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Chibvumirano Chorugare chokuWestphalia—Kuchinja Kukuru muEurope

Chibvumirano Chorugare chokuWestphalia—Kuchinja Kukuru muEurope

 Chibvumirano Chorugare chokuWestphalia—Kuchinja Kukuru muEurope

“KUTI vatungamiriri veHurumende veEurope vakawanda kudai vaungane sezvavakaita pano nhasi, zvechokwadi hazviwanzoitiki.” Herzog wokuRome, aimbova purezidhendi weFederal Republic of Germany, akataura mashoko iwayo muna October 1998. Paakataura izvozvo, vateereri vake vaisanganisira madzimambo mana, vanamambokadzi vana, machinda maviri, mutungamiriri wehurumende, uye mapurezidhendi anoverengeka. Chiitiko chacho, chakanga chakokerwa neDare reEurope, chaikosha kwazvo munguva yemakore 50 enhau yeGermany yazvino. Chiitiko chacho chaiva chei?

Makore 350 kubva zvakaitwa Chibvumirano Chorugare chokuWestphalia akakwana muna October 1998. Zvibvumirano zvorugare zvinowanzova nguva yokuchinja kukuru munhau, uye maererano neizvi, Chibvumirano chokuWestphalia chaiva chimwe chinhu chikuru. Kusayiniranwa kwechibvumirano ichi muna 1648 kwakagumisa Hondo Yemakore Makumi Matatu pakava nokutanga kweEurope itsva, zvichiumba kondinendi ine nyika dzinozvitonga.

Umambo Hwagara Huripo Hunovhunduka

Munguva yeMiddle Ages, masangano aiva nesimba guru muEurope aiva Chechi yeRoma Katurike uye Umambo Hutsvene hweRoma. Umambo hwacho hwaiumbwa nemazana ematunhu ainge akakura zvakasiyana-siyana ari munzvimbo zvino dzava Austria, Czech Republic, France yokumabvazuva, Germany, Switzerland, Nharaunda dzinosanganisira Belgium, Netherlands neLuxembourg, nenharaunda dzeItaly. Sezvo matunhu aiva pasi peGermany ari iwo aiva chikamu chayo chikuru, umambo hwacho hwakazozivikanwa soUmambo Hutsvene hweRoma hweNyika yeGermany. Dunhu rimwe nerimwe raitongwa nomuchinda aisava nemasimba akakwana. Mambo mukuru aiva weRoma Katurike wemhuri yaHabsburg yokuAustria. Saka, papa namambo zvavari ivo vaiva nesimba, Europe yose yaiva mumaoko eRoma Katurike.

Zvisinei, mumazana emakore echi16 ne17, umambo hwakanga hwagara huripo hwakavhunduka. MuEurope mose makanga muine kusagutsikana nemasimba eChechi yeRoma Katurike akanga asina paanogumira. Vachinji munhau dzezvitendero vakadai saMartin Luther naJohn Calvin vakataura nezvokudzokera kutsika dzeBhaibheri. Luther naCalvin vakawana kutsigira kukuru, uye zvitendero zvoKuchinja nezvechiPurotesitendi zvakabva muvatsigiri ivavo. Kuchinja uku kwakakamura umambo hwacho kuva zvitendero zvitatu—cheKaturike, chaLuther, nechaCalvin.

VaKaturike vakanga vasingavimbi nevaPurotesitendi, uye vaPurotesitendi vaizvidza vaKaturike. Mamiriro ezvinhu aya ndiwo akaita kuti paumbwe Sangano roMubatanidzwa wevaPurotesitendi uye Sangano roMubatanidzwa wevaKaturike mukuvamba kwezana remakore rechi17. Mamwe machinda omuumambo hwacho akava nhengo dzeSangano rePurotesitendi, vamwe reKaturike. Europe—uye kunyanya umambo hwacho—yakanga yava panyanga dzamushore, chaingodiwa ipfarivari kuti pave nechimoto. Pakazobarika pfarivari iyoyo, yakatanga moto wegakava wakazovapo kwemakore 30 akatevera.

