1, 2. Dukurikije Yesaya 2:3, ni irihe tumirwa ryumvikana muri iyi minsi y’imperuka, kandi se, ni bande batumirwa?

UBUHANUZI bweruye bwa Yesaya buhereranye n’iminsi y’imperuka bukubiyemo itumirwa ryagombye gushishikaza abantu bo mu mahanga yose. Iryo tumirwa ni irihereranye n’uko buri wese ku giti cye yamenya Imana y’ukuri: “amahanga menshi azahaguruka, avuge ati ‘nimuze tuzamuke tujye ku musozi w’Uwiteka, ku nzu y’Imana ya Yakobo, kugira ngo ituyobore inzira zayo, tuzigenderemo.’” *Yesaya 2:3.

2 Ubwo buhanuzi bugaragaza ko mu minsi y’imperuka, abantu bo mu mahanga menshi yo ku isi hose bari kuyoborwa ku isoko imwe y’ubumenyi maze ikabafasha kumenya Imana y’ukuri. Ni ukuhe kuri bari kwiga kugira ngo kubafashe kuzaba bunze ubumwe mu mahoro menshi nyakuri?

3. Ni iyihe nyigisho yumvikana neza ya Bibiliya, isa n’aho yibagiranye kubera imigenzo y’abantu?

3 Inyigisho yumvikana neza ya Bibiliya, isa n’aho yibagiranye kubera imigenzo y’abantu, ni ihereranye n’igikorwa cyo kugirana imishyikirano ya bugufi n’Imana, Data wa twese wo mu ijuru ikaba n’Umuremyi wacu, tukagirana na yo imishyikirano mu buryo bwihariye cyane, tuyivuga mu izina ryayo. Ni uwuhe muntu waba ufite incuti ye y’amagara kandi akunda cyane wakwanga kuyivuga mu izina ndetse akanga no kugira icyo avuga ku izina ryayo no mu gihe haba hari ababimubajije? Ubusanzwe, umwanzi ni we umuntu agirira igomwa ku buryo atamwubaha cyangwa ngo ashishikazwe no kumuvuga mu izina. Imishyikirano yihariye, Isirayeli ya kera yari ifitanye n’Imana yayo—ari na yo yatumye bamenya izina ryayo—umwanditsi wa kera wa Zaburi hari icyo yayivuzeho gishimishije cyane muri aya magambo ngo “kuko yankunze akaramata, ni cyo nzamukiriza: nzamushyira hejuru, kuko yamenye izina ryanjye.”—Zaburi 91:14.

Mbese birakwiriye gukoresha izina ry’Imana?

4, 5. Izina ry’Imana rifite ibihe bisobanuro?

4 Dukurikije igitekerezo cya Bibiliya, ntabwo abantu bigeze bashidikanya ku izina ry’Imana y’ukuri. Igihe Imana yavuganaga na Mose, imusobanurira icyifuzo cyayo cyo kumwohereza kugira ngo ayobore ishyanga rya Isirayeli arivane mu bubata bwo muri Egiputa, Mose yabajije ikibazo cyiza cy’ubwenge ati “ningera ku Bisirayeli, nkababwira nti ‘Imana ya basekuruza wanyu yabantumyeho,’ bakambaza bati ‘Yitwa nde?’ nzabasubiza iki?” Imana yaramushubije iti “uzabwire Abisirayeli uti ‘Uwiteka [Mu Giheburayo, יהוה= YHWH = Yahweh, cyangwa se, Yehova kuva mu kinyejana cya 13 Nyuma ya Yesu,] Imana ya ba sekuruza banyu, Imana ya Aburahamu, Imana ya Isaka, Imana ya Yakobo, yabantumyeho, iryo ni ryo zina ryanjye iteka ryose, urwo ni rwo rwibutso rwanjye ruzahoraho ibihe byose’.”—Kuva 3:13, 15, ayo magambo ari mu nyuguti ziberamye ni twe twayanditse dutyo.

