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Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Mata 2015

Bavumbuye ibuye ry’agaciro mu bishingwe

Bavumbuye ibuye ry’agaciro mu bishingwe

NI IKI gihita kikuza mu bwenge iyo utekereje ibishingwe? Birashoboka ko uhita wumva ahantu hari imyanda inuka. Ubwo rero ntiwakwitega ko ahantu nk’aho wahakura ikintu cy’agaciro. Kumva ko wahasanga ibuye ry’agaciro byo ntiwanabitekereza.

Nyamara, hashize imyaka igera ku ijana ahantu nk’aho, havumbuwe ubutunzi bumeze butyo. Ubwo butunzi si ibuye iri risanzwe, ahubwo ni ikindi kintu cy’agaciro kenshi. Icyo kintu ni ikihe? Kuba cyaravumbuwe bidufitiye akahe kamaro muri iki gihe?

BAVUMBUYE IKINTU BATARI BITEZE

Mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 20, Bernard P. Grenfell na Arthur S. Hunt, bombi bakaba bari intiti zo muri kaminuza ya Oxford, basuye igihugu cya Misiri. Mu birundo by’ibishingwe byari hafi y’Ikibaya cya Nili, bahavumbuye ibice byinshi by’inyandiko zanditswe ku mfunzo. Nyuma yaho mu wa 1920, igihe izo ntiti zombi zarimo zishyira ku rutonde ibyo zari zimaze kuvumbura, Grenfell yaje kubona ibindi bice byari byarataburuwe mu Misiri. Ibyo yari abitumwe n’inzu y’ibitabo y’ i Manchester mu Bwongereza yitiriwe John Rylands. Icyakora abo bagabo bombi bapfuye batararangiza gukora urwo rutonde.

Colin H. Roberts, indi ntiti yo muri kaminuza ya Oxford ni we wakomeje uwo murimo. Igihe yashyiraga ibyo bice ku rutonde, yaguye ku gace gato k’inyandiko yanditswe ku rufunzo ka santimetero 9 kuri 6. Yatangajwe n’uko ako gace kariho amagambo y’ikigiriki yandikishijwe intoki yari asanzwe azi. Ku ruhande rumwe rwako hariho amagambo yo muri Yohana 18:31-33, ku rundi hari amwe mu magambo yo mu murongo wa 37 n’uwa 38. Roberts yahise abona ko ari nk’aho avumbuye ibuye ry’agaciro kenshi.

IGIHE AYO MAGAMBO YANDIKIWE

Roberts yumvaga ko ako gace k’inyandiko ari aka kera cyane. Ariko se kari kamaze igihe kingana iki? Kugira ngo akimenye, yakoresheje ubuhanga bwo gusesengura inyandiko za kera zandikishijwe intoki, agereranya inyandiko yo kuri ako gace n’izindi nyandiko za kera. * Yakoresheje ubwo buryo, amenya igihe ayo magambo yaba yarandikiwe agenekereje. Ariko yifuzaga kumenya igihe nyacyo yaba yarandikiwe. Yafotoye ako gace, maze yoherereza amafoto abahanga mu gusesengura imyandikire y’inyandiko zo ku mfunzo batatu, abasaba gushakisha igihe yaba yarandikiwe. Abo bahanga bageze ku ki?

Izo ntiti uko ari eshatu zishingiye ku kuntu inyuguti zanditswe, zemeje ko amagambo yanditswe kuri ako gace yanditswe hagati y’umwaka wa 101 n’uwa 150, nyuma y’imyaka ibarirwa muri mirongo intumwa Yohana apfuye. Ubwo buhanga bwo gusesengura inyandiko za kera, si bwo buryo bwonyine bashingiraho bemeza igihe inyandiko zandikishijwe intoki zimaze. Hari indi ntiti yemeje ko umwandiko uri kuri ako gace ushobora kuba waranditswe mu gihe runaka mu kinyejana cya kabiri. Uko byaba byaragenze kose, mu nyandiko zandikishijwe intoki z’Ibyanditswe by’Ikigiriki bya Gikristo zavumbuwe na n’ubu zikaba ikiriho, iyo kuri ako gace ni yo ya kera kurusha izindi.

ICYO INYANDIKO YA RYLANDS IGARAGAZA

Kuki iyo nyandiko irimo amagambo yo mu ivanjiri ya Yohana ifitiye akamaro abakunda Bibiliya? Hari impamvu nibura ebyiri. Mbere na mbere, imiterere yayo idufasha kwiyumvisha ukuntu Abakristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bahaga agaciro Ibyanditswe.

