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 A3

Bhaibheri Rakasvika Sei Kwatiri?

Munyori weBhaibheri, uyo akaita kuti rivepo, ndiye zvakare akaita kuti richengetedzwe. Ndiye akaita kuti mashoko anotevera anyorwe:

“Shoko raMwari wedu rinogara nekusingaperi.”Isaya 40:8.

Mashoko iwayo ndeechokwadi, kunyange zvazvo mazuva ano pasisina zvinyorwa zvekutangatanga zveMagwaro echiHebheru nechiAramaiki * kana zveMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki. Saka tingava sei nechokwadi chekuti mashoko ari muBhaibheri ratiinaro mazuva ano anonyatsotaura zvaiva muzvinyorwa zvekutanga zvakafemerwa?

VANYORI VAKACHENGETEDZA SHOKO RAMWARI

Kana ari Magwaro echiHebheru, chimwe chakaita kuti achengetedzwe yaiva tsika yakatangwa kare naMwari yekuti mashoko ari muMagwaro aifanira kubviswa pane rimwe gwaro achiiswa pane rimwe. * Semuenzaniso, Jehovha akarayira madzimambo aIsraeri kuti mumwe nemumwe ave negwaro rake ega reMutemo. (Dheuteronomi 17:18) Mwari akapawo vaRevhi basa rekuchengetedza Mutemo uye kuudzidzisa vanhu. (Dheuteronomi 31:26; Nehemiya 8:7) Pashure pekutapwa kwevaJudha vachiendeswa kuBhabhironi, pakamuka rimwe boka revanyori (vaSoferimu). (Ezra 7:6) Nekufamba kwenguva, vanyori ivavo vakanyora zvinyorwa zvakawanda zvemabhuku 39 eMagwaro echiHebheru.

Kwemazana emakore, vanyori vainyatsongwarira pavainyora mabhuku aya. Mumakore ekuma1000 C.E, vamwe vanyori vechiJudha vaizivikanwa sevaMasoreti vakaenderera mberi nebasa iri rekunyora. Chinyorwa chevaMasoreti chekare kupfuura zvimwe zvese, chinonzi Leningrad Codex, ndechegore ra1008 kana kuti 1009 C.E. Asi mumakore ekuma1950, pamabhuku akawanikwa muGungwa Rakafa, paivawo nezvinyorwa zveBhaibheri kana kuti zvidimbu zvacho zvingasvika 220. Zvinyorwa zveBhaibheri izvi zvakanga zvava nemakore anopfuura  1000 zvanyorwa pakazonyorwa zveLeningrad Codex. Kuenzanisa mabhuku akawanikwa muGungwa Rakafa neLeningrad Codex, kunobudisa pfungwa iyi inokosha: Kunyange zvazvo mabhuku akawanikwa muGungwa Rakafa aine mimwe misiyano mune mamwe mashoko, misiyano iyoyo haikanganisi zviri kutaurwa.

Ko mabhuku 27 eMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki akachengetedzwawo sei? Mabhuku iwayo akatanga kunyorwa nevamwe vaapostora vaJesu Kristu uye nevamwewo vadzidzi vekutanga. Vachitevedzera tsika yaiitwa nevanyori vechiJudha, vaKristu vekutanga vaikopawo mabhuku iwayo. (VaKorose 4:16) Pasinei nekuedza kuparadza mabhuku aya kwakaitwa namambo weRoma ainzi Diocletian nevamwewo, zviuru zvezvinyorwa zvekare, zvakazara uye zvidimbu, zvakachengetedzwa kusvikira iye zvino.

Zvinyorwa zvechiKristu zvakashandurirwawo mune mimwe mitauro. Mitauro yekutanga kushandurirwa Bhaibheri mairi yaisanganisira yakadai sechiArmenian, chiCoptic, chiEthiopic, chiGeorgian, chiLatin, uye chiSyriac.

KUSARUDZA ZVINYORWA ZVECHIHEBHERU NEZVECHIGIRIKI ZVEKUSHANDISA PAKUSHANDURA

Hazvisi zvinyorwa zvese zveBhaibheri zvekare zvine mashoko akanyatsofanana. Saka tingaziva sei zvaiva muzvinyorwa zvacho chaizvo zvepakutanga?

