Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Ese ubuzima bwabayeho biturutse ku irema?

Ni nde wabihanze mbere?

Ni nde wabihanze mbere?

Mu myaka ya vuba aha, abahanga mu bya siyansi n’inzobere mu bushakashatsi, bize ibintu byinshi bahereye ku bimera n’inyamaswa (Yobu 12:7, 8). Biga imiterere y’ibyaremwe bitandukanye bakanayigana, bashaka gukora ibintu bishya cyangwa se bashaka kunonosora ibyo bamaze gukora. Mu gihe uri bube usuzuma ingero zikurikira, wibaze uti ‘ni nde ukwiriye gushimirwa imiterere ihambaye y’ibyo bintu byose?’

 Icyo bigiye ku byubi by’ifi yitwa balene

Ni iki abakora indege bigira kuri balene ifite ipfupfu? Uko bigaragara bayigiraho byinshi. Iyo balene ifite ipfupfu imaze kuba nkuru, ishobora gupima nka toni 30, uburemere bungana n’ubw’ikamyo nini ipakiye. Iyo fi ifite igihimba kidapfa kwihina n’ibyubi binini cyane bijya kumera nk’amababa. Icyo gisimba gifite metero 12 z’uburebure, iyo kiri mu mazi kiranyaruka.

Ikintu cyatangaje cyane abashakashatsi ku birebana n’iyo fi ifite igihimba kidapfa kwihina, ni ukuntu ishobora gukatira ahantu hato cyane. Baje kuvumbura ko ibanga ry’iyo balene ryihishe mu miterere y’ibyubi byayo. Ku byubi byayo ahagana imbere, ntihaba hasennye neza nko ku ibaba ry’indege. Ahubwo haba hari ibintu bishinyitse nk’amenyo, bibyimbye nk’amashyundu kandi biri ku murongo.

Uko iyo balene yogoga mu mazi, ibyo bishyundu biyongerera imbaraga bigatuma amazi atayiganza. Ibyo bikorwa bite? Hari ikinyamakuru cyasobanuye ko ibyo bishyundu bituma amazi anyerera ku byubi afite umuvuduko mwinshi kandi yikaraga, ndetse n’igihe iyo fi yaba yoga iva mu mazi hasi izamuka hejuru.—Natural History.10

Ni nde wahanze ibinyabuzima?

Ni ibihe bintu abantu bashobora gukora bahereye kuri ibyo byavumbuwe? Baramutse biganye imiterere y’ibyubi by’iyo balene, amababa y’indege bakora yakenera gusa utwuma duke bashyira ku mababa y’indege tuyifasha gukata mu kirere, cyangwa utundi twuma dufasha amababa yayo kunyerera mu muyaga. Ayo mababa yakora neza cyane kandi kuyitaho kugira ngo akomeze gukora neza ntibyagorana. John Long, inzobere mu kwiga imiterere y’ibinyabuzima no kuyigana, yemera ko mu gihe kitarambiranye “ku mababa y’indege nini zose zitwara abagenzi, hazaba hariho ibintu bimeze nk’amashyundu bisa n’ibiri ku byubi bya balene ifite ipfupfu.”11

Biganye amababa y’inyoni yo mu bwoko bw’inkurakura

Nk’uko tubizi, kugira ngo bakore amababa y’indege, biganye imiterere y’amababa y’inyoni. Icyakora abashakashatsi baherutse gutera indi ntambwe mu kwigana imiterere y’amababa y’inyoni. Ikinyamakuru cyandika ibihereranye na siyansi cyavuze ko “abashakashatsi bo muri Kaminuza ya Floride, bakoze akadege gato kaguruka nta muderevu urimo, gafite ubushobozi nk’ubw’iyo nyoni bwo guhagarara hamwe mu kirere, kumanuka gacuramye no kuzamuka nk’umwambi.”—New Scientist.12

 Izo nyoni zishobora kuguruka mu kirere mu buryo budasanzwe, kubera ko zishobora guhinira amababa yazo mu nkokora ndetse n’aho atereye. Icyo kinyamakuru kivuga ko biganye imiterere y’ayo mababa, bagakora “ako kadege katagira umuderevu gafite uburebure bwa santimetero 60, n’akamoteri gato gakoresha utwuma dutuma amababa yihina cyangwa akirambura.” Ayo mababa akoranywe ubuhanga atuma ako kadege gashobora guhagarara hamwe mu kirere, kakaba kanamanuka gacuramye hagati y’amagorofa maremare. Abasirikare bashishikajwe no gukora indege zishobora kuguruka muri ubwo buryo, kugira ngo bajye bazikoresha bashakisha intwaro z’ubumara mu migi minini.