Kuki iyi nyandiko irimo amagambo aboneka mu ivanjiri ya Yohana ifitiye akamaro abakunda Bibiliya?

 Mu kinyejana cya kabiri bandikaga ku mizingo cyangwa kuri kodegisi. Imizingo yabaga ikoze mu rufunzo cyangwa mu mpu baterateranyaga zikavamo urupapuro rurerure. Urwo rupapuro bashoboraga kuruzinga cyangwa bakaruzingura mu gihe babishatse. Akenshi umuzingo bawandikagaho uruhande rumwe.

Icyakora agace gato k’inyandiko Roberts yavumbuye kari kanditsweho imbere n’inyuma. Ibyo byumvikanisha ko kari kanditswe mu buryo bwa kodegisi aho kuba umuzingo. Kodegisi ni impapuro zabaga zikozwe mu mpu cyangwa mu mfunzo zafatanyirizwaga hamwe zikaba nk’igitabo.

Kodegisi yarushaga iki umuzingo? Abakristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bari ababwirizabutumwa (Matayo 24:14; 28:19, 20). Batangaza ubutumwa bwo muri Bibiliya aho bashoboraga kubona abantu hose haba mu ngo, mu masoko cyangwa mu mihanda (Ibyakozwe 5:42; 17:17; 20:20). Ku bw’ibyo, kuba barashoboraga kubona Ibyanditswe bitwarika neza, byarushagaho kuborohera.

Nanone kodegisi yatumaga amatorero n’abantu ku giti cyabo biyandukurira kopi z’Ibyanditswe. Ibyo byatumye amavanjiri akomeza kwandukurwa, kandi nta gushidikanya ko byagize uruhare mu gukwirakwiza Ubukristo mu buryo bwihuse.

Inyandiko ya Rylands imbere n’inyuma

Ikindi kigaragaza ko inyandiko ya Rylands idufitiye akamaro muri iki gihe, ni uko igaragaza ko umwandiko w’umwimerere wa Bibiliya wagiye uhererekanywa mu buryo bwizewe. Nubwo ako gace k’inyandiko kariho imirongo mike yo mu Ivanjiri ya Yohana, ibirimo bihuje neza n’ibyo dusoma muri Bibiliya dufite muri iki gihe. Bityo rero, inyandiko ya Rylands yerekana ko Bibiliya itagoretswe, nubwo yagiye yandukurwa kenshi.

Birumvikana ko agace k’inyandiko ya Rylands kariho Ivanjiri ya Yohana, ari kamwe mu nyandiko zibarirwa mu bihumbi zemeza ko umwandiko w’umwimerere wagiye uhererekanywa mu buryo bwiza. Werner Keller yaranditse ati “izo nyandiko za kera [zandikishijwe intoki] ni zimwe mu bimenyetso byemeza ko umwandiko wa Bibiliya dufite muri iki gihe uhuje n’ukuri kandi ko wizewe.”The Bible as History.

Ni iby’ukuri ko Abakristo badashingira ukwizera kwabo ku bushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe mu matongo. Bizera ko “Ibyanditswe byera byose byahumetswe n’Imana” (2 Timoteyo 3:16). Ariko kandi, duhumurizwa no kumenya ko inyandiko za kera twagereranya n’amabuye y’agaciro, zemeza ko Bibiliya ivuga ukuri, iyo igira iti ‘ijambo rya Yehova rihoraho iteka ryose.’1 Petero 1:25.

^ par. 8 Hari igitabo cyavuze ko kugira ngo abahanga mu gusesengura inyandiko za kera bamenye igihe zandikiwe, bagereranyaga imyandikire yazo (Manuscripts of the Greek Bible). Uko igihe cyagendaga gihita uburyo bwo kwandikisha intoki bwagendaga buhinduka. Iryo hinduka rishobora kugaragaza igihe inyandiko runaka yandikiwe uyigereranyije n’izindi nyandiko zifite igihe zandikiweho kizwi.

IBINDI WAMENYA

IBIBAZO BISHINGIYE KURI BIBILIYA

Ese inkuru yo muri Bibiliya ivuga iby’imibereho ya Yesu ihuje n’ukuri?

Menya ukuri ku birebana n’inkuru zo mu Mavanjiri n’inyandiko za kera zandikishijwe intoki.