Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Imfashanyigisho y'Ijambo ry'Imana

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Izina ry’Imana mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo

Izina ry’Imana mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo

Abahanga mu bya Bibiliya bemera ko izina bwite ry’Imana rigaragazwa n’inyuguti enye bakunze kwita Tetaragaramu (יהוה), riboneka incuro zigera hafi ku 7.000 mu mwandiko w’umwimerere w’Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo. Icyakora, abenshi bumva ko ritabonekaga mu mwandiko w’umwimerere w’Ibyanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo. Ni yo mpamvu Bibiliya nyinshi zo muri iki gihe zidakoresha izina Yehova mu cyo bakunze kwita Isezerano rishya. N’iyo abahinduzi bahindura amagambo yavanywe mu Byanditswe by’igiheburayo abonekamo iyo Tetaragaramu, abenshi bakoresha “Umwami” aho gukoresha izina bwite ry’Imana.

Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya yo ntikurikiza ubwo buryo bukoreshwa na benshi. Ikoresha izina Yehova incuro 237 mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo. Abahinduye iyo Bibiliya bafashe uwo mwanzuro bashingiye ku bintu bibiri by’ingenzi: (1) Inyandiko zandikishijwe intoki dufite muri iki gihe, si umwimerere. Kopi zibarirwa mu bihumbi ziboneka muri iki gihe, hafi ya zose zanditswe nyuma y’imyaka igera nibura kuri magana abiri kopi z’umwimerere zanditswe. (2) Icyo gihe abandukuye izo nyandiko bavanyemo ya Tetaragaramu, bayisimbuza ijambo ry’ikigiriki Kyʹri·os, rivuga “Umwami,” cyangwa bazandukura bahereye ku nyandiko iyo Tetaragaramu yari yaramaze kuvanwamo.

Komite yahinduye Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya yagaragaje ko hari ibimenyetso bifatika byemeza ko Tetaragaramu yabonekaga mu nyandiko z’umwimerere z’ikigiriki. Uwo mwanzuro ushingiye ku bimenyetso bikurikira:

  • Kopi z’Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo zakoreshwaga mu gihe cya Yesu n’abigishwa be zarimo Tetaragaramu. Kera hari abantu bake babihakanaga. Ariko aho kopi z’Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo zo mu kinyejana cya mbere zivumburiwe hafi y’i Qumran, impaka zahise zishirira aho.

  • Mu gihe cya Yesu n’intumwa ze, Tetaragaramu yabonekaga mu nyandiko z’Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo zahinduwe mu kigiriki. Mu gihe cy’ibinyejana byinshi, abahanga batekerezaga ko Tetaragaramu itabonekaga muri Bibiliya y’Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo ihinduye mu kigiriki yitwa Septante. Nyuma yaho, mu kinyejana cya 20 rwagati, abahanga basuzumye bimwe mu bice bya kera cyane by’iyo Bibiliya y’ikigiriki yitwa Septante byariho no mu gihe cya Yesu. Basanze ibyo bice bibonekamo izina bwite ry’Imana, ryanditswe  mu nyuguti z’igiheburayo. Ibyo bigaragaza ko mu gihe cya Yesu, kopi z’Ibyanditswe zo mu kigiriki zabonekagamo izina ry’Imana. Icyakora mu kinyejana cya kane, inyandiko nyinshi zandikishijwe intoki za Septante, urugero nka Kodegisi Vaticanus na Kodegisi Sinaiticus, ntizarimo izina ry’Imana kuva mu Ntangiriro kugeza muri Malaki (aho ryari risanzwe riri mu mwandiko wa kera wandikishijwe intoki). Ni yo mpamvu bidatangaje kuba inyandiko zo muri icyo gihe z’icyo bita Isezerano rishya cyangwa Ibyanditswe by’ikigiriki zitabonekamo izina ry’Imana.

    Yesu yaravuze ati “naje mu izina rya Data.” Nanone yavuze ko imirimo yakoraga, yayikoraga mu ‘izina rya Se.’

  • Ibyanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo bigaragaza ko Yesu yakundaga gukoresha izina ry’Imana kandi ko yarimenyeshaga abandi (Yohana 17:6, 11, 12, 26). Yesu yaravuze ati “naje mu izina rya Data.” Nanone yavuze ko imirimo yakoraga, yayikoraga mu ‘izina rya Se.’—Yohana 5:43; 10:25.

  • Kubera ko Ibyanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo na byo byahumetswe kimwe n’Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo, byo biramutse bitarimo izina rya Yehova byaba bitumvikana. Mu kinyejana cya mbere, umwigishwa Yakobo yabwiye abasaza b’i Yerusalemu ati “Simeyoni yadutekerereje mu buryo burambuye ukuntu ku ncuro ya mbere Imana yitaye ku banyamahanga, kugira ngo ibakuremo ubwoko bwitirirwa izina ryayo” (Ibyakozwe 15:14). Iyo abantu bo mu kinyejana cya mbere baba batazi izina ry’Imana cyangwa batararikoreshaga, Yakobo ntiyari kuvuga ayo magambo.

  • Izina ry’Imana riboneka mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki ryanditswe mu buryo buhinnye. Mu Byahishuwe 19:1, 3, 4, 6, iryo zina riboneka mu ijambo “Haleluya.” Iryo jambo rikomoka ku ijambo ry’igiheburayo, risobanurwa ngo “nimusingize Yah!” “Yah” ni impine y’izina Yehova. Hari amazina menshi yakoreshejwe mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki akomoka ku izina ry’Imana. Koko rero, ibitabo bitandukanye bivuga ko izina rya Yesu ubwaryo risobanurwa ngo “Yehova ni agakiza.”

