwi nokurara nomukadzi nokubereka vana here? (VaRoma 5:12) Hungu, Mutemo waMwari waiyeuchidza vanhu vake nezvechivi chaingogara chiripo. Chokwadi, tose tinoberekerwa muchivi. (Pisarema 51:5) Tinoda kukanganwirwa nokudzikinurwa kuti tiswedere pedyo naMwari wedu mutsvene.

11, 12. (a) Mutemo waitsigira nheyo ipi inokosha yeruramisiro? (b) Mutemo waiva nechii chaidzivirira kukanganiswa kweruramisiro?

11 Mutemo waisimudzira ruramisiro yaJehovha yakakwana. Mutemo waMosesi waitsigira nheyo yokuenzana, kana kuti kuva pakati nepakati, munhau dzeruramisiro. Saka, Mutemo waiti: “Upenyu hunofanira kutsihwa noupenyu, ziso neziso, zino nezino, ruoko noruoko, rutsoka norutsoka.” (Dheuteronomio 19:21) Saka munhau dzokupara mhosva, chirango chaifanira kukodzera mhosva yacho. Pfungwa yeruramisiro yaMwari iyi yaibata pose pose muMutemo uye kusvika muzuva ranhasi inokosha  nokuda kwokunzwisisa chibayiro chorudzikinuro chaJesu Kristu, sezvicharatidzwa neChitsauko 14.—1 Timoti 2:5, 6.

12 Mutemo waivawo nezvaidzivirira kukanganiswa kweruramisiro. Somuenzaniso, zvapupu zviviri zvaidikanwa kusimbisa kuti zvaipomerwa ndezvechokwadi. Chirango chokupika nhema chakanga chakakomba. (Dheuteronomio 19:18, 19) Uori nechiokomuhomwe zvaive zvisingabvumirwiwo zvachose. (Eksodho 23:8; Dheuteronomio 27:25) Kunyange mukuita kwavo zvokutengeserana, vanhu vaMwari vaifanira kusimudzira zvaidiwa naMwari zvakakwirira zveruramisiro. (Revhitiko 19:35, 36; Dheuteronomio 23:19, 20) Bumbiro romutemo rakanaka risina rusaruro iroro raiva chikomborero chikuru kuvaIsraeri!

Mitemo Inosimbisa Ngoni Pakutonga uye Kubata Nokusasarura

13, 14. Mutemo waisimudzira sei kubatwa nokururamisira kusina tsvete kwembavha newayaibira?

13 Mutemo waMosesi waiva mitemo yakaunganidzwa yakaoma, isina ngoni here? Kana! Mambo Dhavhidhi akafuridzirwa kunyora kuti: “Murayiro waJehovha wakakwana.” (Pisarema 19:7) Sezvaainyatsoziva, Mutemo waitsigira ngoni nokubata nokusasarura. Wakaita sei izvozvo?

14 Mune dzimwe nyika nhasi, mutemo unoita sounoratidza ngoni dzakawanda nokunzwira tsitsi mbavha kupfuura kuva nehanya nevabirwa vacho. Somuenzaniso, mbavha dzingapedza nguva dziri mujeri. Munguva iyoyo, vakabirwa vangave vasina zvinhu zvavo, asi vanofanira kubhadhara mutero unoripira pokugara nezvokudya zvemakoronyera iwayo. Muna Israeri wekare, kwakanga kusina majeri semaziviro atinoaita nhasi. Pakanga pane mwero yakasimba yokukomba kwechirango. (Dheuteronomio 25:1-3) Mbavha yaifanira kuripa zvayakanga yaba kune wayakanga yabira. Pamusoro pazvo, mbavha yacho yaifanira kuwedzera kuripa zvakare. Zvakawanda sei? Zvaisiyana-siyana. Sezviri pachena, vatongi vaipiwa rusununguko rwokutarisa zvinhu zvinoverengeka, zvakadai sokupfidza kwomutadzi wacho. Ichi ndicho chikonzero nei muripo waidiwa kumbavha  maererano naRevhitiko 6:1-7 uri pasi zvikuru pane unotaurwa pana Eksodho 22:7.

15. Mutemo waiva nengoni pamwe neruramisiro sei pamunhu aiuraya mumwe netsaona?

15 Mutemo waibvuma nengoni kuti hazvisi zvikanganiso zvose zvinoitwa nemaune. Somuenzaniso, kana munhu aiuraya mumwe munhu netsaona, aisafanira kuripa mweya nomweya kana aiita chiito chakakodzera nokutizira kune rimwe remaguta outiziro akanga akapararira munyika yaIsraeri yose. Pashure pokunge vatongi vomuguta iroro vaongorora nhau yake, aifanira kuramba arimo kusvika parufu rwomupristi mukuru. Ipapo aizova akasununguka kugara chero kwaaisarudza. Naizvozvo aibatsirwa nengoni dzaMwari. Panguva imwe cheteyo, mutemo uyu waisimbisa kukosha kukuru kwoupenyu hwomunhu.—Numeri 15:30, 31; 35:12-25.

