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Bhuku Raunogona Kuvimba Naro—Chikamu 5

Girisi Munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri

Bhuku Raunogona Kuvimba Naro—Chikamu 5

Nyaya ino ndeyechishanu panyaya nomwe dziri mumagazini e“Mukai!” dzinokurukura nezvemasimba enyika manomwe anotaurwa munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri. Chinangwa chacho ndechokuratidza kuti Bhaibheri rakavimbika uye rakafuridzirwa naMwari uye mashoko aro anopa tariro yokuti kutambura kwose kunokonzerwa nokutonga kwevanhu kweutsinye kuchapera.

MUZANA remakore rechina B.C.E., rimwe jaya rokuMakedhoniya rainzi Alexander rakakwidziridza nyika yeGirisi. * Rakatoita kuti Girisi ive simba renyika rechishanu munhoroondo yeBhaibheri uye rakazoguma rava kunzi Alexander Mukuru. Nyika dzeIjipiti, Asiriya, Bhabhironi, uye Medhiya nePezhiya ndidzo dzakanga dzamboita masimba enyika.

Mushure mokunge Alexander afa, umambo hwake hwakatanga kupatsanuka huchibva hwashaya simba. Zvisinei, tsika dzaiitwa muGirisi, mutauro waitaurwa imomo, zvitendero zvaipindwa nevanhu uye uzivi hwenyika iyi zvakaramba zviripo kwenguva yakareba kunyange pakaparara umambo hwenyika iyi hwezvematongerwo enyika.

Nhoroondo Dzakavimbika

Nhoroondo iri muBhaibheri haimbotauri kuti kune vaprofita vaMwari vaishingaira panguva yaitonga umambo hweGirisi, uyewo panguva iyi hapana kana bhuku rakafuridzirwa reBhaibheri rakanyorwa. Asi uprofita huri muBhaibheri hunotaura nezveGirisi. Uyezve, Magwaro echiKristu echiGiriki, anowanzonzi Testamende Itsva, anowanzotaura nezvezvinhu zvakaitwa nenyika yeGirisi. Nyaya iripo ndeyokuti muIsraeri makanga muine boka remaguta gumi echiGiriki rainzi Dhekaporisi, kubva pashoko rechiGiriki  rinoreva kuti “maguta gumi.” (Mateu 4:25; Mako 5:20; 7:31) Bhaibheri rinotaura nezvenzvimbo iyi kakawanda uye zvakanyorwa nezvezvakaitika kare pamwe chete nezvisaririra zvakanaka zvedzimba dzaiitirwa mitambo, temberi, uye dzimba dzokugezera, zvinotsigira kuti nzvimbo iyi yaivako zvechokwadi.

Bhaibheri rinotaurawo nezvetsika uye zvechitendero zvaiitwa muGirisi kunyanya bhuku reMabasa rakanyorwa nachiremba Ruka. Chimboona mimwe mienzaniso mishoma.

Bhaibheri parinorondedzera nezverwendo rwomuapostora Pauro rwaakaita muna 50 C.E kuAtene, zvinonzi guta iri raiva “rakazara nezvidhori.” (Mabasa 17:16) Umboo hunoratidza zvinhu zvakaitika kare hunosimbisa kuti Atene nemaguta ayo zvakanga zvizere nezvidhori zvaishandiswa pakunamata uye temberi.

Mabasa 17:21 inoti, “vaAtene vose nevagari vokune dzimwe nyika vaigara imomo kwenguva pfupi vaisapedza nguva yavo yokuzorora pasina chavaiita asi vachitaura kana kuteerera chimwe chinhu chitsva.” Zvinyorwa zvaThucydides naDemosthenes zvinotsigira kuti vaAtene vaigara vachikurukura uye vachiitirana nharo.

Bhaibheri rinonyatsotaura kuti ‘vaEpikuro nevaStoiki vakatanga kutaura naPauro vachiita nharo,’ vakatosvika pakumutora kuti vaende naye kuAreyopago kuti vanonzwa zvakawanda zvaaizotaura. (Mabasa 17:18, 19) Atene yaizivikanwa pamusana pevazivi vayo vakanga vakawanda, vaisanganisira vaEpikuro nevaStoiki.

Pauro aitaura nezveatari yekuAtene yaiva yakanyorwa kuti “Kuna Mwari Asingazivikanwi.” (Mabasa 17:23) Atari dzaiva dzakakumikidzwa kuna mwari asingazivikanwi dzingangodaro dzaiva dzakaiswa naEpimenides wokuKrete.

