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Bhuku Raunogona Kuvimba Naro—Chikamu 4

Medhiya nePezhiya Munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri

Bhuku Raunogona Kuvimba Naro—Chikamu 4

Nyaya ino ndeyechina panyaya nomwe dziri mumagazini e“Mukai!” dzinokurukura nezvemasimba enyika manomwe anotaurwa munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri. Chinangwa chacho ndechokuratidza kuti Bhaibheri rakavimbika uye rakafuridzirwa naMwari uye mashoko aro anopa tariro yokuti kutambura kwose kunokonzerwa nokutonga kwevanhu kweutsinye kuchapera.

MATONGO emizinda uye makuva zvemadzimambo zvinoratidza zvinhu zvishomanana zvinoita kuti tinzwisise nezveukuru, simba uye upfumi hweumambo huviri hwekare hwaiva hwakabatana hweMedhiya nePezhiya. Umambo uhwu huviri husati hwabatana, Medhiya ndiyo yaiva yakanyanya kusimba. Asi muna 550 B.C.E., vaMedhiya vakatanga kutongwa naMambo Koreshi II wekuPezhiya, uyo akazotonga umambo hweMedhiya nePezhiya. Nzvimbo iyi iri kuchamhembe kwePersian Gulf yakazokura kubva kuAegean Sea kusvika kuIjipiti uye kuchamhembe kwakadziva kumadokero kweIndia uye yaisanganisira Judhiya.

Medhiya nePezhiya yakatonga rudzi rwevaJudha kwemakore anopfuura 200 kubvira pakakundwa Bhabhironi muna 539 B.C.E. kusvikira payakazokundwa nevaGiriki muna 331 B.C.E. Mabhuku akawanda eBhaibheri anotaura nezvezviitiko zvinokosha zvakaitika panguva iyoyo.

Nhoroondo Dzakavimbika

Bhaibheri rinotiudza kuti Mambo Koreshi II akasunungura vaJudha vakanga vari nhapwa muBhabhironi, achibva avabvumira kuti vadzokere kuJerusarema uye vanovakazve temberi yaMwari, iyo yakanga yaparadzwa nevaBhabhironi muna 607 B.C.E. (Ezra 1:1-7; 6:3-5) Chiumbwa chevhu chinonzi Cyrus Cylinder, chakawanikwa muna 1879 pamatongo eBhabhironi rekare, chinotsigira nhoroondo iyi. Pachiumbwa ichi pakanyorwa zita raKoreshi uye mutemo waakapa wokuti vanhu vaiva nhapwa vadzokere kunyika dzavo pamwe chete nezvinhu zvavaishandisa pakunamata. Munyori weBhaibheri Isaya akanyora mashoko aJehovha ouprofita nezvaKoreshi achiti: “‘Zvose zvandinofarira achazviita chose’; kunyange pakutaura kwangu nezveJerusarema kuti, ‘Richavakwazve,’ uye nezvetemberi, ‘Nheyo yako ichavakwa.’”—Isaya 44:28.

Kutaura zvazviri Koreshi akarayira kuti mari  dzokuvakisazve temberi ‘dzipiwe dzichibva kuimba yamambo,’ inodaro Ezra 6:3, 4. Mashoko aya anoshamisa akafanana neakanyorwa mumabhuku enhoroondo dzezvakaitika kare. Bhuku rinonzi Persia and the Bible rinoti, “Waitova mutemo kuti madzimambo ePezhiya abatsire kuti nzvimbo dzokunamatira dzaiva muumambo hwavo dzigadziriswe.”

Bhaibheri rinotiudza kuti vanhu vaipikisa vaJudha vakazonyora tsamba kuna Dhariyasi Mukuru (ainziwo Dhariyasi I) vachiti vaJudha vainyepa kuti vakapiwa mvumo naKoreshi yokuti vavakezve temberi. Dhariyasi akarayira kuti patsvakwe mutemo wokutanga wakanyorwa nezvenyaya iyi. Vakawanei? Mupumburu waiva nemurayiro waKoreshi waiva muguta guru reMedhiya rainzi Ekibhatana. Dhariyasi akapindura kuti: “Ini, Dhariyasi, ndinorayira. Ngazviitwe nokukurumidza [kuvakwazve kwetemberi].” Kupikiswa kwose kwakabva kwati hwa-a. *Ezra 6:2, 7, 12, 13.