5 Iryo zina rifite ibisobanuro byimbitse ku muntu uzi Igiheburayo. Rikomoka ku ijambo ry’Igiheburayo הוה, h·w·h, risobanurwa ngo “kuba.” Icyakora, iryo zina riri mu buryo bw’ingiro ntandaro, Hiph·ʽilʹ, dukurikije ikibonezamvugo cy’Igiheburayo. Bityo rero, ibisobanuro byaryo by’ishingiro ntibifitanye isano no kuba Imana ari iy’iteka ahubwo bifitanye isano no kuba ari yo ituma ibintu bibaho cyangwa bishoboka. Ibyo ni ko bimeze cyane cyane mu buryo bumwe buhereranye n’imigambi yayo. Nk’uko yari yaragambiriye kubatura ishyanga yari yaratoranyije kugira ngo irivane mu bucakara bwo muri Egiputa, yatumye ibyo bibaho. Nta kintu na kimwe cyashoboraga kuyikoma mu nkokora ngo ibure gusohoza umugambi wayo. Yehova ni Imana ituma imigambi yayo isohora. Ni ukuvuga rero ko we ubwe akora ku buryo atuma aba Usohoza imigambi ye. Ni na ko byagenze ku bihereranye n’ibyo kubatura ishyanga rye mu bucakara bw’i Babuloni. Ibyo kandi ni ko bimeze ku bihereranye no kugarura imimerere ya paradizo hano ku isi. Izina rye ubwaryo rituma ayo masezerano agira ireme akaba n’ayo kwizerwa.—Yesaya 41:21-24; 43:10-13; 46:9, 10.

6-9. (a) Tumenya dute ko Imana itabuzanya gukoresha izina ryayo? (b) Ni gute kandi ni ryari kubuzanya gukoresha izina ry’Imana byaje kuba bimwe mu biranga idini rya Kiyahudi?

 6 Ariko se amategeko cumi ntabuzanya kuvuga izina ry’Imana? Ashwi da! Nubwo uko ari ko benshi bagiye basobanura itegeko rya gatatu, ariko ni ngombwa kuzirikana icyo igitabo cyitwa Encyclopaedia Judaica kibivugaho muri aya magambo ngo “kwirinda kuvuga izina YHWH . . . byatewe no kudasobanukirwa neza Itegeko rya gatatu (Kuva 20:7; Gutegeka 5:11); bakumva ko ryaba rishaka kuvuga ngo ‘ntukavugire ubusa izina rya YHWH Imana yawe,’ kandi mu by’ukuri rishaka kuvuga ngo ‘ntukarahire ibinyoma mu izina rya YHWH Imana yawe.’”5 Zirikana ko uwo murongo utabuzanya ‘gufata’ cyangwa se kuvuga izina ry’Imana. Ariko kandi, n’iyo waba ushaka kuvuga ngo kuvugira “ubusa” izina ry’Imana, ni ngombwa kuzirikana icyo inkoranya y’Igiheburayo yanditswe na Koehler hamwe na Baumgartner ivuga ku ijambo ry’Igiheburayo ryahinduwemo “ubusa” (mu Giheburayo, lash·shawʹʼ): “guhamagara izina nta mpamvu . . . gukoresha izina mu buryo butari bwo.”6 Ku bw’ibyo rero, iri tegeko ntiribuzanya gukoresha izina ry’Imana, ahubwo ribuzanya kurikoresha mu buryo butari bwo.

