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Bhuku Raunogona Kuvimba Naro—Chikamu 1

Ijipiti Munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri

Bhuku Raunogona Kuvimba Naro—Chikamu 1

Bhaibheri rakanyorwa kwemakore anenge 1 600. Nhoroondo dzaro uye uprofita zvinobatana nemasimba enyika manomwe anoti: Ijipiti, Asiriya, Bhabhironi, Medhiya nePezhiya, Girisi, Roma uye Anglo-America. Rimwe nerimwe remasimba aya richakurukurwa munyaya nomwe dzinotevedzana. Chinangwa chenyaya idzi ndechei? Ndechokuratidza kuti Bhaibheri rakavimbika uye rakafuridzirwa naMwari, uye mashoko aro anopa tariro yokuti kutambura kwose kunokonzerwa nokutonga kwevanhu kusina kururama kuchaguma.

IJIPITI ndiyo yaiva simba renyika rokutanga rinotaurwa munhoroondo dzeBhaibheri uye inozivikanwa zvikuru pamusana pemapiramidhi ayo uye Rwizi rwaNire. Rudzi rwevaIsraeri rwakaumbwa rwakachengeteka muIjipiti. Mosesi, munyori wemabhuku mashanu okutanga emuBhaibheri, akaberekerwa ndokudzidza muIjipiti. Vanyori venhoroondo uye vanoita zvokuchera matongo vanobvumirana nezvakanyorwa naMosesi nezvenyika iyi yekare here? Chimbofunga mimwe mienzaniso.

Nhoroondo Dzakavimbika

Mazita.

Nhoroondo dzakarurama dzinowanzobuda pachena pazvinhu zvinenge zvichitaurwa zvinosanganisira tsika, mazita uye mazita okuremekedza evanenge vaine zvinzvimbo zvichingodaro. Mashoko ari mumabhuku maviri okutanga emuBhaibheri, Genesisi naEksodho akarurama here? Achitaura nezvenyaya yaJosefa, mwanakomana waJakobho iri muna Genesisi naEksodho, J. Garrow Duncan mubhuku rake rinonzi New Light on Hebrew Origins anoti: “[Munyori weBhaibheri] ainyatsoziva nezveIjipiti zvaisanganisira mutauro, tsika, zvaidavirwa, upenyu hwomumuzinda wamambo uye vanhu vaiva nezvinzvimbo.” Anowedzera kuti: “[Munyori wacho] anoshandisa zita rokuremekedza rakakodzera uye anonyatsorishandisa sezvaraiitwa panguva inenge ichitaurwa nezvayo. . . . Kutaura zvazviri, kushandiswa kweshoko rokuti Farao panguva dzakasiyana-siyana ndihwo uchapupu hwakakura hwokuvimbika kwevanyori veTestamende Yekare uye hwokuti vainyatsoziva nezveIjipiti.” Duncan anotiwo, “[Munyori wacho] paanounza vanhu vaanenge achitaura nezvavo pamberi paFarao, anoita kuti vaite tsika dzakakodzera uye vashandise mutauro wakakodzera.”

Kugadzira Zvidhinha.

Panguva yavaiva varanda muIjipiti, vaIsraeri vaigadzira zvidhinha vachishandisa dhaka nemashanga aiita kuti zvisimbe. (Eksodho 1:14; 5:6-18) * Makore akapfuura, bhuku rinonzi Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries rakati: “Inzvimbo shoma dzave dzichigadzirwa zvidhinha kupfuura kuIjipiti, kuchine zvidhinha zvinoomeswa nezuva sezvazvakangogara zvichiitwa, uye ndizvo zvinoshandiswa kuvaka munyika yacho.” Bhuku racho rinotaurawo nezve“tsika yevaIjipiti yokushandisa mashanga  pakugadzira zvidhinha,” uye izvi zvinotsigira mashoko akanyorwa muBhaibheri.

Kugera Ndebvu.

