Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Imfashanyigisho y'Ijambo ry'Imana

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Izina ry’Imana mu Byanditswe by’igiheburayo

Izina ry’Imana mu Byanditswe by’igiheburayo

Izina ry’Imana mu nyuguti za kera z’igiheburayo zakoreshwaga mbere y’uko Abisirayeli bajyanwa mu bunyage i Babuloni

Izina ry’Imana mu nyuguti z’igiheburayo zakoreshwaga nyuma y’aho Abisirayeli baviriye mu bunyage i Babuloni

Izina ry’Imana rigaragara incuro zigera hafi ku 7.000 mu Byanditswe by’igiheburayo kandi rigizwe n’inyuguti enye (יהוה). Muri Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya, izo nyuguti enye bakunze kwita Tetaragaramu zihindurwamo ngo “Yehova.” Iryo zina ni ryo riboneka incuro nyinshi cyane muri Bibiliya. Nubwo abanditsi ba Bibiliya bavugaga ibyerekeye Imana bakoresheje amazina menshi y’icyubahiro n’andi magambo, urugero nk’“Ishoborabyose,” “Isumbabyose” n’“Umwami,” iryo zina rigizwe n’inyuguti enye z’igiheburayo ni ryo zina bwite ryonyine bakoresha berekeza ku Mana.

Yehova Imana ubwe ni we wayoboye abanditse Bibiliya kugira ngo bakoreshe izina rye. Urugero, yahumekeye umuhanuzi Yoweli, maze arandika ati “umuntu uzambaza izina rya Yehova azakizwa” (Yoweli 2:32). Nanone Imana yatumye umwanditsi wa Zaburi yandika ati “abantu bamenye ko wowe witwa Yehova, ari wowe wenyine Usumbabyose mu isi yose” (Zaburi 83:18). Koko rero, mu gitabo cya Zaburi honyine izina ry’Imana rigaragaramo incuro zigera kuri 700. Icyo gitabo cyanditswe mu buryo bw’ibisigo byari kuzajya biririmbwa cyangwa bikavugwa mu mutwe n’abari bagize ubwoko bw’Imana. None se kuki hari Bibiliya nyinshi zidakoresha izina ry’Imana? Kuki Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya ikoresha izina “Yehova,” kandi se iryo zina risobanura iki?

Bimwe mu bice bya Zaburi byo mu muzingo wavumbuwe ku Nyanja y’Umunyu wo mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya mbere. Uwo mwandiko wanditse mu nyuguti z’igiheburayo zakoreshwaga nyuma y’aho Abisirayeli baviriye mu bunyage i Babuloni. Ariko iyo Tetaragaramu igaragara henshi yanditswe mu nyuguzi zihariye zo mu giheburayo cya kera

Kuki iryo zina ritaboneka muri Bibiliya nyinshi? Impamvu zibitera ziratandukanye. Bamwe bumva ko atari ngombwa ko Ishoborabyose igira izina ryihariye riyiranga. Abandi bashobora kuba baragendeye ku mugenzo w’Abayahudi ubuzanya gukoresha iryo zina, wenda bitewe no gutinya kuritesha agaciro. Hari n’abatekereza ko ibyiza ari ugukoresha amazina y’icyubahiro, urugero nk’“Umwami” cyangwa “Imana,” bitewe n’uko nta wuzi neza uko ryavugwaga. Icyakora ibyo byose nta shingiro bifite kubera impamvu zikurikira:

  • Abavuga ko atari ngombwa ko Imana Ishoborabyose igira izina ryihariye, birengagiza ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko kopi za mbere  z’Ijambo ryayo, harimo izanditswe mbere ya Kristo kandi zikaba zikiriho na n’ubu, zirimo izina bwite ry’Imana. Nk’uko twigeze kubivuga, Imana yategetse ko izina ryayo rishyirwa mu Ijambo ryayo incuro zigera hafi ku 7.000. Ibyo bigaragaza ko yifuza ko tumenya izina ryayo kandi tukarikoresha.