7 Ariko se bimeze bite ku bihereranye n’igitekerezo cy’uko izina ry’Imana ari “iryera cyane ku buryo ritagomba kuvugwa?” None se ntibyumvikana neza ko iyo Imana iza kubona ko izina ryayo ari iryera cyane ku buryo abantu badashobora kurivuga, iba yararetse no kwirirwa iribahishurira kuva kera hose? Kuba rero mu nyandiko z’umwimerere z’Ibyanditswe bya Giheburayo, izina bwite ry’Imana rigaragara incuro zisaga 6.800 birerekana ko yashakaga ko abantu bayimenya kandi ko bakoresha izina ryayo. Aho kubuzanya kuvuga iryo zina ryayo ngo aha batarizirura, incuro nyinshi Imana yagiye yibutsa ndetse ikanategeka ubwoko bwayo gukoresha izina ryayo kandi bukanarimenyekanisha. Icyo gikorwa cyagombaga kuba igihamya cy’uko bafitanye imishyikirano ya bugufi na yo, kandi ko banayikunda (Zaburi 91:14). Ku bihereranye n’iki kibazo, umuhanuzi Yesaya yagaragaje mu buryo butaziguye ubushake bw’Imana muri aya magambo ngo “nimushime Uwiteka, mwambaze izina rye, mwamamaze imirimo ye mu mahanga, muvuge yuko izina rye rishyizwe hejuru.”—Yesaya 12:4. Reba nanone Mika 4:5; Malaki 3:16; Zaburi 79:6; 105:1; Imigani 18:10.

8 Iyo Imana iza kuba idashaka ko abantu bajya bavuga izina ryayo, iba yarabibabujije mu buryo butaziguye. Nyamara, nta hantu na hamwe muri Bibiliya habuzanya gukoresha cyangwa kuvuga izina ryayo. Abantu b’indahemuka bo mu bihe bya Bibiliya bagiye bakoresha izina ryayo mu bwisanzure (Itangiriro 12:8, NW; Rusi 2:4; 4:11, 14, NW; [Yesaya 12:2; Habakuki 3:19]). Koko rero, incuro nyinshi Imana yagiye yamaganira kure abantu bose bashakaga guhuza ubwoko bwayo izina ryayo ryera.—Yeremiya 23:26, 27; Zaburi 44:20, 21NW.

9 Ariko se, uwo muziririzo waje ute mu mitekerereze y’Abayahudi, kandi byari bizwi neza ko ari nta ho wari ushingiye muri Bibiliya? Ibisobanuro bya Dr. A. Cohen, rabi (intiti mu mategeko ya Kiyahudi) akaba n’umwanditsi w’igitabo Everyman’s Talmud, bigaragaza ko imigenzo y’abantu yakomeje kugenda yimirizwa imbere mu gihe cy’ibinyejana byinshi. Dr. Cohen yanditse agira ati “mu gihe cya Bibiliya, biragaragara ko kitaziraga kurikoresha mu biganiro bya buri munsi. Kuba ku mazina bwite y’abantu haragiye hongerwaho amagambo Yah cyangwa Yahu, kandi ibyo bigakomezwa mu Bayahudi ndetse na nyuma yo kuva mu bucakara bw’i Babuloni, ni igihamya cy’uko nta miziririzo yariho ku bihereranye no gukoresha iryo zina rigizwe n’inyuguti enye. Ariko, mu mizo ya mbere y’igihe cya ba rabi, barivugaga gusa iyo babaga bari mu mirimo yo mu rusengero.”  Ku bihereranye n’uko byaje kugenda muri iki gihe, aragira ati “mu mwanya wa YHVH, iryo zina bagiye baryita Adonai (Mwami wanjye) mu mirimo yo mu masinagogi; icyakora hari umugenzo wasabaga ko inararibonye zajya zigisha abigishwa bazo iby’imivugire ya kera y’umwimerere y’iryo zina uko igihe gihise—nka rimwe cyangwa kabiri mu myaka irindwi (Kiddushin 71a). Ibyo na byo byaje kugera aho bihagarara, ku buryo ubu imivugire nyayo y’iryo zina itazwi neza.”7 Iyo ni yo yabaye ingaruka y’“itegeko ry’abantu.”—Yesaya 29:13; Gutegeka 4:2; reba igice kivuga ngo “Mbese Bibiliya yahumetswe n’Imana?,” paragarafu ya 15 n’iya 16.