Varume vekare vechiHebheru vaichengeta ndebvu. Asi Bhaibheri rinotaura kuti Josefa akagera ndebvu dzake asati aenda pamberi paFarao. (Genesisi 41:14) Akadzigererei? Kuti aite zvaienderana netsika dzevaIjipiti dzaiti ndebvu dzinoratidza kusachena. Bhuku rinonzi Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt rinoti, “[VaIjipiti] vaidada nokugerwa.” Mumakuva makatowanikwa zvinhu zvokuzvichenesa nazvo zvaisanganisira reza, twokudzurisa bvudzi, uye magirazi pamwe chete nepazvaichengeterwa. Zviri pachena kuti Mosesi ainyatsonyora nhoroondo zvakajeka. Izvozvo ndizvo zvakaitawo vamwe vanyori veBhaibheri vakanyora nezveIjipiti yekare.

Zvebhizimisi.

Jeremiya, munyori wemabhuku maviri eMadzimambo, akapa mashoko akajeka nezvebhizimisi raiitwa naMambo Soromoni remabhiza nengoro achiriita nevaIjipiti uye vaHiti. Bhaibheri rinoti, ngoro yaiita “masirivha mazana matanhatu, uye bhiza nokuda kwezana nemakumi mashanu” kana kuti chidimbu chimwe muzvina chemutengo wengoro.—1 Madzimambo 10:29.

Maererano nebhuku rinonzi Archaeology and the Religion of Israel, munyori wenhoroondo wechiGiriki Herodotus uye zvakaonekwa pakuchera matongo zvose zvinotsigira kuti bhizimisi remabhiza nengoro raiva rakakurumbira uye richibudirira panguva yaitonga Soromoni. Kutaura zvazviri, bhuku racho rinoti ‘kwakadzikwa mutengo wemabhiza mana nokuda kwengoro imwe chete yekuIjipiti,’ richitsigira manhamba anotaurwa muBhaibheri.

Hondo.

Jeremiya naEzra vanotaurawo nezvokupinda kwakaita Farao Shishaki muJudha, vachinyatsotaura kuti zvakaitika “mugore rechishanu raMambo [weJudha] Rehobhoamu,” kana kuti muna 993 B.C.E. (1 Madzimambo 14:25-28; 2 Makoronike 12:1-12) Kwenguva yakareba, nhoroondo yakanyorwa yokupinda ikoko kwakaita Farao yaingowanika muBhaibheri chete. Kwakabva kwawanikwa mifananidzo yaiva pamudhuri weimwe temberi yokuIjipiti iri kuKarnak (Thebes yekare).

Mufananidzo wacho unoratidza Shishaki akamira pamberi pamwari ainzi Amoni, Shishaki akasimudza ruoko zvichiratidza kuti ari kuzvambura nhapwa. Pakanyorwawo mazita emataundi eIsraeri, akawanda acho anotaurwa muBhaibheri. Mufananidzo wacho unotaurawo nezve“Munda waAbramu,” ndiwo mufananidzo wekare kupfuura zvimwe zvinyorwa zvose zveIjipiti  zvinotaura nezvatateguru Abrahamu wemuBhaibheri.—Genesisi 25:7-10.

Zviri pachena kuti vanyori veBhaibheri havana kunyora nyaya dzokufungidzira. Sezvo vaiziva kuti vaifanira kuzozvidavirira kuna Mwari, vakanyora chokwadi, kunyange kana kuita kudaro kwakanga kusingafarirwi—sepanyaya yokukundwa kwakaitwa Judha naShishaki. Chokwadi ichocho chinonyatsopesana nenyaya dzainatsiridzwa, dzainyorwa nevanyori vechiIjipiti vekare, vairamba kunyora chero chinhu chingangodaro chaishoresa vatongi vavo kana vanhu vavo.

Uprofita Hwakavimbika

Munyori weBhaibheri, Jehovha Mwari ndiye chete anogona kutaura nezveramangwana zvichinyatsoitika sokutaura kwake. Somuenzaniso, ona zvaakafuridzira Jeremiya kuti afanotaura nezvemaguta maviri eIjipiti—Memfisi neThebes. Memfisi kana kuti Nofi raimbozivikanwa mune zvokutengeserana, zvematongerwo enyika uye zvechitendero. Asi Mwari akati: “Nofi richava chinhuwo zvacho chinokatyamadza uye chokwadi richapiswa nomoto, kuti rirege kuva nomugari.” (Jeremiya 46:19) Uye ndizvo chaizvo zvakaitika. Bhuku rinonzi In the Steps of Moses the Lawgiver rinoti, vaArabhu vakanga vakunda vakatapa “zvinhu zvaiva mumatongo makuru eMemfisi” uye vakazvishandisa. Rinowedzerawo kuti mazuva ano, “hapana kana dombo rinooneka pamusoro peivhu dema munzvimbo yaiva neguta iroro rekare.”

