Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Ukuboza 2014

Amatongo ya Timgad ahishura byinshi

Amatongo ya Timgad ahishura byinshi

UMUSHAKASHATSI witwaga James Bruce ukomoka muri Écosse akibona aho hantu, yagize ngo ararota. Yari amaze kubona inyubako yibutsaga ugutsinda kw’Abaroma, igice kimwe cyayo kikaba cyari gitwikiriwe n’umusenyi wo mu butayu bwa Alijeriya. Igihe uwo mugabo yavumburaga aho hantu mu mwaka wa 1765, ntiyari azi ko mu by’ukuri ahagaze hejuru y’amatongo y’urusisiro runini kurusha izindi rwubatswe n’Abaroma mu majyaruguru ya Afurika, ari wo mugi wa kera wa Thamugadi, ubu witwa Timgad.

Nyuma y’imyaka irenga ijana, ni ukuvuga mu wa 1881, abashakashatsi b’Abafaransa batangiye gutaburura ibintu bitandukanye mu matongo y’uwo mugi, kandi basanga bitarangiritse. Babonye ko nubwo uwo mugi wari mu butayu bukakaye, mu by’ukuri abari bawutuye babagaho nk’abagashize. Ariko se ni iki cyatumye Abaroma bubaka umugi ukomeye ahantu nk’aho? Ni ayahe masomo twakura ku byaberaga muri uwo mugi no ku baturage baho?

IMPAMVU ZA POLITIKI

Igihe Abaroma baguraga ubwami bwabo bukagera mu majyaruguru ya Afurika mu kinyejana cya mbere Mbere ya Yesu, barwanyijwe cyane n’amwe mu moko ya ba kavukire baho bahoraga bimuka. None se ni iki Abaroma bari gukora ngo babane amahoro n’abo baturage? Mbere na mbere, abasirikare bo muri legiyoni ya gatatu yari iyobowe na Augustus bubatse ibihome byinshi kandi bashinga ibirindiro bikomeye mu karere kanini k’imisozi yo mu majyaruguru ya Alijeriya. Nyuma yaho, bubatse umugi wa Timgad, ariko bagamije ikindi kintu.

Abaroma bawubatse bavuga ko bagiye kuwutuzamo abasirikare bavuye ku rugerero, ariko mu by’ukuri yari amayeri yo guhangana n’abantu baho babarwanyaga. Uwo mugambi wabo bawugezeho. Imibereho myiza yo mu mugi wa Timgad yatangiye gukurura abaturage bo muri ako gace bahazanaga ibicuruzwa byabo. Kubera ko ba kavukire benshi bifuzaga kwemererwa kuba muri uwo mugi kandi ubundi Abaroma ari bo bonyine babaga babyemerewe, bagiye kubana n’abo basirikare mu gihe cy’imyaka 25, kugira ngo bo n’abahungu babo babone ubwenegihugu bw’Abaroma.

Hari Abanyafurika babonye ubwenegihugu bw’Abaroma banahabwa imyanya ikomeye muri uwo mugi no mu yindi migi Abaroma bakoronizaga. Umugambi w’Abaroma wo kwigarurira imitima ya ba kavukire bawugezeho ku buryo nyuma y’imyaka 50 gusa, uwo mugi wa Timgad wari utuwe ahanini n’abaturage bo mu majyaruguru ya Afurika.

UKO ABAROMA BIGARURIYE IMITIMA Y’ABATURAGE

Isoko rifite ameza n’inkingi byiza cyane

None se Abaroma babigenje bate kugira ngo bashobore kwigarurira imitima ya ba kavukire mu gihe  gito cyane? Icya mbere ni uko bimakaje ihame ry’uko abaturage bose bareshya, rikaba ryarigishwaga n’umutegetsi w’Umuroma witwaga Cicéron. Uwo mugi bawugabanyije abasirikare b’Abaroma bavuye ku rugerero n’abaturage b’Abanyafurika bararinganiza. Nanone uwo mugi wari wubatswe mu buryo bwitondewe ugizwe n’inyubako za metero 20 kuri 20 zigiye zitandukanyijwe n’uduhanda duto. Nta gushidikanya ko iyo myubakire isa kandi iri kuri gahunda yashimishaga abaturage cyane.

Nk’uko byabaga bimeze mu migi myinshi y’Abaroma, abaturage bakundaga guhurira mu isoko, kugira ngo bamenye amakuru agezweho cyangwa bakine imikino itandukanye. Nta gushidikanya ko ababaga batuye mu misozi y’ibiharabuge yo hafi aho, bifuzaga kugama izuba ry’igikatu munsi y’inyubako zabaga zishyigikiwe n’inkingi zitondetse ku murongo, cyangwa kujya mu bwogero rusange bwaho, bakitera utuzi twabaga tubamanukiraho buhoro buhoro. Nanone bashobora kuba barifuzaga kwicara iruhande rw’amasoko y’amazi afutse, bakaganira n’incuti. Ibyo byose bashobora kuba barabyifuzaga ariko bakumva ari inzozi.

Imva ishushanyijeho Imana y’ubutatu ahagana hejuru

Nanone hari sitade idasakaye yari ifite uruhare rukomeye mu kwigarurira imitima y’abaturage. Yari ifite imyanya irenga 3.500, kandi yakiraga abaturage b’i Timgad no mu migi ihakikije. Abakinnyi bajyaga kuri podiyumu bakereka abantu imikino yagaragazaga umuco w’Abaroma, akenshi yarangwaga n’urugomo cyangwa ubwiyandarike.