Ibyo abitirirwa iryo zina basabwa

10-14. (a) Ni iki Imana isaba abantu bitirirwa izina ryayo? (b) Ni ubuhe buryo bwo kutagira icyo abantu biyandurisha, Imana isaba abashaka kuyishimisha? (c) Ni ikihe kintu cya gipagani cy’abanyamahanga cyagize ingaruka ku idini rya Kiyahudi mu buryo bwimbitse?

10 Birumvikana rwose ko kumenya gusa izina ry’Imana ndetse no kurikoresha bidahagije kugira ngo umuntu abe ashimisha Imana koko. Kwitirirwa izina ry’Imana no kuba umwe mu bayisenga ni igikundiro cyihariye, nk’uko umuhanuzi Yeremiya yabivuze muri aya magambo ngo “amagambo yawe amaze kuboneka, ndayarya, maze ambera umunezero n’ibyishimo byo mu mutima wanjye: kuko nitiriwe izina ryawe” (Yeremiya 15:16). Icyakora, icyo gikundiro gikomeye kijyana n’inshingano iremereye. Yehova yabwiye abami b’Abanyamahanga aya magambo atsindagirije ngo “dore, umurwa witiriwe izina ryanjye [ni] wo ntangiriraho kugirira nabi” (Yeremiya 25:29). Igihe Yehova yavanaga ishyanga rya Isirayeli mu bunyage bw’imyaka 70 bw’i Babuloni, yari yarabimenyesheje kera ubwoko bwe binyuriye ku muhanuzi Yesaya muri aya magambo ngo “nimugende, nimugende musohokemo; ntimukore ku kintu cyose gihumanye; muve muri Babuloni hagati; yemwe bahetsi baheka ibintu by’Uwiteka [יהוה]” (Yesaya 52:11)! Muri iki gihe se, kuba abayoboke b’ukuri b’Imana, abitirirwa izina ry’Imana yera cyane, Yehova, batagomba kugira ikintu gihumanye biyandurisha, birashaka kuvuga iki?

11 Nta gushidikanya ko umuntu wifuza gushimisha Imana mu iyobokamana rye yagombye kugira imyifatire itanduye, akubahiriza cyane cyane amahame mbwirizamuco yashyizweho n’Imana ubwayo. Ibinyuranye n’ibintu by’ubwiyandarike biranga ab’ubu, nta hantu na hamwe mu Byanditswe hatera gushidikanya cyangwa se nibura haba hagaragara nk’akantu k’ubusabusa abantu baheraho basobanura ibintu uko babonye ku bihereranye no kuba Imana iciraho iteka kubeshya, kwiba, gusambana, guheheta, kwendana kw’abahuje ibitsina, kwica, kimwe n’ubundi buryo bwose bw’ubuhenebere (Kuva 20:12-16; 23:1, 2; Abalewi 5:1; 19:35, 36; 20:13). Ibyanditswe ntibiciraho iteka ibikorwa bibi gusa, ahubwo binaciraho iteka imitekerereze ifutamye itera abantu kugira imyifatire itaboneye.—Kuva 20:17; Abalewi 19:17; Zaburi 14:1-5; Yobu 31:1, 9-11.

12 Uretse kutandura mu by’umuco, no kutandura mu birebana n’iby’idini na byo ni ngombwa ku bantu bitirirwa izina ry’Imana. Incuro nyinshi, Yehova yagiye aburira ishyanga rya Isirayeli ya kera kwirinda imitekerereze ya kidini, ibikorwa, n’imigenzo by’amahanga yari abagose, kuko yasengaga izindi mana. Koko rero, ikintu cyonyine cyajyaga kubafasha kudakurikiza iyobokamana ry’ibinyoma ry’abo banyamahanga, cyari uko bahama mu Gihugu cy’Isezerano (Abalewi 18:24-30; Gutegeka 12:29-31). Si ugusenga ibigirwamana konyine kwari kubuzanyijwe mu buryo bweruye, ahubwo n’ibikorwa byose n’imyizerere bijyana n’imiziririzo, nko kuragurisha inyenyeri, ubupfumu, gushikisha, ikinamayobera, no guterekera, byari ikizira.—Kuva 20:3-5; 22:18; Abalewi 20:27; Gutegeka 18:9-13; Yesaya 8:19, 20; 47:13; Yeremiya 10:2.