Nhoroondo dzezvakaitika kare dzinotsigira izvi. Chimwe chacho ndechokuti Ekibhatana yaiva nzvimbo yaigarwa naKoreshi panguva yokupisa uye zvinoratidza sokuti ndiko kwaaiva paakapa mutemo uyu. Uyewo zvimwe zvakawanikwa pakuchera matongo zvinoratidza kuti madzimambo eMedhiya nePezhiya aida chaizvo nyaya dzine chokuita nekunamata dzaibata-bata vanhu vavaitonga uye vainyora tsamba kuti vagadzirise makakatanwa angadaro aivapo.

Uprofita Hwakavimbika

Muprofita Dhanieri achiita zvokuroteswa naMwari akaona mhuka ina dzaiva dzakatevedzana dzichibuda mugungwa, imwe neimwe ichimiririra simba roumambo raizotevera. Mhuka yokutanga yaiva shumba yaiva nemapapiro yaimiririra Bhabhironi. Yechipiri yaiva “yakaita semhuka inonzi bheya.” Nhoroondo yacho inoenderera ichiti: “Vakanga vachiti kwairi, ‘Simuka, udye nyama zhinji.’” (Dhanieri 7:5) Bheya iri rinotyisa raimiririra Medhiya nePezhiya.

Sezvakanga zvaprofitwa naDhanieri, Medhiya nePezhiya yakaratidza kuti yaida chaizvo zvokukunda. Dhanieri achangoratidzwa izvi, Koreshi akakunda vaMedhiya ndokubva anorwisa dzimwe nyika dzaiva dziri pedyo dzeRidhiya neBhabhironi. Mwanakomana wake Cambyses II akakunda Ijipiti. Pava paya madzimambo eMedhiya nePezhiya akazowedzera umambo hwawo kusvika kure.

Tingaziva sei kuti dudziro dzouprofita uhwu ndedzechokwadi? Dhanieri akaratidzwazve zvimwe zvine chokuita nouprofita uhwu asi zvakati siyanei nezvepakutanga. Akaona gondohwe “richitunga kumavirira nokuchamhembe nokumaodzanyemba.” Uprofita hwacho hwakazadziswa apo Medhiya nePezhiya ‘yakatunga’ dzimwe nyika kusanganisira Bhabhironi raiva nesimba. Ngirozi yaMwari yakadudzira zvakaonekwa izvi ikaudza Dhanieri kuti: “Gondohwe rawakaona raiva nenyanga mbiri rinomirira madzimambo eMedhiya nePezhiya.”Dhanieri 8:3, 4, 20.

Uyezve pachine mazana maviri emakore Bhabhironi risati rakundwa, muprofita Isaya akafanotaura zita ramambo wePezhiya aizokunda uye  makundiro aaizoita. Izvi akazvitaura mambo wacho asati atomboberekwa. Isaya akanyora kuti: “Zvanzi naJehovha kumuzodziwa wake, kuna Koreshi, wandakabata ruoko rwake rworudyi, kuti ndikunde marudzi pamberi pake, . . . kuti ndimuvhurire masuo ane madhoo maviri, zvokuti kunyange magedhi haazovharwi.” (Isaya 45:1) Isaya naJeremiya vakagara vataura kuti “nzizi” dzeBhabhironi kana kuti migero yaibva muRwizi rwaYufratesi ichidzivirira guta yaizopwa. (Isaya 44:27; Jeremiya 50:38) Vanyori vezvakaitika kare vechiGiriki Herodotus naXenophon vanotsinhirawo kuti uprofita hweBhaibheri ndehwechokwadi kusanganisira mutambo waiitwa nevaBhabhironi vachidhakwa usiku hwakakundwa guta racho naKoreshi. (Isaya 21:5, 9; Dhanieri 5:1-4, 30) Mauto aKoreshi paakatsausa Rwizi rwaYufratesi akabva apinda nepamagedhi akanga akavhurika pasina zvipingamupinyi zvakakura. Bhabhironi raiva nesimba rakakundwa muusiku humwe chete.