16. Mutemo wakachengetedza sei dzimwe kodzero dzevanhu?

16 Mutemo waichengetedza kodzero dzomunhu. Funga nezvenzira iyo waidzivirira nayo vaiva nechikwereti. Mutemo wairambidza kupinda mumusha momunhu ane chikwereti kunotora zvinhu zvake kubatira chikwereti. Asi, aipa chikwereti aifanira kuramba ari panze obvumira aiva nechikwereti kuti amuunzire chokufanobatira. Naizvozvo musha womunhu waichengetedzwa kuti usakanganiswa. Kana ainge apa chikwereti aizotora nguo yeaiva nechikwereti sechokufanobatira, aifanira kuidzora manheru, nokuti pamwe aiva nechikwereti wacho aida kuifuka kuti adziirwe usiku.—Dheuteronomio 24:10-14.

17, 18. Munhau dzaibatanidza hondo, vaIsraeri vakanga vakasiyana sei nemamwe marudzi, uye nei?

17 Kunyange hondo yaidzorwa muMutemo. Vanhu vaMwari vaifanira kurwa hondo, kwete kungoda kugutsa ruchiva rwesimba kana kuti kukunda, asi kuti vashande sevamiriri vaMwari mu“Hondo dzaJehovha.” (Numeri 21:14) Muzviitiko zvizhinji, vaIsraeri vaitanga kutaurira vavairwisa zvaidiwa kuti vakande mapfumo pasi. Kana guta racho rairamba zvavaitaura, ipapo vaIsraeri vaigona kuripamba—asi maererano nemitemo yaMwari. Kusiyana nevarwi vazhinji vekare kose, varume vaiva muuto  raIsraeri vakanga vasingabvumirwi kubata vakadzi chibharo kana kuti kungouraya vanhu zvokunakirwa. Vaifanira kuremekedza kunyange nharaunda yacho, vasingatemi miti yemichero yomuvengi. * Mamwe mauto akanga asina mitemo yaidzora yakadaro.—Dheuteronomio 20:10-15, 19, 20; 21:10-13.

18 Zvinokutyisa here kunzwa kuti mune dzimwe nyika vana chaivo vari kudzidziswa kuva varwi? Munyika yaIsraeri yekare hapana murume ari pasi pemakore 20 aigona kupinzwa muuto. (Numeri 1:2, 3) Kunyange murume mukuru aisunungurwa kana ainzwa kutya kusina kukodzera. Murume achangobva kuroora aisunungurwa kwegore rose kuitira kuti asati atanga basa rine ngozi zvakadaro, aigona kuona mudyi wenhaka achiberekwa. Mutemo waitsanangura kuti nenzira iyi murume wechiduku aizokwanisa kuti “afadze” mudzimai wake mutsva.—Dheuteronomio 20:5, 6, 8; 24:5.

19. Mutemo waiva nezvirongwa zvei zvokudzivirira vakadzi, vana, mhuri, chirikadzi uye nherera?

19 Mutemo waidzivirirawo vakadzi, vana, nemhuri, uchivatarisira. Wairayira vabereki kugara vachitarisira vana vavo nokuvadzidzisa kunamata. (Dheuteronomio 6:6, 7) Wairambidza marudzi ose emakunakuna, nechirango chorufu. (Revhitiko, chitsauko 18) Wairambidzawo upombwe, uhwo kazhinji zvikuru hunoparadza mhuri nokuputsa kuchengeteka kwayo nechiremera. Mutemo waichengeta chirikadzi nenherera uye nemashoko akasimba anobvira wairambidza kubatwa kwavo zvisina kufanira.—Eksodho 20:14; 22:22-24.

20, 21. (a) Nei Mutemo waMosesi waibvumira barika pakati pevaIsraeri? (b) Panhau yokurambana, nei Mutemo waisiyana nomutemo uyo Jesu akazodzorera?

20 Zvisinei, panhau iyi vamwe zvingavanetsa kuti, ‘Nei Mutemo  waibvumira barika?’ (Dheuteronomio 21:15-17) Tinofanira kufunga nezvemitemo yakadaro maererano nenguva yacho. Avo vanoongorora Mutemo waMosesi nemaonero emazuva ano netsika vangangotadza kuunzwisisa. (Zvirevo 18:13) Mutemo waJehovha, wakagadzwa kare muEdheni, wakaita kuti kuroorana kuve kubatana kusingaperi kwomurume nomudzimai. (Genesi 2:18, 20-24) Panguva apo Jehovha akapa Mutemo kuna Israeri, zvisinei, tsika dzakadai sebarika dzakanga dzagara kwemazana emakore. Jehovha ainyatsoziva kuti “vanhu” vake “vane mitsipa mikukutu” vaizoramba vachikundikana kuteerera kunyange mirayiro inokosha yakadai seyairambidza kunamata zvidhori. (Eksodho 32:9) Saka nokuchenjera, haana kusarudza nguva iyoyo senguva yokuchinja tsika dzavo dzose dzokuroorana. Zvisinei, ona kuti Jehovha haasi iye akatanga barika. Zvisinei, akashandisa Mutemo waMosesi kudzora barika pakati pevanhu vake uye kudzivisa kushandiswa zvisina kufanira kwetsika yacho.