  • Inyandiko za kera z’Abayahudi zigaragaza ko Abakristo b’Abayahudi bakoreshaga izina ry’Imana mu nyandiko zabo. Hari urutonde rw’amategeko atari yanditse yarangije gukusanywa mu mwaka wa 300 (Tosefta), rwavuze ibirebana n’inyandiko za gikristo zatwikwaga ku Isabato rugira ruti “ntibabura gutwika ibitabo by’ababwirizabutumwa hamwe n’ibitabo bya ba minim [bashobora kuba bari Abakristo b’Abayahudi]. Ariko bemererwa gutwika aho biri hose, kandi bakabitwikana n’Izina ry’Imana ryanditsemo.”  Urwo rutonde rwanasubiyemo amagambo yavuzwe na Rabbi Yosé w’Umunyagalilaya wabayeho mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya kabiri, ruvuga ko ku yindi minsi y’icyumweru “umuntu yakataga [mu nyandiko za gikristo] agace kanditseho Izina ry’Imana akakabika, ibice bisigaye akabitwika.”

  • Zimwe mu ntiti mu bya Bibiliya zemera ko izina ry’Imana ryabonekaga mu mirongo y’Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo yandukuwe mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo. Mu gitabo gisobanura amagambo yo muri Bibiliya, munsi y’agatwe kavuga ngo “Tetaragaramu mu Isezerano rishya,” hagira hati “hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza  ko Tetaragaramu cyangwa izina ry’Imana ari ryo Yahweh, ryabonekaga mu magambo amwe n’amwe cyangwa mu magambo yose yavanywe mu Isezerano rya kera akandukurwa mu Isezerano rishya, igihe ryandikwaga bwa mbere” (The Anchor Bible Dictionary). Umuhanga witwa George Howard yaravuze ati “kubera ko Tetaragaramu yari icyanditse muri kopi za Bibiliya y’ikigiriki [Septante] ari byo Byanditswe byakoreshwaga mu itorero ryo mu kinyejana cya mbere, birakwiriye kwemera ko iyo abanditsi b’Isezerano rishya basubiragamo amagambo yo mu Byanditswe, barekeraga iyo Tetaragaramu muri uwo mwandiko wa Bibiliya.”

  •   Abahinduzi ba Bibiliya bemerwa bakoresheje izina ry’Imana mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo. Bamwe muri abo bahinduzi babigenje batyo na mbere cyane y’uko hasohoka Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya. Dore bamwe muri abo bahinduzi na Bibiliya bahinduye: A Literal Translation of the New Testament . . . From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript, yahinduwe na Herman Heinfetter (1863); The Emphatic Diaglott, yahinduwe na Benjamin Wilson (1864); The Epistles of Paul in Modern English, yahinduwe na George Barker Stevens (1898); St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, yahinduwe na W. G. Rutherford (1900); The New Testament Letters, yahinduwe na J.W.C. Wand, Musenyeri wa Londres (1946). Nanone kandi, muri Bibiliya y’icyesipanyoli yo mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 20, umuhinduzi witwa Pablo Besson yakoresheje izina Jehová muri Luka 2:15 no muri Yuda 14, kandi irimo ibisobanuro bigera hafi ku 100 biri ahagana hasi ku ipaji bigaragaza aho izina ry’Imana ryagombaga gukoreshwa. Kera cyane mbere y’uko izo Bibiliya zihindurwa, Bibiliya z’Ibyanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo zo mu giheburayo zo kuva mu kinyejana cya 16 na nyuma yaho, zakoresheje za nyuguti enye zigize izina ry’Imana mu mirongo myinshi. Mu rurimi rw’ikidage honyine, ubuhinduzi bwa Bibiliya nibura 11 bukoresha izina “Yehova” (cyangwa ubundi buryo bwo kurivuga mu  giheburayo ari bwo “Yahweh”) mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo, mu gihe abahinduzi bane bashyira izina ry’Imana mu dukubo inyuma y’izina “Umwami.” Ubuhinduzi bwa Bibiliya burenga 70 bw’ikidage bukoresha izina ry’Imana mu bisobanuro by’ahagana hasi ku ipaji no mu bindi bisobanuro.

  • Ubuhinduzi bwa Bibiliya bwo mu ndimi zirenga ijana bubonekamo izina ry’Imana mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo. Indimi nyinshi zo muri Afurika, indimi kavukire zo muri Amerika, Aziya, u Burayi n’ibirwa bya Pasifika, zikunda gukoresha izina ry’Imana. (Reba urutonde rw’izo ndimi ku ipaji ya 1742 na 1743.) Impamvu zatumye abahinduye Bibiliya muri izo ndimi bakoresha izina ry’Imana, zisa n’izavuzwe hejuru. Bumwe muri ubwo buhinduzi bw’Ibyanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo bwasohotse vuba aha, ni nka Bibiliya ya Rotuman (1999), ikoresha izina “Jihova” incuro 51 mu mirongo 48, na Bibiliya y’ikibataki yo muri Indoneziya (1989), ikoresha izina “Jahowa” incuro 110.

Izina ry’Imana muri Mariko 12:29, 30 mu buhinduzi bw’igihawayi bwo mu wa 1816

Koko rero hari impamvu zidashidikanywaho zatumye izina ry’Imana Yehova risubizwa mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo. Ibyo ni byo abahinduye Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya bakoze. Bubaha izina ry’Imana mu buryo bwimbitse, kandi birinze kuvana muri Bibiliya ikintu cyose kiboneka mu mwandiko w’umwimerere.—Ibyahishuwe 22:18, 19.