  • Nanone abahinduzi bakura izina ry’Imana muri Bibiliya bagendeye ku migenzo y’Abayahudi, birengagiza ikintu cy’ingenzi. Nubwo hari abanditsi b’Abayahudi bangaga kuvuga iryo zina, ntibarikuye muri Bibiliya zabo. Urugero, riboneka ahantu henshi mu mizingo ya kera yavumbuwe i Qumran hafi y’Inyanja y’Umunyu. Abahinduzi ba Bibiliya bamwe na bamwe basa nk’aberekana aho izina ry’Imana ryagaragaraga mu mwandiko w’umwimerere, bakarisimbuza izina “UMWAMI” mu nyuguti nkuru. Ariko ikibazo kiracyari cya kindi: kuki abo bantu bihaye uburenganzira bwo gusimbuza izina ry’Imana cyangwa kurikura mu mwandiko wa Bibiliya, kandi bazi neza ko ribonekamo incuro zibarirwa mu bihumbi? Ni nde wabahaye uburenganzira bwo gukora ibintu nk’ibyo? Bo ubwabo ni bo basubiza icyo kibazo.

  • Hari abavuga ko izina ry’Imana ritagombye gukoreshwa bitewe n’uko nta wuzi neza uko rivugwa, nyamara bakarenga bagakoresha izina rya Yesu. Ariko kandi, abigishwa ba Yesu bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bavugaga izina rya Yesu mu buryo butandukanye n’uko Abakristo benshi bo muri iki gihe barivuga. Abakristo b’Abayahudi bashobora kuba baravugaga izina rya Yesu ngo Ye·shuʹa‛. Naho izina “Kristo” ryari Ma·shiʹach, cyangwa “Mesiya.” Abakristo bavugaga ikigiriki bamwitaga I·e·sousʹ Khri·stos naho abavugaga ikilatini bakamwita Ieʹsus Chriʹstus. Imana yahumekeye abanditse Bibiliya, maze bashyiramo izina rya Yesu uko rihindurwa mu kigiriki, ibyo bikaba bigaragaza ko Abakristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bashyize mu gaciro, bagakurikiza uko iryo zina ryari risanzwe rivugwa mu rurimi rwabo. Mu buryo nk’ubwo, Komite yahinduye Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya yabonye ko ari ngombwa gukoresha izina “Yehova,” nubwo atari uko ryavugwaga neza neza mu giheburayo cya kera.

Kuki Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya ikoresha izina “Yehova”? Mu kinyarwanda, ingombajwi enye z’igiheburayo zigize iryo zina (יהוה) ni YHWH. Iyo tetaragaramu nta nyajwi yagiraga nk’uko byari bimeze ku magambo yose y’igiheburayo cya kera. Abantu bakoreshaga ururimi rw’igiheburayo bari bamenyereye gusoma bashyiramo inyajwi zikwiriye.

Nyuma y’imyaka igera ku gihumbi Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo birangije kwandikwa, intiti z’Abayahudi zashyizeho uburyo bwo gukoresha ibimenyetso, byerekana inyajwi zagombye gukoreshwa mu gihe abantu basoma igiheburayo. Icyakora icyo gihe, Abayahudi benshi bari baradukanye umugenzo wo kutavuga izina bwite ry’Imana mu  ijwi riranguruye, bavuga ko kizira. Ni yo mpamvu barisimbuzaga andi mazina. Ku bw’ibyo, birashoboka ko igihe bandukuraga iyo tetaragaramu, bakoresheje inyajwi zo mu mazina bashimbuje izina ry’Imana, maze bakazihuza n’ingombajwi enye zigize iryo zina. Ni yo mpamvu umwandiko wandikishijwe intoki urimo izo nyajwi udashobora kudufasha kumenya uko izina ry’Imana ryavugwaga mu giheburayo. Hari abumva ko iryo zina ryavugwaga ngo “Yahweh,” naho abandi bakarivuga ukundi. Mu muzingo watoraguwe mu Nyanja y’Umunyu urimo igice cy’igitabo cy’Abalewi mu kigiriki, iryo zina ry’Imana rihindurwamo Iao. Uretse ubwo buryo, abanditsi b’Abagiriki bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bavuze ko hakoreshwaga Iae, I·a·beʹ, na I·a·ou·eʹ. Icyakora nta wakwemeza mu buryo budasubirwaho uko ryavugwaga. Muri make ntituzi uko abagaragu b’Imana ba kera bavugaga iryo zina mu giheburayo (Intangiriro 13:4; Kuva 3:15). Ariko icyo tuzi ni uko Imana yakoresheje izina ryayo incuro nyinshi ivugana n’abagaragu bayo, na bo bakayivugisha ari ryo bakoresheje, kandi bakarikoresha bavugana n’abandi.—Kuva 6:2; 1 Abami 8:23; Zaburi 99:9.

None se kuki Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya ikoresha izina “Yehova”? Ni ukubera ko iryo zina ry’Imana ari ryo rimaze igihe rikoreshwa mu kinyarwanda.