 Pfarivari Ine Ngozi Inopisa Europe

Vatongi vevaPurotesitendi vakaedza kuita kuti Mhuri yokwaHabsburgs yeKaturike ipe rusununguko rwakawedzerwa rwokunamata. Asi yakanga isingadi kunyatsobvuma, uye muna 1617-18, chechi mbiri dzaLuther dzaiva muBohemia (Czech Republic) dzakavharwa nechisimba. Izvi zvakagumbura vakuru vakuru vevaPurotesitendi, vachibva vapindawo nechisimba muPrague, vakabata vakuru vakuru vevaKaturike vatatu, vakavakandira panze nepahwindo rechivako chine nhurikidzwa. Iyi ndiyo pfarivari yakapisa Europe.

Kunyange zvazvo dzaizviti dzinotevera Jesu Kristu Muchinda Worugare, nhengo dzezvitendero zvaipikisana dzakanga dzava kurwisana. (Isaya 9:6) PaHondo yepaWhite Mountain, vaKaturike vakakurira chaizvo Sangano revaPurotesitendi rikabva raparara. Vakuru vakuru vevaPurotesitendi vakaurayirwa pamusika muPrague. MuBohemia mose, zvinhu zvevaPurotesitendi vakanga vasingadi kuramba chitendero chavo, zvakabvutwa vaKaturike vakagovana. Bhuku rinonzi 1648—Krieg und Frieden in Europa (1648—Hondo uye Rugare muEurope) rinorondzera kubvutwa uku so“kuchinja kukuru muuridzi hwezvinhu kwati kwamboitika muEurope yepakati.”

Hondo yakatanga seyechitendero muBohemia yakakura kuva hondo yezvematongerwe enyika mune dzimwe nyika. Kwemakore 30 akatevera Denmark, France, Netherlands, Spain, neSweden dzakapindawo muhondo yacho. Vatongi vevaKaturike nevaPurotesitendi vachiwanzokurudzirwa noudyire uye kuda simba vakashandisa nzira dzose dzavaikwanisa kuti vawane simba rezvematongerwe enyika uye mune zvokutengeserana. Hondo Yemakore Makumi Matatu iri muzvikamu, imwe neimwe ichipiwa zita romupikisi mukuru wamambo. Mabhuku akawanda anotaura nezvezvikamu zvina zvakadaro izvi: Hondo yeBohemia nePalatine, Hondo yevaDanish neLower Saxony, Hondo yevaSwedish, uye Hondo yevaFrench nevaSwedish. Kurwa kuzhinji kwaiitirwa munharaunda youmambo hwacho.

Zvombo zvaishandiswa panguva iyoyo zvaisanganisira pfuti duku, hombe, pfuti dzinokanda zvombo zvihombe, nganunu, uye Sweden ndiyo yaiva pamberi mukuzvigadzira. VaKaturike nevaPurotesitendi vakanga vakanyura mugakava. Masoja aienda kuhondo achishevedzera kuti “Santa Maria” kana kuti “Mwari anesu.” Masoja acho aibvuta nokupamba zvinhu muGerman yose, achibata vavengi nevanhuwo zvavo semhuka. Hondo yacho yakanga yazova youtsinye hukuru. Izvi zvakasiyana sei nouprofita hweBhaibheri hunoti: “Rudzi rumwe harungazosimudziri rumwe rudzi munondo, havangazodzidzi kurwa”!—Mika 4:3.

Chizvarwa chevanhu vokuGerman chakakura chisina zvachinoziva kunze kwehondo, uye vanhu vacho vakanga vaneta nehondo vaida rugare. Sezvineiwo, rugare rungadai rwakavapo kudai kwaisava kupikisana kwevatongi mune zvematongerwe enyika. Zvematongerwe enyika zvakatanga kukurumbira sezvo hondo yacho yakanga isingacharatidziki kuti ndeyechitendero. Zvinoshamisa kuti munhu mumwe chete akatsigira kuchinja uku aiva mukuru mukuru weChechi yeKaturike.

 Cardinal Richelieu Anoshandisa Simba Rake

Zita rebasa raArmand-Jean du Plessis ndiCardinal de Richelieu. Aivawo mutungamiriri weFrance kubva muna 1624 kusvika muna 1642. Richelieu aida kuita kuti France ive simba guru muEurope. Saka akaedza kuita kuti vamwe vake vaKaturike vasave nesimba guru. Akazviita sei? Nokutsigira nemari mauto evaPurotesitendi vematunhu eGerman, Denmark, Netherlands, neSweden, ose zvawo akanga achirwisana nemhuri yaHabsburgs.