Idini ry’Abaroma na ryo ryagize uruhare mu kwigarurira imitima y’abantu. Ku nkuta z’ubwogero no hasi, habaga huzuye ibishushanyo by’amabara byagaragazaga ibintu biboneka mu migani y’abapagani. Kubera ko abaturage bakundaga koga, batangiye kumenya buhoro buhoro ibyerekeye imana z’Abaroma n’idini ryabo. Umugambi wo gutoza Abanyafurika umuco w’Abaroma wagezweho neza, ku buryo n’imva zaho zabaga zishushanyijeho imana z’ubutatu, zaba iza ba kavukire cyangwa iz’Abaroma.

UKO UMUGI WARI MWIZA WAJE KWIBAGIRANA

Umwami w’abami witwa Trajan amaze gushinga uwo mugi mu mwaka wa 100, Abaroma bashishikarije abaturage bo hirya no hino mu majyaruguru ya Afurika guhinga ingano, gukora amavuta y’imyelayo na divayi. Bidatinze ako karere kahise kaba ikigega cya Roma, kakajya kagemura ibyo bicuruzwa by’ingenzi mu ntara ubwo bwami bwategekaga. Kimwe n’indi migi Abaroma bakoronizaga, Timgad yateye imbere cyane. Nyuma y’igihe, abaturage b’umugi wa Timgad bariyongereye maze uwo mugi uraguka ku buryo batuye n’inyuma y’inkuta zawo.

Abari batuye muri uwo mugi n’abari bahafite amasambu bateye imbere bitewe n’ubucuruzi bwakorwaga hagati y’uwo mugi na Roma. Icyakora iryo terambere nta kintu kigaragara ryagejeje ku bahinzi borozi bo muri ako gace. Mu kinyejana cya gatatu, akarengane gakabije n’imisoro irengeje urugero byatumye abahinzi borozi bo muri rubanda rwa giseseka bigaragambya. Bamwe muri bo bari Abagatolika bahindukiriye Abadonatisiti, iryo rikaba ryari itsinda ry’abantu biyitaga Abakristo, bahagurutse bakarwanya ibikorwa bidahwitse byakorwaga na Kiliziya Gatolika.​—Reba ingingo igira iti “ Abadonatisiti na bo ntibari shyashya.

Nyuma y’ibinyejana byinshi habaho imirwano ishingiye ku idini, intambara z’abenegihugu n’ibitero  birangwa n’ubugome, Abaroma batakaje imbaraga mu majyaruguru ya Afurika. Mu kinyejana cya gatandatu, Timgad yahindutse amatongo itwitswe n’Abarabu bo muri ako gace, nuko iza kwibagirana burundu mu gihe cy’imyaka irenga 1.000.

NI BWO ‘BUZIMA’

Amagambo y’ikilatini agira ati “ubuzima ni uguhiga, koga gukina no guseka”

Abashakashatsi bataburuye amatongo y’i Timgad batangajwe n’amagambo y’ikilatini aharatuye ku ibuye basanze mu mugi rwagati, ahakundaga guhurira abantu benshi. Ayo magambo agira ati “ubuzima ni uguhiga, koga, gukina no guseka.” Hari umuhanga mu by’amateka w’Umufaransa wavuze ko “nubwo iyo mitekerereze ituma abantu badahatanira kugira icyo bageraho, hari abemeza ko irangwa n’ubwenge.”

Kandi koko, Abaroma bamaze igihe runaka biruka inyuma y’ubuzima nk’ubwo. Mu kinyejana cya mbere, intumwa Pawulo yavuze ko hari abantu bari bafite imitekerereze igira iti “mureke twirire twinywere kuko ejo tuzapfa.” Nubwo Abaroma bari abanyedini, babagaho mu iraha ry’ako kanya, ntibatekereze ku ntego nyakuri y’ubuzima. Pawulo yasabye Abakristo bagenzi be kwirinda abantu nk’abo agira ati “ntimuyobe. Kwifatanya n’ababi byonona imyifatire myiza.”​—1 Abakorinto 15:32, 33.

Nubwo hashize imyaka igera ku 1.500 abantu bo mu mugi wa Timgad babayeho, uko abantu babona ubuzima ntibyahindutse cyane. Abantu benshi bo muri iki gihe babaho badatekereza ejo hazaza. Bumva ko iyo mibereho y’Abaroma yari ikwiriye, batitaye ku ngaruka ishobora kubagiraho. Icyakora Bibiliya yo itanga igitekerezo gihuje n’ukuri kandi cyumvikana, igira kiti “ibibera kuri iyi si bigenda bihinduka.” Ni yo mpamvu iduha umuburo wo ‘kudakoresha [isi] mu buryo bwuzuye.’​—1 Abakorinto 7:31.

Amatongo y’umugi wa Timgad atanga gihamya y’uko kugira ngo umuntu agire ibyishimo nyakuri, atagombye gukurikiza amagambo yari yanditse kuri rya buye ryari ritabye mu musenyi wo mu majyaruguru ya Afurika. Ahubwo kugira ngo umuntu agire ibyishimo agomba gukurikiza amagambo yo muri Bibiliya agira ati “isi irashirana n’irari ryayo, ariko ukora ibyo Imana ishaka ahoraho iteka ryose.”​—1 Yohana 2:17.