21 Saizvozvowo, Mutemo waMosesi waibvumira murume kuramba mudzimai nokuda kwezvikonzero zvakakomba zvakawanda. (Dheuteronomio 24:1-4) Jesu akati uku kwaiva kungobvumirawo kwaMwari vanhu vechiJudha “nemhaka youkukutu hwemwoyo” yavo. Zvisinei, kubvumira kwakadaro kwakanga kuri kwenguva pfupi. Nokuda kwevateveri vake, Jesu akadzorera mutemo wokutanga waJehovha wokuroorana.—Mateu 19:8.

Mutemo Waitsigira Rudo

22. Mutemo waMosesi waikurudzira rudo munzirai, uye kunaani?

22 Ungafungidzira here bumbiro romutemo romuzuva ranhasi rinokurudzira rudo? Mutemo waMosesi waitsigira rudo kupfuura zvinhu zvose. Chokwadi, mubhuku raDheuteronomio moga, shoko rokuti “rudo” rinowanika riri mumarudzi akasiyana-siyana kanopfuura ka20. “Unofanira kuda wokwako sezvaunozvida iwe” ndiwo wakanga uri mutemo wechipiri unokosha muMutemo wose. (Revhitiko 19:18; Mateu 22:37-40) Vanhu vaMwari vaisafanira kungoratidzana rudo rwakadaro ivo voga asiwo kuvatorwa vaiva pakati pavo, vachiyeuka kuti vaIsraeri vakanga  vambovawo vatorwa. Vaifanira kuratidza rudo kuvarombo nevaitambura, vachivabatsira nezvinhu zvokunyama nokurega kuvabatirira nemhaka yokushaya kwavo. Vaitorayirwa kunyange kubata mhuka dzokutakura zvinhu nomutsa nokurangarira.—Eksodho 23:6; Revhitiko 19:14, 33, 34; Dheuteronomio 22:4, 10; 24:17, 18.

23. Munyori wePisarema rechi119 akanzwa achida kuitei, uye isu tingatsunga kuitei?

23 Ndorupi rumwe rudzi rwakakomborerwa nebumbiro romutemo rakadaro? Ndosaka munyori wepisarema akanyora kuti: “Ndinoda murau wenyu seiko!” Zvisinei, rudo rwake kwakanga kusiri kungonzwawo zvako. Rwakamuita kuti aite chimwe chinhu, nokuti akaedza kuteerera mutemo iwoyo uye kurarama mukuwirirana nawo. Uyezve akaenderera mberi achiti mutemo wenyu: “Ndicho chandinofungisisa zuva rose.” (Pisarema 119:11, 97) Hungu, aigara achitora nguva yokudzidza mitemo yaJehovha. Hapangavi nomubvunzo kuti sezvaaiita kudaro, kuida kwake kwaiwedzera. Panguva imwe cheteyo, kuda kwake Mupi Womutemo, Jehovha Mwari, kwaikurawo. Sezvaunoramba uchidzidza mutemo waMwari, newewo dai ukaramba uchiswedera pedyo naJehovha, Mupi Womutemo Mukuru uye Mwari weruramisiro.

^ ndima 8 Somuenzaniso, mitemo yaida kufusirwa kwetsvina yevanhu, kuparadzanisa vanorwara nevamwe, uye kugeza kwomunhu wose aibata chitunha chomunhu yakanga yagara yataurwa pachine mazana emakore.—Revhitiko 13:4-8; Numeri 19:11-13, 17-19; Dheuteronomio 23:13, 14.

^ ndima 9 Nepo temberi dzevaKanani dzaiva nemakamuri aingochengeterwa kurara nevakadzi, Mutemo waMosesi waitaura kuti avo vakanga vasina kuchena vaisagona kunyange kupinda mutemberi. Nokudaro, sezvo kurara nomukadzi kwaiita kuti munhu ave asina kuchena kwenguva yakati, hapana munhu aigona nenzira yepamutemo kuita kuti kuve rutivi rwokunamata paimba yaJehovha.

^ ndima 10 Kudzidzisa ndicho chakanga chiri chinangwa chikuru choMutemo. Chokwadi, Encyclopaedia Judaica inotaura kuti shoko rechiHebheru nokuda kwo“mutemo,” toh·rah′, rinoreva “murayiro.”

^ ndima 17 Mutemo wainyatsobvunza kuti: “Nokuti muti womusango munhu here, kuti ukombwe newe?” (Dheuteronomio 20:19) Philo, imwe nyanzvi yechiJudha yomuzana remakore rokutanga, akataura nezvomutemo uyu, achitsanangura kuti Mwari anozviona “kuri kusaruramisira kuti hasha dzinoitirwa vanhu dzinofanira kuratidzwa pazvinhu zvisina chero mhosva yechivi.”