 13 Ikintu gifitanye isano rya bugufi no kutandura ko mu buryo bw’idini, ni ukutandura kw’inyigisho zaryo. Umuburo wahawe Isirayeli wo kutigana imyifatire n’ugusenga kw’amahanga yari ayikikije ntiwarebaga gusa igihe iryo shyanga ryari rimaze guhindura igihugu cy’Abanyakanaani. Yehova yari yarahishuriye ubwoko bwe ukuri guhereranye n’idini. Ni bo bonyine basengaga Imana y’ukuri Yehova (Kuva 19:5, 6; Gutegeka 4:32-37; Zaburi 147:19, 20). Ni bo bonyine bari bazi iyo Mana mu buryo bwa bwite, kandi kubera ko bari abahamya bayo, ni bo bari bafite ubushobozi bwo kuba babwira abandi ibyayo (Yesaya 43:9-12; Zaburi 105:1). Ibinyuranye n’ibyo, imihango n’imigenzo y’idini yakorwaga n’andi mahanga yagaragazaga mu buryo bwose ko yari abuze ubumenyi buhereranye n’Imana.—Yesaya 60:2.

Iyi mbuga y’isinagogi ya kera y’i Tiberia, muri Isirayeli, ni urugero rumwe gusa rw’ukuntu imyigishirize n’umuco by’Abagiriki byagize ingaruka ku idini ya Kiyahudi mu buryo bwagutse cyane. Reba ibi bimenyetso bimwe by’ikirere (zodiaque) n’amazina yabyo yanditse mu Giheburayo. Ishusho iri hagati ni imana y’izuba Helios

14 Nubwo mu mizo ya mbere byari bimeze neza, incuro nyinshi Isirayeli yagiye yinjirwa n’ibitekerezo byo mu rwego rw’idini biturutse mu yandi mahanga (Abacamanza 2:11-13; 1 Abami 18:21; Yeremiya 2:11-13; Ezekiyeli 8:14-18). Niba mu nyigisho za Kiyahudi harasigayemo ibisigisigi by’imico yo muri Kanaani na Babuloni, ikintu gikomeye cyane izo nyigisho za Kiyahudi zagombye guhangana na cyo cyaje kugaragara ku ngoma y’Abagiriki, mu gihe abantu bahatirwaga kwiga imico y’Abagiriki. * Umwanditsi w’Umuyahudi witwa Max Dimont yagize icyo avuga kuri icyo gihe kirekire cyaranzwe no kwiganza k’umuco w’Abagiriki, kuva mu kinyejana cya kane Mbere ya Yesu kugeza mu binyejana bya vuba aha muri iki gihe cyacu, muri aya magambo ngo “bifashishije ibitekerezo bya Platon, inyurabwenge rya Aristote, na siyansi yigishwaga na Euclide, intiti z’Abayahudi zasuzumye Torah zitwaje izindi ntwaro nshyashya. . . . Bongereye  imitekerereze ya Kigiriki ku ihishurwa rya Kiyahudi.”

Mbese umuntu afite ubugingo budapfa?

15-17. (a) Ni iki Bibiliya yigisha ku bihereranye n’urupfu kimwe n’ubugingo? (Reba ibiri mu gasanduku gafite umutwe uvuga ngo “ Urupfu n’ubugingo—Ni iki?”) (b) Ni ibihe byiringiro Bibiliya iha abantu bapfuye?