Thebes, raimbonzi No-amoni kana kungoti No, rakasanganawo netsekwende yakafanana pamwe chete navanamwari varo vaisabatsira. Nezveraimbova guta guru reIjipiti iri uye muzinda wokunamatwa kwamwari ainzi Amone, Jehovha akati: “Tarira ndiri kufunga nezvaAmone . . . nezvaFarao, nezveIjipiti, nezvavanamwari vayo . . . Ndichavaisa . . . muruoko rwaNebhukadrezari mambo weBhabhironi.” (Jeremiya 46:25, 26) Sokuprofitwa kwazvakanga zvaitwa, mambo wacho weBhabhironi akakunda Ijipiti neguta rayo raizivikanwa zvikuru reNo-amoni. Uye pashure pokunge mutongi wePezhiya Cambyses II akundazve guta racho muna 525 B.C.E., rakawa zvishoma nezvishoma ndokuzoparadzwa zvachose nevaRoma. Chokwadi, uprofita hwakarurama hunoita kuti Bhaibheri risiyane nemamwe mabhuku ose, uye zvinotipa chivimbo mune zvarinotaura nezveramangwana redu.

Tariro Yaunogona Kuvimba Nayo

Uprofita hwokutanga chaihwo huri muBhaibheri hwakanyorwa naMosesi, Ijipiti payaiva simba renyika yose. * Uprofita hwacho hunowanika  pana Genesisi 3:15 uye Mwari aizoita kuti pave ne“mwana” aizopwanya Satani nevana vake, kureva vaya vanotevedzera zviito zvaSatani zvakaipa. (Johani 8:44; 1 Johani 3:8) Zvakava pachena kuti “mwana” waMwari akanga afanotaurwa nezvake aiva Mesiya, Jesu Kristu.—Ruka 2:9-14.

Kristu achatonga nyika yose uye achabvisa uipi hwose nehurumende dzevanhu dzinodzvinyirira vamwe. ‘Munhu haazotongi mumwe munhu achimukuvadza.’ (Muparidzi 8:9) Uyezve, kungofanana naJoshua wekare akatungamirira vaIsraeri kupinda muNyika Yakapikirwa, Jesu achatungamirira “boka guru” revanhu vanotya Mwari vakachengeteka kupinda mu“Nyika Yakapikirwa” yakatokura kupfuura yekare—nyika yakacheneswa ichachinjwa yova paradhiso.—Zvakazarurwa 7:9, 10, 14, 17; Ruka 23:43.

Tariro iyoyo yakanaka inotiyeuchidza nezvehumwezve uprofita hwakanyorwa munguva yeIjipiti yekare. Uprofita hwacho hunowanika pana Jobho 33:24, 25 uye hunotaura kuti Mwari achanunura vanhu kunyange kubva “mugomba,” kana kuti guva kuburikidza norumuko. Chokwadi, kuwedzera pane vaya vachaponeswa pakuparadzwa kwevanhu vakaipa kuri kuuya, mamiriyoni akawanda evakafa achamutsirwa kuupenyu vaine tariro yokurarama nokusingaperi muParadhiso panyika. (Mabasa 24:15) Zvakazarurwa 21:3, 4 inoti, “Tende raMwari riri pakati pevanhu. . . . Achapukuta misodzi yose pamaziso avo, rufu haruchazovipo, kana kuchema kana kuridza mhere kana kurwadziwa hazvingazovipozve.”

Nhoroondo neuprofita zvakavimbika—dingindira iri richaenderera mberi munyaya inotevera panyaya dzino dzinotevedzana, ichataura nezveAsiriya yekare, simba renyika rechipiri rakavapo pashure peIjipiti.

^ ndima 7 Kana usina Bhaibheri asi uchikwanisa kuenda paIndaneti, unogona kutarisa magwaro acho pawww.watchtower.org. Ipapo uchaona bhokisi rakanzi “Read the Bible Online.”

^ ndima 18 Uprofita hwakanyorwa pana Genesisi 3:15 hwakataurwa naMwari mumunda weEdheni uye hwakazonyorwa naMosesi.