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Bhuku Raunogona Kuvimba Naro—Chikamu 6

Roma Munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri

Bhuku Raunogona Kuvimba Naro—Chikamu 6

Nyaya ino ndeyechitanhatu panyaya nomwe dziri mumagazini e“Mukai!” dzinokurukura nezvemasimba enyika manomwe anotaurwa munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri. Chinangwa chacho ndechokuratidza kuti Bhaibheri rakavimbika uye rakafuridzirwa naMwari uye mashoko aro anopa tariro yokuti kutambura kwose kunokonzerwa nokutonga kwevanhu kweutsinye kuchapera.

JESU ndiye akatanga chiKristu, uye vateveri vake vakachiparadzira kunyika dzakawanda panguva yoUmambo hweRoma. Nanhasi unogona kuona migwagwa yokuRoma, migero yemvura, uye zvimwe zvinotiyeuchidza nezveRoma munyika dzakadai seBritain neEgypt. Zvisaririra izvozvo zvekuRoma zviriko zvechokwadi. Zvinotiyeuchidza kuti Jesu nevaapostora vake vaivawo vanhu chaivo, ndizvo zvimwe chetewo nezvavaitaura uye zvavaiita. Somuenzaniso, kana ukafamba nemugwagwa wekare unonzi Appian Way, unenge uchifamba nenzira ingangodaro yakafambwa nemuapostora wechiKristu, Pauro paaienda kuRoma.—Mabasa 28:15, 16.

Nhoroondo Dzakavimbika

Nhoroondo yaJesu nevadzidzi vake iri muBhaibheri inosanganisira mashoko akawanda enhoroondo  dzakaitika kare muzana remakore rokutanga. Ona kuti munyori weBhaibheri Ruka akaratidza sei nokungwarira gore rakaitika zviitiko zviviri zvinokosha zvikuru: kutanga kwakaita ushumiri hwaJohani Mubhabhatidzi uye kubhabhatidzwa kwaJesu, panguva yaakava Kristu, kana kuti Mesiya. Ruka akanyora kuti zviitiko izvozvo zvakaitika “mugore rechigumi nemashanu rokutonga kwaTibheriyo Kesari [29 C.E.], Pondiyo Pirato paakanga ari gavhuna weJudhiya, uye Herodhi ari mutongi woruwa rweGarireya.” (Ruka 3:1-3, 21) Ruka akataurawo nezvevamwe vakuru vakuru vana—Firipi (munun’una waHerodhi), Risaniyasi, Anasi naKayafasi. Mazita acho ose ari manomwe akatsigirwawo nevanyori vezvakaitika kare. Asi, iye zvino ngatimbokurukurai nezvaTibheriyo, Pirato, uye Herodhi.

Tibheriyo Kesari akakurumbira zvikuru, uye chitarisiko chake chinoratidzwa mumifananidzo. Dare revaRoma rakamugadza samambo musi wa15 September mugore ra14 C.E., Jesu paakanga ava nemakore anenge 15.

Pondiyo Pirato anotaurwawo nezvake panotaurwa nezvaTibheriyo munyaya yakanyorwa nemuongorori wezvakaitika kare wechiRoma anonzi Tacitus nguva pfupi Bhaibheri rapedza kunyorwa. Nezvezita rekuti “muKristu,” Tacitus akanyora kuti: “Kristu, panova ndipo pakabva zita racho, akaurayiwa nagavhuna wedu Pondiyo Pirato, Tibheriyo paaitonga.”

Herodhi Andipasi anozivikanwa semunhu akavaka guta reTibheriyasi riri pedyo neGungwa reGarireya. Aigarawo muguta racho. Herodhi angangodaro ariye akaita kuti Johani Mubhabhatidzi adimburwe musoro muTibheriyasi.

Nyaya dzomuBhaibheri dzinotaurawo nezvezviitiko zvinokosha zvepanguva yeRoma. Nezvenguva yakaberekwa Jesu, Bhaibheri rinoti: “Zvino mumazuva iwayo murayiro wakabva kuna Kesari Agasto wokuti nyika yose inogarwa inyoreswe; (kunyoresa uku kwokutanga kwakaitika Kwiriniyo paakanga ari gavhuna weSiriya;) uye vanhu vose vakaenda kunonyoresa, mumwe nomumwe kuguta rokwake.”—Ruka 2:1-3.