Izvi zvakaita kuti humwe uprofita huzadzike zvinoshamisa. Muprofita Jeremiya akanga agara ataura kuti vanhu vaMwari vaizotapwa neBhabhironi kwemakore 70. (Jeremiya 25:11, 12; 29:10) Uprofita ihwohwo hwakazadzika pakangokwanawo makore acho 70 uye nhapwa dzakabva dzabvumirwa kudzokera kumusha kwadzo.

Chipikirwa Chaunogona Kuvimba Nacho

Medhiya nePezhiya ichangokunda Bhabhironi, Dhanieri akanyora uprofita hunotibatsira kunzwisisa chinhu chinokosha pakuzadzika kwechinangwa chaMwari nokuda kwevanhu. Ngirozi Gabrieri yakanyatsotaurira Dhanieri nguva chaiyo yaizouya Mesiya, kureva “mbeu” inotaurwa pana Genesisi 3:15. Ngirozi yaMwari yakati: “Kubvira pachataurwa shoko rokudzorera nokuvakazve Jerusarema kusvikira kuna Mesiya Mutungamiriri, pachava nevhiki nomwe, uye vhiki dzine makumi matanhatu nembiri,” kureva vhiki 69. (Dhanieri 9:25) Nguva iyi yakaprofitwa yakatanga rini?

Kunyange zvazvo Koreshi akabvumira vaJudha kudzokera kumusha kwavo Bhabhironi richangokundwa, pakapera makore akawanda Jerusarema nemasvingo aro zvisati zvavakwazve. Muna 455 B.C.E., Mambo Atashasta akapa mudiri wake wewaini Nehemiya mvumo yokudzokera kuJerusarema kuti anotungamirira basa rokuvakazve. (Nehemiya 2:1-6) Apa ndipo pakatangira vhiki 69.

Zvisinei, vhiki 69 dzakanga dzisiri vhiki dzemazuva manomwe asi dzaiva vhiki dzinomirira makore. Pashoko iri rokuti “vhiki,” dzimwe shanduro dzeBhaibheri dzinoti “vhiki dzemakore.” * (Dhanieri 9:24, 25) Mesiya aizouya papera “vhiki” 69, imwe neimwe iine makore manomwe, zvichireva kuti makore 483. Uprofita uhwu hwakazadzika muna 29 C.E., pakabhabhatidzwa Jesu. Izvi zvinonyatsoti gedye-gedye nemakore 483 kubva muna 455 B.C.E. *

Kunyatsozadzika kwouprofita hwaDhanieri kunowedzera uchapupu hunoratidza kuti Jesu aiva ani. Uchapupu uhwu hunosimbisawo tariro yedu yeramangwana. Jesu saMambo woUmambo hwaMwari, achabvisa hurumende dzevanhu dzinotonga zvine utsinye. Apedza izvi, achazadzisa humwe uprofita hweBhaibheri hwakawanda kusanganisira hunotaura nezvekumutsirwa kwevakafa kuupenyu husingaperi muParadhiso pasi pano.​—Dhanieri 12:2; Johani 5:28, 29; Zvakazarurwa 21:3-5.

^ ndima 9 Zita rokuti Dhariyasi rinoshandiswa kumadzimambo anenge matatu.

^ ndima 20 PamaBhaibheri anoshandisa shoko rokuti “vhiki dzemakore,” mamwe acho ndeaya: Tanakh—A New Translation of the Holy Scriptures, The Complete Bible—An American Translation, uye The Bible—Containing the Old and New Testaments, rakanyorwa naJames Moffatt.

^ ndima 20 Kana uchida tsanangudzo yakadzama youprofita kusanganisira chati inoratidza mamiriro akaita vhiki 69 dzemakore, ona mapeji 197 kusvika ku199 ebhuku rinonzi Bhaibheri Rinombodzidzisei Chaizvo?