Enda pane zvauri kuda

Enda pakanzi zviri mukati

Zvapupu zvaJehovha

Sarudza Mutauro Shona

 A4

Zita raMwari muMagwaro echiHebheru

Zita raMwari muchiHebheru chaishandiswa vaIsraeri vasati vaendeswa kuBhabhironi

Zita raMwari muchiHebheru chaishandiswa vaIsraeri vadzoka kubva kuBhabhironi

Zita raMwari iro rinomiririrwa nemabhii mana echiHebheru יהוה, rinowanika kanenge ka7 000 muMagwaro echiHebheru. MuBhaibheri rino, mabhii mana iwayo ayo anozivikanwa seTetragrammaton ndiwo akashandurwa kuti “Jehovha.” Zita iri rinowanika kakawanda chaizvo kupfuura mamwe ese muBhaibheri. Kunyange zvazvo vanyori vakafemerwa vakashandisa mazita akawanda ekuremekedza pana Mwari akadai sekuti “Wemasimbaose,” “Wekumusorosoro,” uye “Ishe,” Tetragrammaton ndiyo chete yavakashandisa vachiratidza kuti ndiro zita chairo raMwari.

Jehovha Mwari pachake akaita kuti vanyori veBhaibheri vashandise zita rake. Semuenzaniso, akafemera muprofita Joeri kuti anyore kuti: “Munhu wese anodana zita raJehovha achaponeswa.” (Joeri 2:32) Uye Mwari akaita kuti mumwe munyori wepisarema anyore kuti: “Vanhu ngavazive kuti imi, mune zita rekuti Jehovha, imi mega ndimi Wekumusorosoro, kumusoro kwenyika yese.” (Pisarema 83:18) Zita raMwari rinotowanika ka700 mubhuku raMapisarema chete, iro rine nhetembo dzaifanira kuimbwa nevanhu vaMwari, vachidzidzokorora nemusoro. Saka nei zita raMwari risingawaniki mumaBhaibheri akawanda? Nei Bhaibheri rino richishandisa zita rekuti “Jehovha”? Uye zita raMwari rekuti Jehovha rinorevei?

Zvikamu zvaMapisarema mugwaro rakawanikwa kuGungwa Rakafa zvakanyorwa pakati pegore ra1. C.E. na50 C.E. Mashoko acho akanyorwa nechiHebheru chainyanya kushandiswa vaIsraeri vabva kuBhabhironi, asi Tetragrammaton yakasiyiwa iri muchiHebheru chekare

Nei zita racho risingawaniki mumaBhaibheri akawanda? Zvikonzero zvacho zvakasiyana-siyana. Vamwe vanofunga kuti Mwari Wemasimbaose haafaniri hake kuva nezita. Vamwe vanoita sevanotevedzera zvaiitwa nevaJudha avo vairega kushandisa zita racho, zvimwe vachitya kurisvibisa. Vamwewo vanoti sezvo pasina anonyatsoziva kuti zita raMwari rinoshevedzwa sei, zviri nani kungoshandisa zita rekuremekedza, rakadai serekuti “Ishe” kana kuti “Mwari.” Asi zvikonzero izvozvo hazvina musoro nemhaka yezvinotevera:

  • Vaya vanoti Mwari Wemasimbaose haafaniri hake kuva nezita vanopira gotsi uchapupu hwekuti zvinyorwa zvekare zveShoko  rake, izvo zvinosanganisira zviya zvakanyorwa Kristu asati auya panyika, zvine zita raMwari. Sezvambotaurwa, Mwari akaita kuti zita rake rinyorwe muShoko rake kanenge ka7 000. Zviri pachena kuti anoda kuti tizive zita rake uye kuti tirishandise.

  • Vashanduri vaya vanobvisa zita raMwari vachitevedzera tsika yechiJudha vanotadza kuona pfungwa inokosha yekuti, kunyange zvazvo vamwe vanyori vechiJudha vairamba kutaura zita raMwari, havana kuribvisa mumaBhaibheri avo. Rinowanika kakawanda mumagwaro ekare akawanika muQumran, pedyo neGungwa Rakafa. Vamwe vashanduri veBhaibheri vanotsiva zita raMwari neshoko rekuti “ISHE” rakanyorwa nemabhii makuru, vachiratidza kuti vanobvuma kuti zita racho raivamo muzvinyorwa zvekutanga. Asi mubvunzo ndewekuti, chii chakaita kuti vashanduri ava vatsive kana kubvisa zita raMwari muBhaibheri asi ivo vachibvuma kuti rinowanika kane zviuru muBhaibheri? Ndiani wavanofunga kuti akavapa mvumo yekuita izvozvo? Ndivo vangatotiudza.