Biganye imiterere y’amaguru y’inyoni yo mu bwoko bw’inkurakura

Nubwo iyo nyoni yaba ihagaze kuri barafu, ntikonja ngo igagare. Iyo nyoni ibigenza ite kugira ngo ikomeze kugira ubushyuhe? Kimwe mu bituma ibigeraho, ni ikintu gitangaje ihuriyeho n’izindi nyamaswa ziba mu turere dukonja.

Ubushyuhe buguma mu mubiri. Ubukonje buguma mu birenge

Kugira ngo tubisobanukirwe, reka dufate urugero rw’amatiyo abiri y’amazi, ahambiranyije. Mu itiyo imwe hanyuramo amazi ashyushye, mu yindi hakanyuramo amazi akonje. Ayo mazi ashyushye n’akonje yose aramutse atembye agana mu cyerekezo kimwe, hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’ubushyuhe bw’amazi ashyushye cyajya mu mazi akonje. Ariko ayo mazi aramutse atemba agana mu byerekezo binyuranye, ubushyuhe bw’ayo mazi ashyushye hafi ya bwose bwajya mu mazi akonje.

Iyo iyo nyoni ihagaze kuri barafu, imiyoboro y’amaraso yo mu maguru yayo ishyushya amaraso azamuka ava mu majanja yayo akonje. Iyo miyoboro ituma iyo nyoni igumana ubushyuhe mu mubiri kandi igatuma amajanja yayo agumana ubushyuhe. Arthur P. Fraas, umuhanga mu miterere n’imikorere y’indege, yavuze ko imiterere y’amaguru y’iyo nyoni ari “bumwe mu buryo bwiza cyane bwo guhererekanya ubushyuhe, buruta ubundi bwose ku isi.”13 Imiterere y’amaguru y’iyo nyoni irimo ubuhanga bwinshi cyane ku buryo abahanga babwiganye.

 Ni nde mu by’ukuri wabihanze?

Iyi ni imodoka ishobora kuzakorwa bahereye ku miterere y’iyi fi ifite ubushobozi bwihariye bwo kunyerera mu mazi

Muri iki gihe, ikigo cya Amerika gikora ubushakashatsi ku birebana n’ikirere n’ibyogajuru (NASA), kirimo kirakora robo ifite amaguru menshi, igenda nka sikorupiyo. Impuguke zo muri Finilande zakoze imashini ifite amaguru atandatu, ishobora kurira ibintu nk’inigwahabiri nini cyane. Abandi bashakashatsi bakoze umwenda ufite utuntu duto tumeze nk’amagaragamba twibumbura kandi tukibumba nk’urubuto rwa pinusi. Uwo mwenda uhuza n’ubushyuhe bw’umubiri w’uwambaye. Hari umuhanga mu gukora imodoka urimo akora imodoka iteye nk’ifi (poisson-coffre) ifite ubushobozi bwihariye bwo kunyerera mu mazi. Abandi bashakashatsi barimo bariga imiterere y’igikonoshwa kidapfa kumeneka cy’ikinyamunjonjorerwa (ormeau); bagamije gukora umwenda ukomeye cyane, udatoborwa n’isasu ariko utaremereye.