Tacitus uye mumwe munyori wenhau dzakaitika dzechiJudha anonzi Josephus vose vakanyora nezvaKwiriniyo. Uchapupu hunoratidza kuti kunyoresa ikoko kwakaitika hunowanika mumurayiro wagavhuna weRoma wakachengetwa muBritish Library. Unoti: “Taona kuti nguva yokuverengwa kwevanhu paimba nemba yakwana, saka zvinokosha kuti tiite kuti vanhu vose vanogara kumaruwa asiri avo pamusana pechikonzero chero chipi zvacho, vadzokere kumisha yavo.”

Bhaibheri rinotaurawo nezve“nzara huru . . . munguva yaKraudhiyo [Mambo weRoma].”  (Mabasa 11:28) Josephus, munyori wezvakaitika kare womuzana remakore rokutanga anotsigirawo mashoko aya. Akanyora kuti: “Panguva iyoyo nzara yakavatambudza, uye vanhu vakawanda vakafa.”

Uyezve, pana Mabasa 18:2, Bhaibheri rinoti, “Kraudhiyo akanga arayira vaJudha vose kuti vabve muRoma.” Nhoroondo youpenyu hwaKraudhiyo inotsigirawo izvozvo, yakanyorwa munenge muna 121 C.E. nemunyori wezvakaitika kare wekuRoma, Suetonius. Suetonius anoti, Kraudhiyo “akadzinga vaJudha vose muRoma,” uye anowedzera kuti vaJudha vaiitira vaKristu utsinye saka “vakaramba vachivavhiringidza.”

Bhaibheri rinotaura kuti panguva yakaitika nzara yakanga yafanotaurwa, Herodhi Agripa akapfeka “zvipfeko zvoumambo,” akataura pamberi pevanhu vaimuyemura uye vakashevedzera kuti: “Inzwi ramwari, kwete romunhu!” Bhaibheri rinoti izvi zvaitika, Agripa “akadyiwa nehonye, akafa.” (Mabasa 12:21-23) Josephus akanyorawo zvakaitika, achiwedzera zvimwe zvishoma. Akanyora kuti Agripa akapa hurukuro yake “akapfeka nguo yakagadzirwa nesirivha.” Akataurawo kuti ‘Agripa akarwadziwa zvikuru nomudumbu.’ Josephus akati, akazofa papera mazuva mashanu.

Uprofita Hwakavimbika

Bhaibheri rine uprofita hwakawanda hwakanyorwa ndokuzadzika munguva yevaRoma. Somuenzaniso, Jesu paakatasva mbongoro achipinda muJerusarema, akachema uye akafanotaura nezvokuparadzwa kwaizoitwa guta racho nemauto eRoma. Jesu akati, “mazuva achauya pauri apo vavengi vako vachakupoteredza norusvingo rwakavakwa nemapango akapinza . . . havazosiyi dombo riri pamusoro perimwe dombo mauri, nokuti hauna kunzwisisa nguva yokuongororwa kwako.”—Ruka 19:41-44.

Zvisinei, vateveri vaJesu vaizova nemukana wokupukunyuka. Zvaizoitika sei? Jesu akavapa mirayiridzo yakajeka pachine nguva. Akanyevera kuti, “Pamunoona Jerusarema rakombwa nemauto akadzika misasa, panguva iyoyo zivai kuti rava kuda kuitwa dongo. Panguva iyoyo vari muJudhiya ngavatange kutizira kumakomo, nevaya vari mukati maro [Jerusarema] ngavabude.” (Ruka 21:20, 21) Vateveri vaJesu vangadaro vakashamisika kuti, ‘Tichapukunyuka sei tichibuda muguta rakakombwa?’

Josephus akanyora zvakaitika. Muna 66 C.E., gavhuna weRoma paakatora mari yechikwereti chemutero papfuma yemutemberi, vapanduki vechiJudha vakanga vakatsamwa vakauraya mauto eRoma, uye vakatozviti vakanga vasununguka pakutonga kweRoma. Gare gare mugore iroro, gavhuna weSyria ainzi Cestius Gallus, akafora akananga kumaodzanyemba nemauto ake 30- 000 uye vakasvika kuJerusarema panguva yaiitwa mutambo wokunamata. Gallus akapinda mudzimba uye akatotanga kukoromora masvingo etemberi makanga makavanda vapanduki vacho. Zvadaro, pasina kana chikonzero chakajeka, Gallus akarega kurwisa! VaJudha vakanga vachifara vakarwisa uto rake rakanga rava kudzokera.