  • Vaya vanoti zita raMwari harifaniri kushandiswa nekuti mataurirwo aro haanyatsozivikanwi vanonzwa vakasununguka kushandisa zita raJesu. Asi vadzidzi vaJesu vekutanga vaidudza zita rake zvakati siyanei nezvinoitwa nevaKristu vakawanda mazuva ano. VaKristu vechiJudha vangangodaro vaidana zita raJesu vachiti Ye·shuʹa‛, rekuti “Kristu” vachiriti Ma·shiʹach, kana kuti “Mesiya.” VaKristu vaitaura chiGiriki vaimudana kuti I·e·sousʹ Khri·stosʹ, uye vaKristu vaitaura chiLatin vaiti Ieʹsus Chriʹstus. Mwari akaita kuti zita raJesu rinyorwe muBhaibheri semataurirwo araiitwa muchiGiriki, zvichiratidza kuti vaKristu vekutanga vaishandisa zita racho semataurirwo araiitwa mumutauro wavo. Saizvozvowo, Komiti Inoshandura Bhaibheri reNyika Itsva inofunga kuti zvine musoro kushandisa zita rekuti “Jehovha,” kunyange zvazvo asiriwo madudzirwo chaiwo aiitwa zita raMwari muchiHebheru chekare.

Nei Shanduro yeNyika Itsva ichishandisa zita rekuti “Jehovha”? MuchiShona, mabhii mana eTetragrammaton (יהוה) anomiririrwa nemabhii anoti YHWH. Tetragrammaton yainge isina mavhawero, uye ndiwo manyorerwo aiitwa mashoko ese muchiHebheru chekare. Panguva yaishandiswa chiHebheru chekare, vaverengi vaiisa vega mavhawero akakodzera.

Makore anenge 1 000 pashure pekunge Magwaro echiHebheru apera kunyorwa, nyanzvi dzechiJudha dzakaita kuti pave nezviratidzo zvaibatsira muverengi kuti azive vhawero raaifanira kuisa pakuverenga chiHebheru. Zvisinei, panguva iyoyo vaJudha vakawanda vaiona sezvinoyera kutaura zita raMwari, saka vairitsiva nemamwe mashoko.  Saka zvinoita sekuti pavainyora Tetragrammaton, vaiinyora iine mavhawero epamashoko avaitsiva nawo zita raMwari. Saka zvinyorwa zvine zviratidzo zvemavhawero iwayo hazvitibatsiri kuti tizive kuti zita racho raitaurwa sei muchiHebheru chekare. Vamwe vanofunga kuti zita racho raitaurwa richinzi “Yahwe,” vamwe vachitaurawo zvakasiyana-siyana. Mune rimwe gwaro rakawanikwa kuGungwa Rakafa iro rine chikamu chaRevhitiko muchiGiriki, zita raMwari rakanzi Iao. Vamwewo vanyori vechiGiriki vekare vanoti raidudzwa richinzi Iae, I·a·beʹ, uye I·a·ou·eʹ. Zvisinei, hapana chikonzero chekuti titi madudziro akati ndiwo chaiwo aiitwa. Hatizivi kuti vashumiri vaMwari vekare vaidudza sei zita iri muchiHebheru. (Genesisi 13:4; Eksodho 3:15) Chatinoziva ndechekuti Mwari akashandisa zita rake kakawanda paaitaura nevanhu vake, uye kuti vaimudana nezita iroro, uye kuti vairishandisa vakasununguka pavaitaura nevamwe.—Eksodho 6:2; 1 Madzimambo 8:23; Pisarema 99:9.

Saka nei Bhaibheri rino richishandisa zita rekuti “Jehovha”? Nekuti zita raMwari rava nenguva refu richishevedzwa saizvozvo mumutauro weChirungu.