Paaitaura nevaAtene, Pauro akataura mashoko okuti “Nokuti tiri chizvarwa chakewo,” achiratidza kuti mashoko aya akanga asingarevi mudetembi mumwe chete asi kuti “vamwe vadetembi vari pakati penyu.” (Mabasa 17:28) Zviri pachena kuti vadetembi vechiGiriki ava vakanga vari Aratus naCleanthes.

Ndokusaka imwe nyanzvi yakazoti: “Ndinoona sokuti nhoroondo yokushanya kwaPauro kuAtene inoratidza kuti akambosvikako uye akamboona zvinhu zveko.” Ndizvowo zvinogona kutaurwa nezvemarondedzerero anoita Bhaibheri nezvezvakasangana naPauro kuEfeso yaiva kuAsia  Minor. Muzana remakore rokutanga C.E., guta iri rakaramba riine manamatiro echihedheni echiGiriki, kunyanya kunamatwa kwaiitwa mwarikadzi Atemisi.

Mubhuku reMabasa temberi yaAtemisi inotaurwa kakawanda chaizvo uye yaiva chimwe chezvinhu zvaizivikanwa chaizvo pazvinhu zvinomwe zvainzi zvinoshamisa munyika kare. Somuenzaniso, tinoudzwa kuti ushumiri hwaPauro kuEfeso hwakagumbura mumwe murume aiita zvokupfura sirivha ainzi Dhemetriyo uyo akanga ane bhizimisi rakanga riri kubudirira rokugadzira temberi dzesirivha dzaAtemisi. Dhemetriyo nehasha akati, ‘Pauro uyu akanyengetedza boka guru revanhu, akaita kuti vave nedzimwe pfungwa, achiti vaya vakagadzirwa nemaoko havasi vanamwari.’ (Mabasa 19:23-28) Dhemetriyo akabva akusvudzira mhomho yaidya marasha ikatanga kushevedzera ichiti: “Atemisi wevaEfeso mukuru!”

Iye zvino unogona kuenda kumatongo eEfeso wotoona temberi yaAtemisi. Uyezve zvimwe zvinyorwa zvekare zveEfeso zvinosimbisa kuti zvidhori zvaigadzirwa kuitira kuremekedza vana mwarikadzi uye kuti kwaiva neboka revanhu vaipfura sirivha muguta iroro.

Uprofita Hwakavimbika

Pachine makore 200 Alexander Mukuru asati avapo, muprofita waJehovha Mwari, Dhanieri, akanyora nezvekutonga kwaizoita nyika iyi achiti: “Tarira! paiva nenhongo yakanga ichiuya ichibva kumavirazuva ichifamba panyika pose, asi yakanga isingatsiki pasi. Nhongo yacho yakanga ine nyanga yainyatsooneka pakati pemaziso ayo. Yakaramba ichiuya kugondohwe raiva nenyanga mbiri, . . . . uye yakauya kwariri ichimhanya yakashatirwa kwazvo. Ikatunga gondohwe racho, ikatyora nyanga dzaro mbiri, uye gondohwe harina kuva nesimba rokumira pamberi payo. Naizvozvo yakariwisira pasi, ikaritsika-tsika . . . Zvino nhongo yakazvitutumadza kwazvo; asi payakangova nesimba, nyanga yacho huru yakatyoka, panzvimbo payo pakabuda dzimwe ina dzainyatsooneka, dzakatarira kumhepo ina dzokumatenga.”—Dhanieri 8:5-8.

Ndiani airehwa nemashoko aya? Dhanieri pachake akapindura kuti: “Gondohwe rawakaona raiva nenyanga mbiri rinomirira madzimambo eMedhiya nePezhiya. Nhongo ine mvere inomirira mambo weGirisi; uye nyanga huru yaiva pakati pemaziso ayo inomirira mambo wokutanga.”—Dhanieri 8:20-22.

Pafunge! Bhabhironi parakanga richiri simba renyika dzose, Bhaibheri rakafanotaura kuti umambo hwaizotevera ndehweMedhiya nePezhiya uye Girisi. Uyezve Bhaibheri rakanga ranyatsotaura kuti ‘payaizongova nesimba, nyanga yacho huru,’ kureva Alexander, ‘yaizotyoka’ uye yaizotsiviwa nedzimwe ina uye rakawedzera kuti hapana kana mumwe wavo aizova mwana kana muzukuru waAlexander.—Dhanieri 11:4.