Muna 1635 Richelieu kokutanga akatumira mauto eFrance kuhondo. Bhuku rinonzi vivat pax—Es lebe der Friede! (Rugare Ngarugare Nokusingaperi!) rinotsanangura kuti mukunopera kwayo, “Hondo Yemakore Makumi Matatu yakanga isisiri gakava revapikisani vezvitendero. . . . Hondo yacho yakanga yava yokurwira kuwana simba rezvematongerwe enyika muEurope.” Kurwisana kwakatanga kuri kwechitendero pakati pevaKaturike nevaPurotesitendi kwakaguma vaKaturike vava kurwa vari divi rimwe chete nevaPurotesitendi vachirwisa vamwe vaKaturike. Sangano roMubatanidzwa weKaturike, iro rakanga ratopera simba mukutanga kwema1630, rakaparara muna 1635.

Musangano Worugare muWestphalia

Europe yakanga yaparadzwa nokupamba, kuponda, kubata chibharo uye hosha. Zvishoma nezvishoma kudiwa kworugare kwakawedzerwa nokuziva kuti iyi yakanga iri hondo isina aizokunda. Bhuku rinonzi vivat pax—Es lebe der Friede! rinoti “mukunopera kwema1630 pakupedzisira machinda acho ose akaziva kuti simba rehondo bedzi rakanga risingachabatsiri kuita zvavaida.” Asi kana munhu wose aida rugare, rwaizowanikwa sei?

Mambo Ferdinand III woUmambo Hutsvene hweRoma, Mambo Lousi XIII wokuFrance, naMambokadzi Christina wokuSweden vakabvumirana kuti musangano uitwe uko mapato ose airwisana aizoungana okurukurirana zvibvumirano zvorugare. Nzvimbo mbiri dzakasarudzwa kuti dziitirwe kukurukurirana kwacho—mataundi eOsnabrück uye Münster muruwa rweGerman rweWestphalia. Akasarudzwa nokuti aiva pakati nepakati peguta guru reSweden neFrance. Kutangira muna 1643 nhume dzinenge 150 dzakasarudzwa—dzimwe dziine vanazvipangamazano vakawanda—dzakaburukira mumaguta maviri iwayo, Nhume dzechiKaturike dzakaungana muMünster, uye dzevaPurotesitendi muOsnabrück.

Kutanga mitemo yokuzvibata yakakurukurwa kuti zvinhu zvakadai sezita rokuremekedza, uye chinzvimbo chenhume zvizivikanwe, magariro, uye maitirwo acho. Zvadaro kukurukurirana kworugare kwakatanga, zvaitaurwa zvaisvitswa kune rimwe boka nevamiririri. Pashure peanenge makore mashanu—uku hondo ichirwiwa—vakabvumirana rugare. Chibvumirano cheWestphalia chaiva negwaro rinopfuura rimwe chete. Rimwe rakasayinwa muOsnabrück pakati paMambo Ferdinand III wokuSweden, rimwe muMünster pakati pamambo wacho neFrance.

Sezvo mashoko echibvumirano akapararira, vanhu vakatanga kupemberera. Zvakatangwa nepfarivari ine ngozi zvakaguma nemvarivari dzine ungai-ngai hwemoto chaiwoiwo. Dzakavhenekera muchadenga mumaguta akasiyana-siyana. Mabhero echechi akarira, nganunu dzakaputitswa nokupemberera, uye vanhu vakaimba mumigwagwa. Asi Europe yaigona kuchitarisira rugare runogarisa here?

Rugare Runogarisa Runobvira Here?

Chibvumirano cheWestphalia chakaremekedza pfungwa yokuzvitonga. Izvi zvakareva kuti vose vaibatanidzwa vakabvumirana kuremekedza kodzero dzenyika dzevamwe vose uye kusapindira mune zvinoitika munyika yavo. Europe yanhasi sekondinendi yenyika dzinozvitonga yakavapo. Panyika idzodzo, dzimwe dzakawana zvakawanda pachibvumirano chacho kupfuura zvakaita dzimwe.