15 Mbese haba hari ingaruka yageze ku myigishirize n’imyizerere ya kidini y’Abayahudi muri iki gihe? Igitabo Encyclopaedia Judaica kirabyemera mu buryo butaziguye muri aya magambo ngo “birashoboka rwose ko inyigisho y’ukudapfa k’ubugingo yaba yarakomotse ku Bagiriki maze ikamamara mu idini y’Abayahudi.”8 Ibyanditswe bya Giheburayo byigisha mu buryo bworoshye kandi bwumvikana neza ko mbere na mbere Imana yari ifitiye abantu umugambi wo kubaho iteka kuri iyi si batunganye. (Reba igice kivuga ngo “Ni uwuhe mugambi Imana ifitiye isi?,” paragarafu ya 2 kugeza ku ya 4.) Mu Itangiriro 2:7 dusoma ngo “Uwiteka Imana irema umuntu mu mukungugu wo hasi, imuhumekera mu mazuru umwuka w’ubugingo; umuntu ahinduka ubugingo buzima.” Zirikana ko muri uyu murongo bitavugwa ko umuntu yahawe ubugingo, ahubwo ngo yahindutse ubugingo. Kubera kutumvira, akigomeka ku Mana, umuntu wa mbere Adamu yakatiwe urwo gupfa. Ku bw’ibyo rero, Adamu, wari ubugingo, yarapfuye. Nta gice cyamuvuyemo cyaba gifite ahandi hantu kiba. Bityo rero, igitekerezo cy’ukudapfa k’ubugingo ntabwo ari inyigisho ya Bibiliya. * Bibiliya ivuga yeruye iti “ubugingo bukora icyaha ni bwo buzapfa.”—Ezekiyeli 18:4.

16 Ibyo Ibyanditswe bigaragaza ku bihereranye n’imimerere y’abapfuye bihuje neza n’inyigisho ya Bibiliya ivuga ko ubugingo bupfa. Mu Mubwiriza igice cya 9, umurongo wa 5 n’uwa 10, dusoma ngo “abazima bazi ko bazapfa: ariko abapfuye bo nta cyo bakizi . . . kuko ikuzimu [imva isanzwe y’abantu bose] aho uzajya nta mirimo, nta n’imigambi uzahabona, haba no kumenya cyangwa ubwenge.” (Gereranya na Zaburi 146:3, 4.) Urupfu ni igihano Imana yahaye abantu (Itangiriro 2:17). Urupfu ni ikinyuranye n’ubuzima, ntabwo ari ubundi buryo bw’ubuzima. Ubwo bimeze bityo rero, ntitwagombye gutangazwa no kumva ko nta hantu na hamwe mu Byanditswe havuga iby’igihano cyo mu muriro utazima (geh hin·nomʹ). Icyo na cyo ni igitekerezo gikomoka ku icurabwenge rya Kigiriki n’inyigisho za gipagani. Ku bihereranye n’imyizerere y’amayobera y’Abayahudi ivuga ko ngo nyuma yo gupfa ubugingo bwaba bwimukira mu wundi muntu, igitabo The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia kiragira kiti “birashoboka ko icyo gitekerezo cyaba cyarakomotse mu Buhindi. . . . Muri Kabbalah [ibitabo by’amayobera by’idini ya Kiyahudi] icyo gitekerezo kigaragara mbere na mbere mu gitabo Bahir, hanyuma nanone, uhereye muri Zohar gukomeza, cyari gihuriweho n’abantu benshi cyane bashyigikiraga iby’amayobera, kikagira n’uruhare rukomeye cyane mu myizerere no mu nyandiko zifitanye isano n’amayobera ya Kiyahudi.”9

17 Kubera ko urupfu ari ikinyuranye n’ubuzima kandi ubugingo bukaba nta handi hantu bujya nyuma y’urupfu, ni ibihe byiringiro abantu bapfuye baba bafite? Ijambo ry’Imana ryigisha mu buryo bweruye ko abantu nibamara gusubizwa mu mimerere ya paradizo hano ku isi, babikesheje Umwami wa Kimesiya washyizweho n’Imana, abenshi mu bapfuye bazasubizwa ubuzima bwabo. Iyo nyigisho ya Bibiliya bakunda kuyita ‘umuzuko w’abapfuye.’ Abo bazazuka ntabwo bazaba bagizwe gusa n’abakoreye Imana mu budahemuka, ahubwo bazaba barimo na za miriyoni nyinshi, ndetse na za miriyari z’abantu batigeze babona uburyo buhagije bwo kwiga ibihereranye na yo no kuyikorera mu kuri.—Daniyeli 12:2, 12 (13NW, JP); Yesaya 26:19; Yobu 14:14, 15.

