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Zvapupu zvaJehovha

Sarudza Mutauro Shona

 A5

Zita raMwari muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki

Vaongorori veBhaibheri vanobvuma kuti zita raMwari, richimiririrwa neTetragrammaton (יהוה), rinowanika kanenge ka7 000 muzvinyorwa zvekutanga zveMagwaro echiHebheru. Zvisinei, vakawanda vanofunga kuti rakanga risimo muzvinyorwa zvekutanga zveMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki. Izvi ndizvo zvakaita kuti maBhaibheri akawanda eChirungu emazuva ano arege kushandisa zita rekuti Jehovha pakushandura inonzi nevanhu Testamende Itsva. Kunyange pakushandura mashoko akatorwa muMagwaro echiHebheru ane Tetragrammaton, vashanduri vakawanda vanoshandisa “Ishe” panzvimbo pezita raMwari.

Bhaibheri reShanduro yeNyika Itsva harina kutevedzera tsika iyi inoitwa nevakawanda. Rinoshandisa zita rekuti Jehovha ka237 muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki. Pakusarudza kuita izvi, vashanduri vakafunga nezvezvinhu zviviri zvinokosha: (1) Zvinyorwa zvechiGiriki zviripo mazuva ano hazvisi izvo zvakatanga kunyorwa. Pazviuru zvezvinyorwa zviripo nhasi, zvizhinji zvacho zvakanyorwa papera makore anopfuura 200 kubva pakanyorwa zvekutanga. (2) Pakazosvika nguva iyoyo, vaya vaikopa zvinyorwa zvacho vaitsiva Tetragrammaton neshoko rechiGiriki rekuti Kyʹri·os rinoreva kuti “Ishe,” kana kuti vaikopa muzvinyorwa zvarainge ratotsiviwa nechekare.

Komiti Inoshandura Bhaibheri reNyika Itsva yakaona kuti pane uchapupu hwakasimba hwekuti Tetragrammaton yaiwanika muzvinyorwa zvechiGiriki zvekutanga. Vakapa mhedziso iyoyo vachifunga zvinotevera:

  • Zvinyorwa zveMagwaro echiHebheru zvaishandiswa mumazuva aJesu nevaapostora vake zvaiva neTetragrammaton kubva kwekutanga kusvika kwekupedzisira. Kare paiva nevashoma vairamba pfungwa iyoyo. Asi iye zvino hapasisina achairamba nekuti pane zvinyorwa zveMagwaro echiHebheru zvemunguva yakararama vaapostora vaJesu zvakawanikwa pedyo neQumran.

  • Munguva yaJesu nevaapostora vake, Tetragrammaton yaiwanikawo muMagwaro echiHebheru akashandurwa achiiswa muchiGiriki. Kwemazana emakore, vaongorori veBhaibheri vaifunga kuti Tetragrammaton yainge isingawaniki muSeptuagint yechiGiriki, kureva Magwaro echiHebheru akashandurwa achiiswa muchiGiriki. Mumakore ekuma1950, vaongorori veBhaibheri vakazoongorora  zvimwe zvidimbu zvekare kare zveSeptuagint zvemunguva yaJesu. Zvidimbu zvacho zvine zita raMwari rakanyorwa nemabhii echiHebheru. Saka munguva yaJesu, Magwaro aiva muchiGiriki aiva nezita raMwari. Zvisinei, pakazosvika makore ekuma300 C.E., zvinyorwa zvikuru zveSeptuagint yechiGiriki, zvakadai seCodex Vaticanus neCodex Sinaiticus, zvakanga zvisisina zita raMwari kubva muna Genesisi kusvika kuna Maraki (mumagwaro araimbova muzvinyorwa zvekare kupfuura izvi). Ndokusaka zita raMwari risingawaniki muzvinyorwa zvepanguva iyoyo zveMagwaro echiGiriki zvinonzi nevanhu Testamende Itsva.

    Jesu akataura pachena kuti: “Ndakauya muzita raBaba vangu.” Akanyatsoratidzawo kuti aiita mabasa ake “muzita raBaba” vake

  • Magwaro echiKristu echiGiriki pachawo anoratidza kuti Jesu aiwanzotaura zita raMwari uye aiita kuti rizivikanwe nevanhu. (Johani 17:6, 11, 12, 26) Jesu akataura pachena kuti: “Ndakauya muzita raBaba vangu.” Akanyatsoratidzawo kuti aiita mabasa ake “muzita raBaba” vake.—Johani 5:43; 10:25.

  • Sezvo Magwaro echiKristu echiGiriki akafemerwa naMwari sezvakanga zvaitwawo Magwaro matsvene echiHebheru, zvaisazova nemusoro kuti zita raJehovha ringoerekana rashayikwa muMagwaro echiGiriki. Panguva yevaapostora vaJesu, mudzidzi Jakobho akati kuvakuru vaiva muJerusarema: “Simiyone akanyatsorondedzera matangiro akaita Mwari kufunga mamwe marudzi kuti atore vanhu vezita rake pakati pawo.” (Mabasa 15:14) Zvaisazova nemusoro kuti Jakobho ataure izvozvo dai pasina aiziva zita raMwari kana kuti airishandisa panguva iyoyo.

  • Zita raMwari rinowanika muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki rakaita zvekupfupikiswa. Pana Zvakazarurwa 19:1, 3, 4, 6, zita raMwari ririmowo mushoko rekuti “Hareruya.” Shoko iri rinobva pashoko rechiHebheru rinoreva kuti “Rumbidzai Jah.” “Jah” kupfupikiswa kwezita rekuti Jehovha. MuMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki mune mazita akawanda anobva pazita raMwari. Kune mabhuku anototsanangura kuti zita raJesu rinoreva kuti “Jehovha Ruponeso.”