Tinogona kuzvifananidza nemudzidzisi anokumbira vadzidzi 100 kuti vanyore vachikopa chitsauko chimwe chete chebhuku. Kunyange kana chitsauko chacho chavari kukopa chikarasika, kana zvavanenge vanyora zvikaenzaniswa, zvinogona kuratidza kuti muchitsauko chacho maiva nemashoko api. Kunyange zvazvo mudzidzi mumwe nemumwe achigona kukanganisa pakunyora, kashoma kuti vese vabva vakanganisa zvakafanana. Ndizvo zvinoitwawo nevanoongorora zvinyorwa zvekare. Pavanoenzanisa zviuru zvekare zvemabhuku eBhaibheri akazara, kana kuti zvidimbu, vanogona kuona panenge pakakanganiswa nemunyori voziva zvaiva muzvinyorwa zvekutanga.

“Tinenge tisingakanganisi kana tikati hakuna rimwe bhuku rekare rakanyatsokopwa nemazvo zvakadaro”

Tinogona kuva nechivimbo chakazara chekuti mashoko akafemerwa pakutanga pakanyorwa Bhaibheri akapfuudzwa kwatiri sezvaari. Nei tichidaro? Achitaura nezveMagwaro echiHebheru, mumwe muongorori anonzi William H. Green akati: “Tinenge tisingakanganisi kana tikati hakuna rimwe bhuku rekare rakanyatsokopwa nemazvo zvakadaro.” Achitaura nezveMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki, kana kuti inonzi nevamwe Testamende Itsva, mumwe muongorori weBhaibheri anonzi  F. F. Bruce akanyora kuti: “Uchapupu hwezvakanyorwa muTestamende Itsva yedu hwakakura chaizvo kupfuura uchapupu hwezvinhu zvakawanda zvakanyorwa nevanyori vekare, izvo zvisina kana mumwe munhu anomboramba kuti ndezvechokwadi.” Akatiwo: “Kudai Testamende Itsva yaiva mubatanidzwa wemabhuku akanyorwa nevamwewo vanhu, vakawanda vaisazomboramba kuti zvirimo ndezvechokwadi.”

Chitsauko 40 chebhuku raIsaya chiri mumagwaro akawanikwa muGungwa Rakafa (ndechemakore ekuma125 kusvika 100 B.C.E.)

Kana tichienzanisa nezvinyorwa zvechiHebheru zvakazonyorwa pashure pemakore angasvika 1 000, panongova nemisiyano mishoma, yakawanda yacho iri yezviperengo

Chitsauko 40 chebhuku raIsaya chemuAleppo Codex, gwaro rechiHebheru rakanyorwa nevaMasoreti munenge muna 930 C.E.

ChiHebheru: Bhaibheri reChirungu reNew World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (1953-1960) rakashandurwa kubva muBiblia Hebraica, raRudolf Kittel. Kubvira ipapo, zvinyorwa zvakanatsiridzwa zvechiHebheru zvinoti, Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia uye Biblia Hebraica Quinta, zvakagadziridzwa pachishandiswa tsvakurudzo yakaitwa mumagwaro akawanikwa muGungwa Rakafa nemuzvimwe zvinyorwa zvekare. Zvakawanikwa nevatsvakurudzi ava ndizvo zvakabatsira pakunyora patsva ndima dzeLeningrad Codex, uye mashoko emuzasi ane mamwe mashoko akafanana neari mune zvimwe zvinyorwa, zvinosanganisira Samaritan Pentateuch, mabhuku akawanikwa muGungwa Rakafa, Septuagint yechiGiriki, Aramaic Targums, Latin Vulgate, uye Syriac Peshitta. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia pamwe neBiblia Hebraica Quinta zvakashandiswawo paishandurwa Shanduro yeNyika Itsva yatava nayo iye zvino.