Zita raMwari pana Genesisi 15:2 mumabhuku mashanu ekutanga eBhaibheri akashandurwa naWilliam Tyndale, muna 1530

Zita raMwari rakatanga kuwanika muBhaibheri reChirungu muna 1530, mumabhuku mashanu ekutanga eBhaibheri akashandurwa naWilliam Tyndale. Akanyora zita racho achiti “Iehouah.” Asi mutauro weChirungu waichinja nekufamba kwenguva, saka chiperengo chezita racho chaichinjawo. Semuenzaniso, muna 1612, Henry Ainsworth akanyora zita racho nechiperengo chekuti “Iehovah” paakashandura bhuku raMapisarema. Uye muna 1639, bhuku racho parakadzokororwa rikadhindwa riine mabhuku mashanu ekutanga eBhaibheri, chiperengo chekuti “Jehovah” ndicho chakashandiswa. Muna 1901, vashanduri vakabudisa Bhaibheri rinonzi American Standard  Version vakashandisa zita rekuti “Jehovah” paiwanika zita raMwari mumagwaro echiHebheru.

Mubhuku rake rinonzi Studies in the Psalms ra1911, muongorori weBhaibheri anoremekedzwa Joseph Bryant Rotherham akatsanangura zvakaita kuti ashandise “Jehovah” panzvimbo ‘paYahweh,’ achiti aida kushandisa “chiperengo chezita racho chakajairwa (uye chinonyatsogamuchirwa) nevazhinji vanoverenga Bhaibheri.” Muna 1930 muongorori weBhaibheri A. F. Kirkpatrick akataurawo zvakafanana naizvozvo nezvekushandisa zita rekuti “Jehovah.” Akati: “Vanoongorora nezvegirama mazuva ano vanoti rinofanira kutaurwa richinzi Yahveh kana kuti Yahaveh; asi rekuti JEHOVAH ndiro rinoita serakadzika midzi mumutauro weChirungu, uye chinonyanyokosha haasi madudziro acho chaiwo, asi kuziva kuti iZita Chairo, kwete zitawo zvaro rekuremekedza rakadai ‘saIshe.’”

Tetragrammaton, YHWH: “Anoita Kuti Zviitike”

Shoko rechiito HWH: “kuita kuti zviitike”

Zita rekuti Jehovha rinorevei? MuchiHebheru, zita rekuti Jehovha rinobva pashoko rechiito rinoreva kuti “kuita kuti zviitike,” uye vaongorori veBhaibheri vakawanda vanofunga kuti shoko racho rechiHebheru rinopa pfungwa yekuita kuti chinhu chiitike. Saka Komiti Inoshandura Bhaibheri reNyika Itsva inonzwisisa kuti zita raMwari rinoreva kuti “Anoita Kuti Zviitike.” Vaongorori veBhaibheri vane maonero akasiyana-siyana, saka hatigoni kuti izvi ndizvo chaizvo zvarinoreva. Zvisinei, tsanangudzo iyi yakakodzera kushandiswa pakutsanangura nezvaJehovha sezvo ari Musiki wezvinhu zvese uye Mwari anozadzisa chinangwa chake. Haana kungoita kuti zvinhu zvese zvivepo, kusanganisira vanhu nengirozi, asi nguva painenge ichifamba, anoramba achiita kuti kuda kwake kuitwe uye chinangwa chake chizadziswe.

Saka zvinorehwa nezita rekuti Jehovha hazvingopereri papfungwa iri mushoko rechiito riri pana Eksodho 3:14, panoti: “Ndichava Zvandinenge Ndasarudza Kuva” kana kuti, “Ndichava Iye Wandichava.” Chokwadi ndechekuti mashoko iwayo haatsananguri zita raMwari zvizere. Asi anongoratidza chimwe chinhu nezvaMwari, kuti anogona kuita chero zvinenge zvichidiwa kuti azadzise chinangwa chake. Saka kunyange zvazvo zita rekuti Jehovha ringava nepfungwa iyi, haringogumiri pane zvaanosarudza kuva. Rinewo pfungwa yezvaanoita kuti zviitike pazvinhu zvaakasika uye pakuzadziswa kwechinangwa chake.