Uburyo izi fi zikoresha zitumanaho buruta ubwo abantu bakoze babwigana

Ibinyabuzima byafashije abashakashatsi gutekereza kuri byinshi, ku buryo bakoze urutonde rw’ibintu bibarirwa mu bihumbi bashobora kubyigiraho. Hari ikinyamakuru cyavuze ko abahanga mu bya siyansi bashobora kwifashisha urwo rutonde kugira ngo babone “umuti w’ibibazo bya tekiniki, bahereye ku binyabuzima” (The Economist). Ibikubiye muri urwo rutonde rw’ibintu bashobora kwigira ku binyabuzima babyita ‘ibihangano by’ibinyabuzima.’ Ubusanzwe umuhanzi ni umuntu cyangwa ikigo kiba cyarazanye igitekerezo gishya cyangwa kigakora imashini nshya. Icyo kinyamakuru cyavuze ibirebana n’urwo rutonde rw’ibintu abantu bashobora kwigira ku bihangano nyabuzima, cyagize kiti “iyo abashakashatsi bakoze ibintu bahereye ku binyabuzima hanyuma bakabyita ‘ibihangano bishingiye ku miterere y’ibinyabuzima,’ baba bagaragaza ko ibyo binyabuzima bifite aho bikomoka.”14

Abahanga mu bya siyansi barimo barakora ubushakashatsi ku miterere y’igikonoshwa kidapfa kumeneka cy’ikinyamunjonjorerwa (ormeau)

Ese byagenze bite kugira ngo mu binyabuzima habemo ibintu nk’ibyo bikoranywe ubuhanga? Abashakashatsi benshi bashobora kuvuga ko ubwo buhanga bugaragara mu miterere y’ibinyabuzima, bwaturutse ku bwihindurize bwabayeho mu buryo bw’impanuka, mu gihe cy’imyaka ibarirwa muri za miriyoni ishize. Abandi bashakashatsi bo bageze ku mwanzuro utandukanye n’uwo. Michael J. Behe, umuhanga mu by’imiterere y’ibinyabuzima, yanditse mu kinyamakuru cyasohotse ku itariki ya 7 Gashyantare 2005 agira ati “kuba hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko ibinyabuzima bifite  uwabihanze, byagombye gutuma buri wese agera kuri uyu mwanzuro: niba hari ibihamya bihagije kandi bigaragara, nta bindi bihamya bikenewe.” Yashakaga kuvuga iki? Yongeyeho ati “niba ikintu runaka kigaragaza ko hari uwagihanze, ibyo bintu ntibyagombye kwirengagizwa.”—The New York Times.15

Umuserebanya ushobora gufata ahantu hasennye cyane bitewe n’imbaraga rukuruzi ziri mu turemangingo twawo

Umuhanga wakora ibaba ry’indege ryiza kandi rikora neza, ni we uba ukwiriye kwitirirwa icyo gihangano cye. Nanone umuntu wakora ubwoko bw’umwenda mwiza cyangwa agakora imodoka ikora neza cyane kurusha izindi, na we akwiriye kubyitirirwa. Ariko kandi, umuntu wakora ikintu yigana icyo undi yakoze, maze ntagaragaze ko yagikopeye ku wagikoze, uwo muntu yaba akwiriye guhanwa n’amategeko.

Noneho zirikana ibi: abashakashatsi b’inzobere bagerageza kwigana imiterere y’ibinyabuzima kugira ngo bakemure ibibazo bikomeye byo mu rwego rwa tekiniki. Nyamara usanga bamwe bavuga ko ubwo buhanga bugaragara mu binyabuzima, bwaturutse ku bwihindurize bwapfuye kubaho gutya gusa. Ese wowe urumva ibyo bintu bishyize mu gaciro? Niba kwigana ikintu runaka bikorwa n’umuhanga, ubwo guhanga icy’umwimerere byo biba byarasabye iki? Mu by’ukuri se, nyir’uguhanga icyo kintu aba ari nde? Ni uwiganye icyo gihangano, cyangwa ni umuhanga wagihanze mbere?

Umwanzuro ushyize mu gaciro

Iyo abantu benshi bashyira mu gaciro bamaze kwibonera ko hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko ibinyabuzima bifite uwabihanze, bunga mu rya Pawulo, umwe mu banditsi ba Bibiliya, wagize ati ‘imico itaboneka y’Imana, ari yo bubasha bwayo bw’iteka n’Ubumana bwayo, igaragara neza kuva isi yaremwa, kuko igaragarira mu byaremwe.’—Abaroma 1:19, 20.