VaKristu vakatendeka havana kunyengerwa nekuchinja kwakanga kwaita zvinhu. Vakaziva kuti vakanga vaona uprofita hunoshamisa hwakanga hwataurwa naJesu huchizadzika: Guta racho rakanga rakombwa nemauto akadzika misasa! Iye zvino, nemhaka yokuti mauto akanga adzokera, vaKristu vakatendeka vakatora mukana wacho kuti vatize. Vakawanda vakatizira kuPera, guta rakanga risinei nezvematongerwo enyika revanhu vakatendeukira kuchiJudha raiva kumakomo aiva mhiri kwaJodhani.

Chii chakazoitika kuJerusarema? Mauto eRoma akadzoka achitungamirirwa naVespasian nemwanakomana wake Titus—panguva iyi vakaenda nemasoja 60 000. Vakapinda muguta Paseka ya70 C.E. isati yaitwa uye vakatapa vagari vemo nevamwe vaishanya vakanga vadirana vachipinda muguta racho kuti vapemberere mutambo wePaseka. Mauto eRoma akaparadza miti yaiva munzvimbo yacho uye akavaka rusvingo nemapango akapinza sezvakanga zvafanotaurwa naJesu. Pashure pemwedzi inenge mishanu, guta iri rakanga raparara.

Titus akarayira kuti temberi isaparadzwe, asi mumwe musoja akaitungidza moto uye dombo rimwe nerimwe retemberi rakakoromorwa sezvakanga zvafanotaurwa naJesu chaizvo. Maererano nezvakataurwa naJosephus, vaJudha nevakanga vatendeuka 1 100 000 vakafa, vazhinji vacho vakafa nokuziya nenzara uye denda, uye vamwe  97 000 vakasungwa. Vakawanda vakaendeswa kuRoma sevaranda. Kana ukashanyira nyika yeRoma nhasi, unogona kuenda kunoona nhandare yakakurumbira yeColosseum, yakapedziswa kuvakwa naTitus pashure pokurwiswa kweguta reJudhiya. Unokwanisawo kuona Arch of Titus, inotiyeuchidza nezvokukundwa kweJerusarema. Chokwadi uprofita hweBhaibheri hwakavimbika pane zvose zvahunotaura. Ndicho chikonzero nei zvakakosha kuti tifungisise zvahunotaura nezveramangwana!

Chipikirwa Chaunogona Kuvimba Nacho

Jesu paakamira pamberi paGavhuna weRoma Pondiyo Pirato, akataura nezvoUmambo kana kuti hurumende, ‘isiri yenyika ino.’ (Johani 18:36) Uyezve, Jesu akadzidzisa vateveri vake kunyengeterera hurumende iyoyo. Akati, “Baba vedu vari kumatenga, . . . Umambo hwenyu ngahuuye. Kuda kwenyu ngakuitwe panyika, sezvakunoitwa kudenga.” (Mateu 6:9, 10) Ona kuti Umambo hwaMwari ndihwo huchaita kuti kuda kwaMwari kuitwe panyika—kwete kuda kwevanhu vanodada uye vanokara zvinzvimbo.

Jesu anotonga saMambo muUmambo ihwohwo hwokudenga. Uye maererano nechinangwa chaMwari chepakutanga, achaita kuti nyika yose ive paradhiso.—Ruka 23:43.

Umambo hwaMwari huchapindira rini munyaya dzevanhu? Jesu akamutswa akaratidza mhinduro yacho paakataura nemuapostora Johani, akazosungwa pachitsuwa chePatimosi panguva yaitonga Mambo weRoma Domitian, munun’una waTitus. Jesu akataura kuti, “Kune madzimambo manomwe: mashanu awa, mumwe aripo, mumwe haasati asvika, asi paanosvika achagara kwenguva pfupi.”—Zvakazarurwa 17:10.

Johani paakanyora mashoko iwayo, “madzimambo” kana kuti umambo hushanu hwakanga hwawa: Ijipiti, Asiriya, Bhabhironi, Medhiya nePezhiya, uye Girisi. “Mumwe aripo” kana kuti umambo hwaivapo panguva yemuapostora Johani, hwaiva hweRoma. Naizvozvo, humwe chete ndihwo hwakanga hwasara—simba renyika rokupedzisira munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri. Umambo ihwohwo hwakazova hupi? Hwaizotonga kwenguva yakareba sei? Mibvunzo iyi ichakurukurwa munyaya inotevera pane dzino!