Uprofita ihwohwo hwakanyatsozadzika semataurirwo azvakanga zvaitwa. Alexander akava mambo muna 336 B.C.E., uye mumakore manomwe akanga arakasha mambo Dhariyasi III wekuPezhiya aiva nesimba chaizvo. Zvadaro Alexander akaramba achiwedzera umambo hwake kusvikira paakazofa achiri muduku muna 323 B.C.E aine makore 32. Hapana munhu mumwe chete akatsiva chigaro chake kunyange mwana wake chaiye. Asi machinda ake mana ainzi Lysimachus, Cassander, Seleucus, naPtolemy “vakabva vazviti ndivo madzimambo” vachibva vatotora umambo, rinodaro bhuku rinonzi The Hellenistic Age.

 Alexander panguva yaaitonga akazadzisawo uprofita hweBhaibheri. Somuenzaniso, muprofita Ezekieri uye Zekariya, vakararama muzana remakore rechinomwe uye rechitanhatu B.C.E., vakafanotaura nezvokuparara kweTire guta raiva pedyo negungwa. (Ezekieri 26:3-5, 12; 27:32-36; Zekariya 9:3, 4) Ezekieri akatonyorawo kuti matombo aro uye guruva zvaizoiswa “pakati pemvura.” Mashoko iwayo akazadzika here?

Funga nezvezvakaitwa nemauto aAlexander pavakakomba Tire muna 332 B.C.E. Vakaita kukokota zvisaririra zvose zvaiva muguta reTire ndokubva vazviti njo mugungwa kuti vavake nzira inoenda kuchitsuwa cheTire. Zvakabudirira uye Tire ndipo payakabva yaparara. Mumwe womuzana remakore rechi19 akaongorora nzvimbo iyi akati, “Uprofita hune chokuita neTire hwakazadzika kusanganisira zvinhu zviduku-duku.” *

Chipikirwa Chaunogona Kuvimba Nacho

Kukunda kwaiita Alexander hakuna kuita kuti nyika ive norunyararo. Imwe nyanzvi mushure mokunge yaongorora nezvenguva yaitonga Girisi yekare, yakati: “Zvinhu zvinonyanya kukosha kuvanhu zvakangogadziriswa zvishomanene.” Izvi ndizvo zvave zvichiitika mumakore ose apfuura uye zvinoratidza kuti Bhaibheri rinotaura chokwadi parinoti “munhu akatonga mumwe munhu achimukuvadza.”—Muparidzi 8:9.

Zvisinei, kutonga kwevanhu kwakaipa hakuzorambi kuripo nokusingaperi nokuti Mwari akagadza hurumende inopfuura chero ipi zvayo yatingafunga nezvayo. Hurumende iyi inonzi Umambo hwaMwari, ichabvisa hurumende dzose dzevanhu uye vanhu vachatongwa nehurumende iyi vachafara kugara murunyararo uye vakachengeteka zvechokwadi uye nokusingaperi.—Isaya 25:6; 65:21, 22; Dhanieri 2:35, 44; Zvakazarurwa 11:15.

Jesu Kristu ndiye Mambo woUmambo hwaMwari. Kusiyana nehurumende dzevanhu idzo dzinongoda kutonga uye dzisina basa nevanhu vadzinotonga, Jesu anoda Mwari uye vanhu. Munyori wePisarema akafanotaura nezvaJesu paakati: “Iye achanunura murombo anochemera kubatsirwa, pamwe chete nomunhu anotambudzika nomunhu wose asina mubatsiri. Achanzwira tsitsi munhu akaderera nomurombo, uye achaponesa mweya yevarombo. Achadzikinura mweya yavo pakudzvinyirirwa nepakuitirwa zvechisimba.”—Pisarema 72:12-14.

Unoda here kutongwa neMutongi akadaro? Kana uchida, zvakanaka kuti uongorore nezveRoma iyo yaiva simba renyika rechitanhatu munhoroondo yeBhaibheri. Muponesi akanga afanotaurwa nezvake akazvarwa panguva yaitonga Roma uye akaita zvinhu zvisingafi zvakakanganwika munhoroondo yevanhu. Tapota verenga nyaya yechitanhatu iri mumagazini yedu inotevera.

^ ndima 4 Pari kutaurwa nezveGirisi munyaya ino pari kurehwa Girisi yekare zana remakore rokutanga risati rasvika kwete yemazuva ano.

^ ndima 23 Tire yakakundwa ichiri kutongwa naMambo weBhabhironi Nebhukadrezari sezvakanga zvafanotaurwa naEzekieri. (Ezekieri 26:7) Zvadaro guta racho rakazovakwazve. Guta iri rakavakwazve ndiro rakazoparadzwa naAlexander, zvichibva zvazadzisa zvose zvakanga zvataurwa nevaprofita.