  • Zvinyorwa zvekare zvechiJudha zvinoratidza kuti vaKristu vechiJudha vaishandisa zita raMwari muzvinyorwa zvavo. Rimwe bhuku rakanyorwa mitemo yaingoita zvekutaurwa rinonzi Tosefta, iro rakapedza kunyorwa munenge muna 300 C.E., rinotaura nezvezvinyorwa zvechiKristu zvaipiswa paSabata richiti: “Vanopisa  mabhuku evanyori veEvhangeri nemabhuku evaminim [vanofungidzirwa kuti vaiva vaKristu vechiJudha]. Vanobvumidzwa kupisa mabhuku acho, zvese neZita raMwari riri maari.” Bhuku racho rinoti mumwe rabhi anonzi Yosé wekuGarireya, uyo akararama pakutanga kwemakore ekuma100 C.E. akataura zvaiitwa pane mamwe mazuva evhiki achiti, “munhu anocheka ochengeta pese pane Zita raMwari mazviri [zvinofungidzirwa kuti pari kureva zvinyorwa zvechiKristu], obva apisa zvimwe zvese.”

  • Vamwe vaongorori veBhaibheri vanobvuma kuti zita raMwari ringangodaro raiwanika mumashoko eMagwaro echiHebheru ari  muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki. Panyaya yakanzi “Tetragrammaton muTestamende Itsva,” iri mubhuku rinonzi The Anchor Bible Dictionary pane mashoko ekuti: “Pane uchapupu hwekuti pakatanga kunyorwa magwaro eTestamende Itsva, Tetragrammaton, kureva Zita raMwari rekuti Yahweh, yaiwanika mune mamwe magwaro kana kuti mumagwaro ese eTestamende Itsva akatorwa muTestamende Yekare.” Mumwe muongorori weBhaibheri anonzi George Howard anoti: “Sezvo Tetragram yakanga irimo mumaBhaibheri echiGiriki [Septuagint] anova ndiwo Magwaro aishandiswa nechechi yekutanga, zvine musoro kudavira kuti vanyori  veTestamende Itsva, pavaitora mashoko muMagwaro, havana kubvisa Tetragram mumagwaro eBhaibheri.”

  • Vashanduri veBhaibheri vanozivikanwa vakashandisa zita raMwari muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki. Vamwe vashanduri vacho vakatoita izvi kare kare Shanduro yeNyika Itsva isati yavapo. Zvavakashandura zvinosanganisira: A Literal Translation of the New Testament . . . From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript, rakashandurwa naHerman Heinfetter (1863); The Emphatic Diaglott, naBenjamin Wilson (1864); The Epistles of Paul in Modern English, naGeorge Barker Stevens (1898); St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, naW. G. Rutherford (1900); The New Testament Letters, naJ.W.C. Wand, Bishop of London (1946). Uyezve, muBhaibheri rechiSpanish rakashandurwa makore ekuma1900 achangotanga, mushanduri anonzi Pablo Besson akashandisa “Jehová” pana Ruka 2:15 naJudha 14. MuBhaibheri racho munewo mashoko emuzasi anoda kusvika 100 anoratidza kuti zita raMwari ndiro raigona kuiswa mumagwaro acho ane mashoko emuzasi. MaBhaibheri iwayo asati atombovapo, maBhaibheri echiHebheru eMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki, kutangira mumakore ekuma1500 zvichienda mberi, aiva neTetragrammaton mumavhesi akawanda. Mumutauro  wechiGerman chete, maBhaibheri anopfuura 11 ane zita rekuti “Jehovha” (kana rechiHebheru rekuti “Yahweh” nemutauro wavo) muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki, uye vashanduri vana vanoisa zita racho muzvikomberedzo pamberi peshoko rekuti “Ishe.” MaBhaibheri echiGerman anopfuura 70 ane zita raMwari mumashoko emuzasi kana kuti mumashoko ekududzira.

    Zita raMwari pana Mabasa 2:34 muBhaibheri rinonzi The Emphatic Diaglott, raBenjamin Wilson (1864)

  • Zita raMwari rinowanika muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki mumaBhaibheri emitauro inopfuura 100. Zita raMwari rinoshandiswa chaizvo mumitauro yakawanda yemuAfrica, America, Asia, Europe uye yekuzvitsuwa zvekuPacific. (Ona mapeji 1742 ne1743.) Vakashandura maBhaibheri aya vakasarudza kushandisa zita raMwari nemhaka yezvikonzero zvataurwa munyaya ino. Mamwe maBhaibheri acho eMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki ayo akabuda makore achangopfuura ndeanoti: Rotuman Bible (1999), iro rine zita rekuti “Jihova” ka51 mundima 48, uye Bhaibheri reBatak (Toba) (1989) rekuIndonesia, iro rine zita rekuti “Jahowa” ka110.

    Zita raMwari pana Mako 12:29, 30 muBhaibheri remutauro wechiHawaiian

Zviri pachena kuti pane zvikonzero zvakajeka zvekudzorera zita raMwari rekuti Jehovha muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki. Ndizvo chaizvo zvakaitwa nevakashandura Bhaibheri reShanduro yeNyika Itsva. Vanoremekedza zita raMwari zvikuru uye vanotya kubvisa chero chii zvacho chaiva mumagwaro ekutanga.—Zvakazarurwa 22:18, 19.