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Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Ukuboza 2015

Ese koko Petero ni we wabaye papa wa mbere?

Ese koko Petero ni we wabaye papa wa mbere?

“Karidinali Jorge Mario, Bergoglio S.J., ni we watorewe kuba papa wa 265, uhereye kuri Petero Mutagatifu.”IKIGO CYA VATIKANI GISHINZWE ITANGAZAMAKURU, UMUGI WA VATIKANI, 13 WERURWE 2013.

“Arikiyepisikopi wa Roma ni we muyobozi wa Kiliziya ku isi hose, kuko ari we usimbura Petero Mutagatifu, kandi akaba yarahawe uwo mwanya wihariye na Yezu Kristu.”UBUTWARE BWA ARIKIYEPISIKOPI WA ROMA MU BINYEJANA BITATU BYA MBERE, 1903, VINCENT ERMONI.

“Umuntu wese uvuga . . . ko Papa w’i Roma atari we musimbura wa Petero Mutagatifu kandi ko adafite ubutware nk’ubwe, . . . akwiriye kwangwa urunuka.”—KONSILI YA MBERE YA VATIKANI, 18 NYAKANGA 1870.

ABAGATOLIKA babarirwa muri za miriyoni bo hirya no hino ku isi, bumva ko iryo teka ryo mu mwaka wa 1870 ryaciwe na Konsili ya Vatikani, ari inyigisho y’ingenzi, idahinduka kandi igomba kubahwa. Ariko se, iyo nyigisho ishingiye ku Byanditswe Byera? None se koko, Papa Francis ni we musimbura w’intumwa Petero? Ese Petero ni we papa wa mbere?

“KURI URU RUTARE NI HO NZUBAKA ITORERO RYANJYE”

Iteka rya Konsili ya Vatikani ryo mu wa 1870, ryari rishingiye ahanini ku magambo yo muri Matayo 16:16-19 n’ayo muri Yohana 21:15-17. Ikiganiro Yesu yagiranye na Petero kiboneka muri iyo mirongo ndetse no mu zindi nkuru zo muri Bibiliya, kigaragaza ko intumwa Petero yagize uruhare rukomeye mu mateka y’itorero rya gikristo ryo mu kinyejana cya mbere. Igihe Yesu yabonanaga na Petero ku ncuro ya mbere, yagaragaje ko Petero yari kuzamera nk’urutare (Yohana 1:42). Ariko se Kristo yahaye Petero ubutware?

Muri Matayo 16:17, 18 hari amagambo Yesu yabwiye Petero agira ati “ndakubwira ko uri Petero [bisobanura urutare], kandi kuri uru rutare ni ho nzubaka itorero ryanjye.” Ese Yesu yashakaga kuvuga ko kiliziya ye cyangwa “itorero” rye, yari kuzubakwa kuri Petero? Ese Petero yari kuzaba umutware w’abigishwa ba Yesu? None se izindi ntumwa zari zihari icyo gihe, zabonaga zite ibyo Yesu yavuze? Amavanjiri agaragaza ko mu bihe runaka nyuma yaho, izo ntumwa zagiye impaka zishaka kumenya uwari mukuru muri zo (Matayo 20:20-27; Mariko 9:33-35; Luka 22:24-26). Ese iyo Yesu aza kuba yarahaye Petero ubwo butware cyangwa inshingano yo kuba mukuru, bari kwirirwa bajya impaka bashaka kumenya umukuru muri bo?

None se Petero we yumvaga ate amagambo Yesu yavuze? Kubera ko Petero yari Umwisirayeli, agomba kuba yari azi ubuhanuzi butandukanye buvuga ibirebana n’“ibuye” cyangwa “ibuye rikomeza imfuruka” (Yesaya 8:13, 14; 28:16; Zekariya 3:9). Mu buhanuzi buri mu ibaruwa yandikiye Abakristo bagenzi be, yasobanuye  ko “ibuye rikomeze imfuruka” ryahanuwe ari Yesu Kristo, ari na we Mesiya. Petero yakoresheje ijambo ry’ikigiriki pe’tra (ari na ryo Yesu yakoresheje muri Matayo 16:18), yerekeza kuri Kristo wenyine. 1 Petero 2:4-8.

Intumwa Pawulo na we yari umwigishwa w’indahemuka wa Yesu. Ese Pawulo yemeraga ko Yesu yari yarahaye Petero ubutware bwo kuyobora itorero? Pawulo yagaragaje ko yari azi umwanya Petero yari afite mu itorero rya gikristo ryo mu kinyejana cya mbere. Yavuze ko Petero yari mu ‘babonwaga ko ari inkingi.’ Ibyo bigaragaza ko Pawulo yizeraga ko hariho “inkingi” z’itorero zirenze imwe (Abagalatiya 2:9). Uretse n’ibyo kandi, Yesu ntiyari gusaba abandi Bakristo kubona ko Petero ari inkingi y’itorero kandi yaramushyizeho mu buryo bwemewe ngo abe umutware waryo.