France yakavapo senyika ine simba guru, uye  Netherlands neSwitzerland dzakawana rusununguko. Chibvumirano chaiva nezvachakadzosera shure kumatunhu eGerman, mazhinji awo akanga atoparadzwa nehondo. Zvimwe zvezvakaitika kuGermany zvakanga zvasarudzwa nedzimwe nyika. The New Encyclopædia Britannica inoti: “Zvakawanwa nezvakatorerwa machinda eGerman zvakasarudzwa nezvainge zvakanakira masimba makuru aiti: France, Sweden, neAustria.” Pane kuti abatane kuva nyika imwe chete, matunhu eGerman akakamurwa sezvaakanga agara akaita. Uyezve, mamwe matunhu akanzi adzorwe nevamwe vatongi, sezvakaitwa zvikamu zvenzizi huru dzeGermany—Rhine, Elbe, uye Oder.

Chitendero cheKaturike, chaLuther, nechaCalvin zvakapiwa masimba akaenzana. Izvi hazvina kufadza munhu wose. Pope Innocent X haana kumbofara zvachose nechibvumirano chacho achiti hachishandi. Kunyange zvakadaro zvitendero zvikuru zvakabvumirwa zvakaramba zvisina kuchinja kwemakore mazana matatu. Kunyange zvazvo rusununguko rwechitendero rwomunhu mumwe nomumwe rwakanga rusati rwasvika, rwakanga rwava pedyo.

Chibvumirano chacho chakagumisa Hondo Yemakore Makumi Matatu, humwewo utsinye huzhinji hwakaguma. Iyi ndiyo yaiva hondo huru yokupedzisira yechitendero. Hondo hadzina kuguma, asi zvinodzikonzera zvakachinja kubva pachitendero kuva zvematongerwe enyika kana kuti zvoupfumi. Izvi hazvirevi hazvo kuti chitendero chakanga chisisina zvachaiita pamakakava eEurope. MuHondo Yenyika I neII, masoja eGermany aisunga mabhandi akanga akanyorwa kuti “Mwari Anesu.” Munguva yokurwisana ikoko kwoutsinye, vaKaturike nevaPurotesitendi vakamira divi rimwe kuti varwise vamwe vaKaturike nevaPurotesitendi vaiva kudivi raipikisa.

Zviri pachena kuti Chibvumirano chokuWestphalia hachina kuunza rugare runogarisa. Zvisinei, rugare rwakadaro ruchawanikwa nokukurumidza nevanhu vanoteerera. Jehovha Mwari achaunza rugare rusingaperi kuvanhu achishandisa Umambo hwaMesiya Mwanakomana wake, Jesu Kristu. Muhurumende iyoyo, chitendero chimwe chete chechokwadi chichava nesimba rokubatanidza vanhu kwete kuvaparadzanisa. Hapana anozoenda kuhondo chero nechikonzero chipi zvacho, chingave chechitendero kana kuti chimwewo zvacho. Zvichazorodza sei apo kutonga kwoUmambo kuchadzora pasi rose uye ‘rugare haruzogumi’!—Isaya 9:6, 7.

[Mashoko okukwezva vaverengi ari papeji 21]

Kurwisana kwakatanga kuri kwechitendero pakati pevaKaturike nevaPurotesitendi kwakaguma vaKaturike vava kurwa vari divi rimwe chete nevaPurotesitendi vachirwisa vamwe vaKaturike

[Mashoko okukwezva vaverengi ari papeji 22]

Masoja akaenda kundorwa achishevedzera kuti “Santa Maria” kana kuti “Mwari anesu”

[Mufananidzo uri papeji 21]

Cardinal Richelieu

[Mufananidzo uri papeji 23]

Mufananidzo womuzana remakore rechi16 unoratidza kurwisana kwaiva pakati paLuther, Calvin, napapa

[Vakatipa Mufananidzo uri papeji 20]

Kubva mubhuku rinonzi Spamers Illustrierte Weltgeschichte VI

[Vakatipa Mifananidzo iri papeji 23]

Vatungamiriri vezvitendero vachishupika: Kubva mubhuku rinonzi Wider die Pfaffenherrschaft; mepu: The Complete Encyclopedia of Illustration/J. G. Heck