ChiGiriki: Makore ekuma1800 ava kunopera, vatsvakurudzi vanonzi B. F. Westcott naF.J.A. Hort vakaongorora zvinyorwa zveBhaibheri zvakazara nezvidimbu zvaivapo kuti vabudise mubatanidzwa wemagwaro echiGiriki waizoshandiswa pakushandura, wavaifunga kuti uri pedyo nezvakanga zvakanyorwa pakutanga. Kuma 1950, Komiti Inoshandura Bhaibheri reNyika Itsva yakashandisa mashoko ari mumubatanidzwa uyu pakushandura kwavaiita. Zvimwe zvinyorwa zvainge zvakanyorwa panhokwe izvo zvinofungidzirwa kuti zvaiva zvekuma100 uye 200 C.E. zvakashandiswawo. Kubvira ipapo, zvinyorwa zvakawanda zvenhokwe zvakawanikwa. Mimwewo mibatanidzwa yemashoko echiGiriki yakadai seyaNestle naAland neyeUnited Bible Societies inoratidza zvimwe zvichangobva kuwanikwa pakutsvakurudza. Dzimwe tsvakurudzo dzacho dzakashandiswawo pakushandura Bhaibheri rino.

Kuongorora mashoko iwayo akashandiswa pakushandura kwakaratidza pachena kuti mamwe mavhesi ari muMagwaro echiKristu echiGiriki mune dzimwe shanduro dzekare dzakadai seKing James Version, akazoita zvekuwedzerwa nevanyori uye aisatombova muMagwaro akafemerwa. Asi sezvo kupatsanurwa kwemashoko ari muBhaibheri achiitwa mavhesi, izvo zvinozivikanwa mushanduro dzemaBhaibheri dzakawanda, kwakanga kwatoitwa kare kuma1500, kusiya mavhesi aya kwakaita kuti dzimwe nzvimbo dzisare dzisina chinhu mumaBhaibheri akawanda. Mavhesi acho ndiMateu 17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Mako 7:16;  9:44, 46; 11:26; 15:28; Ruka 17:36; 23:17; Johani 5:4; Mabasa 8:37; 15:34; 24:7; 28:29; naVaRoma 16:24. Mushanduro ino yakadzokororwa, pese pakasiyiwa mavhesi aya pakanyorwa mashoko emuzasi.

Kana iri mhedziso refu yaMako 16 (mavhesi 9-20), mhedziso pfupi yaMako 16, uye mashoko ari pana Johani 7:53–8:11, zviri pachena kuti mavhesi iwayo ese akanga asingawanikwi muzvinyorwa zvekutanga. Saka mavhesi iwayo enhema haana kuiswa mushanduro ino yakadzokororwa. *

Mamwe mashoko akagadziridzwa kuti abudisewo zvimwe zvinhu zvinoonekwa nevatsvakurudzi kuti zvinonyatsoratidza zvaiva muzvinyorwa zvekutanga. Semuenzaniso, zvimwe zvinyorwa zvinoti pana Mateu 7:13 panoti: “Pindai nepagedhi rakamanikana, nekuti gedhi rakafara nemugwagwa wakapamhama, zvinoenda mukuparadzwa.” Shanduro dzeBhaibheri rino dzakambobuda rino risati rabuda dzakanga dzakasiya shoko rekuti “gedhi.” Asi kumwe kuongororwa kwakaitwa zvimwe zvinyorwa kwakaratidza kuti shoko rekuti “gedhi” raivapo pakutanga. Saka rakaiswa mushanduro ino. Pane zvakati wandei zvakagadziridzwa saizvozvo. Asi zvakagadziridzwa izvi hazvina kukura uye hapana chazvinochinja pane zviri kutaurwa neShoko raMwari.

Gwaro renhokwe rina 2 VaKorinde 4:13–5:4 remunenge muna 200 C.E.

^ ndima 5 Aya ndiwo achange achinzi Magwaro echiHebheru kubvira pandima ino zvichienda mberi.

^ ndima 7 Chimwe chaiita kuti magwaro arambe achidzokororwa kunyorwa ndechekuti paainyorerwa pacho paikurumidza kusakara.

^ ndima 18 Mamwe mashoko anotsanangura kuti nei ndima idzi dzisiri dzechokwadi anowanikwa mumashoko emuzasi eBhaibheri reChirungu reNew World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References, rakabudiswa muna 1984.