18, 19. Kuki umuntu yagombye kwihatira kumenya Imana y’ukuri, kandi se, yabigeraho ate?

 18 Mbese, ibyo byiringiro Bibiliya itanga by’uko abantu bazazuka bakabona ubuzima butunganye si inkunga ikomeye cyane ishobora gutera abantu bo mu mahanga yose gushakashaka no kwihatira kumenya Imana y’ukuri? Ariko se ni hehe dushobora kubona isoko nyakuri y’ubumenyi buturuka kuri Yehova muri iyi minsi y’imperuka, nk’uko bivugwa muri Yesaya 2:2, 3? Ni nde ushobora kuyobora abantu mu nzira za Yehova, kugira ngo “[ba]zigenderemo”? Mbese amadini ya Kiyahudi cyangwa ya Kristendomu ashobora gutanga bene izo nyigisho, dukurikije ibyo Bibiliya ivuga kuri icyo kibazo?

19 Dukurikije ibyo ubuhanuzi buvuga, hagombaga kubaho ubwoko bwitirirwa izina rya Yehova mu buryo butanduye, kandi bukanakomatanya inshingano zo kuba Abahamya n’isoko y’umucyo wo mu buryo bw’umwuka umurikira amahanga yose.—Yesaya 60:2, 3.

^ par. 1 Iyo umuntu asomye ibihereranye n’ubwo buhanuzi yihitira gusa yakwibwira ko mu minsi y’imperuka, abantu benshi cyane bari kuyoboka idini ya Kiyahudi. Nyamara, interuro rusange ubwayo, kimwe n’ibintu biriho ubu, byerekana ko uko atari ko bimeze. Ikiganiro tugirana kuri iki gice hamwe n’igikurikiyeho biradufasha nanone gusobanukirwa impamvu tugeze kuri uwo mwanzuro.

^ par. 14 Kuva ku ngoma ya Alekizanderi Mukuru (mu wa 336-323 Mbere ya Yesu) Abagiriki bakusanyije ingufu zabo kugira ngo bakwirakwize hose icurabwenge ryabo, umuco wabo, n’ururimi rwabo mu bihugu byose byari bigize ubwami bw’Ubugiriki. Ibihugu byakurikizaga umuco n’ibitekerezo bya Kigiriki byafatwaga nk’aho ari iby’Abagiriki. Iyo mihati yo gushaka guhuza indi mico n’uw’Abagiriki yarakomeje no ku ngoma y’Abaroma, nubwo bari barigaruriye Ubugiriki, ariko bakomeje gushimishwa no gukurikiza umuco wabo n’icurabwenge ryabo. Ndetse no mu bantu benshi bakunze kurwanya ku mugaragaro icyo cyuka cyo gukurikiza iby’Abagiriki, byakunze kujya bigaragara neza ko na bo ubwabo bakurikiza ibitekerezo by’icurabwenge by’Abagiriki, imitekerereze yabo, n’imyigishirize yabo.

^ par. 15 Mu Giheburayo cya Bibiliya, ijambo ryahinduwemo “ubugingo” ni neʹphesh. Nyamara, mu idini ya Kiyahudi yo muri iki gihe, ijambo ry’Igiheburayo nesha·mahʹ incuro nyinshi rifatwa nk’aho ari igice cy’umuntu gikomeza kubaho nyuma yo gupfa. Ariko, iyo umuntu asuzumye Ibyanditswe yitonze asanga iryo jambo nesha·mahʹ ritarigeze rigira ubwo risobanurwa gutyo; ryerekezwa gusa ku bihereranye no guhumeka cyangwa ku biremwa bihumeka, umuntu cyangwa inyamaswa.—Itangiriro 7:22; Gutegeka 20:16; Yosuwa 10:39, 40; 11:11; Yesaya 2:22.