Igihe Pawulo yavugaga adaciye ku ruhande ariko mu buryo bwiyubashye ko Petero atafataga abantu uko bikwiriye, yagize ati “namurwanyije duhanganye kubera ko yabonetseho umugayo” (Abagalatiya 2:11-14). Pawulo ntiyabonaga ko Kristo yubatse itorero rye cyangwa kiliziya ye kuri Petero, cyangwa ku wundi muntu wese udatunganye. Ahubwo yari azi neza ko Yesu Kristo ari we rufatiro itorero ryubatseho. Pawulo yabonaga ko “urutare” itorero ryubatseho ari ‘Kristo.’1 Abakorinto 3:9-11; 10:4.

“URI PETERO . . .”

None se amagambo avuga ngo “kuri uru rutare ni ho nzubaka itorero ryanjye” cyangwa kiliziya yanjye, asobanura iki? Kugira ngo dusobanukirwe amagambo yakuwe ahantu runaka, tugomba kubanza kumenya imimerere yanditswemo. Igihe Yesu yabwiraga Petero ayo magambo, baganiraga ibirebana n’iki? Yesu yari amaze kubaza abigishwa be ati “none se mwebwe muvuga ko ndi nde?” Petero yamushubije adatindiganyije ati “uri Kristo, Umwana w’Imana nzima.” Ibyo byatumye Yesu amushimira, anamubwira ko yari kuzubaka itorero cyangwa kiliziya ku ‘rutare’ rukomeye kurushaho, ari rwo Petero yari yarizeye. Urwo rutare ni Yesu ubwe.Matayo 16:15-18.

Igihe Yesu yavugaga ati “uri Petero, kandi kuri uru rutare ni ho nzubaka itorero ryanjye,” yashakaga kuvuga iki?

 Hari “abakurambere ba Kiliziya” basesenguye ayo magambo, bavuga ko urutare ruvugwa muri Matayo 16:18 ari Kristo. Urugero, Augustin wo mu kinyejana cya gatanu yaranditse ati “Umwami yaravuze ati ‘kuri uru rutare nzahubaka Kiliziya yanjye’ kubera ko Petero yari yamubwiye ati ‘uri Kristo, Umwana w’Imana nzima.’ Ni yo mpamvu kuri uru rutare ari ho nzubaka Kiliziya yanjye.” Augustin yavuze kenshi ko urwo “Rutare (Petra) ari Kristo.”

Dukurikije ibivugwa mu nyigisho zo muri iki gihe za Kiliziya Gatolika, Augustin n’abandi babona ibintu nka we bashobora gushinjwa icyaha cy’ubuhakanyi. Umuhanga mu bya tewolojiya w’Umusuwisi witwa Ulrich Luz yavuze ko iyo biza kuba ari kera, Konsili ya Vatikani yo mu wa 1870 yari guhana intiti mu bya Bibiliya zitemera ko papa ari umutware w’itorero, kuko ibyo byari ubuhakanyi.

ESE PAPA NI UMUSIMBURA WA PETERO?

Intumwa Petero ntiyari azi izina ry’icyubahiro rya “papa.” Abasenyeri batari ab’i Roma benshi na bo biyitaga abapapa kugeza mu kinyejana cya cyenda. Nubwo byari bimeze bityo ariko, iryo zina ntiryakoreshwaga cyane mu buryo bweruye kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 11. Ikindi kandi, nta Mukristo wo mu kinyejana cya mbere watekerezaga ko ubutware bwitwa ko bwahawe Petero, bwaba bwarashyikirijwe abitwa ko ari abasimbura be. Ni yo mpamvu intiti yitwa Martin Hengel yo mu Budage, yagize iti “nta kimenyetso gifatika, cyaba icyo mu rwego rw’amateka cyangwa mu rwego rwa tewolojiya, cyemeza ko ‘ubutware’ bwa papa bwabayeho.”

Umwanzuro twafata ni uwuhe? Ese Petero ni we papa wa mbere? Ese hari abagiye bamusimbura? Ese inyigisho ya Kiliziya Gatolika ivuga ko papa ari umutware w’itorero rya gikristo, ishingiye ku Byanditswe Byera? Igisubizo cyoroheje cy’ibyo bibazo byose ni oya. Icyo twakwemeza tudashidikanya ni uko Yesu yubatse itorero rye ry’ukuri cyangwa kiliziya ye kuri we ubwe (Abefeso 2:20). Ubwo rero, birakwiriye ko buri wese muri twe yibaza ati “ese iryo torero ry’ukuri ndarizi?”