Izina ry’Imana mu Ntangiriro 15:2 mu bitabo bitanu bya mbere bya Bibiliya byahinduwe na William Tyndale, mu wa 1530

Izina ry’Imana ryabonetse bwa mbere muri Bibiliya y’icyongereza yasohotse mu wa 1530, mu bitabo bitanu bya mbere bya Bibiliya byahinduwe na William Tyndale. Icyo gihe yakoresheje izina “Iehouah.” Nyuma y’igihe, ururimi rw’icyongereza rwarahindutse, maze uburyo bwo kuvuga izina ry’Imana buhuzwa n’igihe. Urugero, mu wa 1612 igihe Henry Ainsworth yahinduraga igitabo cya Zaburi, yakoresheje izina “Iehovah.” Hanyuma mu wa 1639, igihe icyo gitabo cyavugururwaga kandi kigacapwa kiri kumwe n’ibitabo bitanu bya mbere bya Bibiliya, hakoreshejwe izina “Yehova.” Mu wa 1901, abahinduye Bibiliya  yitwa American Standard Version bakoresheje “Yehova” aho izina ry’Imana ryabonekaga mu mwandiko w’igiheburayo.

Mu mwaka wa 1911, intiti mu bya Bibiliya izwi cyane yitwa Joseph Bryant Rotherham yanditse igitabo gisobanura Zaburi (Studies in the Psalms). Muri icyo gitabo yasobanuye ko yakoresheje izina “Yehova” aho gukoresha “Yahweh,” kubera ko yifuzaga gukoresha “izina rimenyerewe n’abasomyi benshi ba Bibiliya (ariko nanone ryemewe na benshi).” Mu wa 1930, intiti yitwa A. F. Kirkpatrick na yo yunze mu rye igihe yavugaga ibirebana n’imikoreshereze y’izina “Yehova.” Yagize ati “abahanga mu kibonezamvugo bo muri iki gihe, bavuga ko iryo zina ryagombye gusomwa ngo Yahveh cyangwa Yahaveh, ariko uko bigaragara YEHOVA ni ryo zina ryashinze imizi. . . . Mu by’ukuri, icy’ingenzi si ukumenya neza uko iryo zina ryavugwaga, ahubwo ni ukwemera ko ari Izina Bwite ritandukanye n’izina ry’icyubahiro urugero nk’‘Umwami.’”

Inyuguti enye zigize izina ry’Imana, YHWH: “Ituma biba”

Inshinga HWH: “kuba”

Izina Yehova risobanura iki? Mu giheburayo, izina Yehova rikomoka ku nshinga isobanura “kuba,” kandi intiti zitandukanye zemeranya ko ryumvikanisha igitekerezo kiboneka muri iyo nshinga y’igiheburayo, itondaguwe mu buryo bw’ingiro y’impamvu. Ku bw’ibyo, abagize Komite yahinduye Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya bemeranya ko izina ry’Imana risobanura ngo “Ituma biba.” Kubera ko intiti zibibona mu buryo butandukanye, ntitwakwemeza ibyo bisobanuro mu buryo budasubirwaho. Icyakora, ibyo bisobanuro byo bihuje neza n’umwanya Yehova afite wo kuba Umuremyi wa byose kandi akaba ari Imana isohoza umugambi wayo. Uretse kuba ari we watumye habaho isanzure ry’ikirere n’ibiremwa bifite ubwenge, akomeje gutuma ibyo ashaka bikorwa n’umugambi we ugasohozwa.

Ku bw’ibyo, ibisobanuro by’izina ry’Imana ntibigarukira gusa ku nshinga ifitanye isano n’iryo zina iboneka mu Kuva 3:14, hagira hati “Nzaba icyo nzashaka kuba cyo cyose” cyangwa “Nzaba icyo nzashaka kuba cyo.” Ayo magambo afashwe uko yakabaye, ntiyumvikanisha ibisobanuro by’izina ry’Imana mu buryo bwuzuye. Ahubwo ahishura kimwe mu bigize kamere y’Imana, agaragaza ko mu mimerere iyo ari yo yose, ihinduka igikenewe cyose kugira ngo isohoze umugambi wayo. Ku bw’ibyo, nubwo izina Yehova rikubiyemo icyo gitekerezo, ntirigarukira gusa ku cyo yo ubwayo ishobora guhitamo kuba cyo. Ahubwo ryumvikanisha nanone ko ituma ibyo yaremye biba icyo yifuza ko biba cyo mu gihe hari aho bihuriye n’isohozwa ry’umugambi wayo.