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Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Kamena 2014

Abagabo batatu bashakishije ukuri mu kinyejana cya 16​—Bageze ku ki?

Abagabo batatu bashakishije ukuri mu kinyejana cya 16​—Bageze ku ki?

“UKURI ni iki?” Icyo kibazo Ponsiyo Pilato wari guverineri wa Yudaya mu kinyejana cya mbere yakibajije Yesu wari imbere ye agiye gucirwa urubanza (Yohana 18:​38). Birumvikana ko Pilato atashakaga kumenya ukuri. Uko biri kose, ikibazo yabajije cyagaragaje ko yakabyaga kuba umwemeragato. Uko bigaragara, Pilato yumvaga ko umuntu wese agira ukuri kwe cyangwa ko ukuri ari icyo umuntu yigishijwe akacyizera, mbese ko nta wakwemeza icyo ukuri ari cyo. Uko ni na ko abantu benshi bo muri iki gihe babibona.

Mu kinyejana cya 16, abayoboke ba Kiliziya Gatolika bo mu Burayi bari baraheze mu rungabangabo, ku buryo batari bazi icyo bakwiriye kwizera ko ari ukuri. Kubera ko bari barakuze bemera ko papa ari umuyobozi w’ikirenga bakizera n’izindi nyigisho za kiliziya, bari bahanganye n’ibitekerezo bishya byazanwaga n’abaharaniraga Ivugurura byari byarakwirakwijwe hirya no hino mu Burayi icyo gihe. None se bari gufata iki bakareka iki? Bari kumenya ukuri bate?

Icyo gihe hari abantu benshi bari bariyemeje gushakisha ukuri, muri bo hakaba harimo abagabo batatu. * None se ni ubuhe buryo bakoresheje kugira ngo bashobore gutandukanya ukuri n’ikinyoma? Ni iki baje kugeraho? Reka tubisuzume.

“MUREKE TUJYE TUYOBORWA NA BIBILIYA . . . BURI GIHE”

Wolfgang Capito yari umusore wari ukomeye ku nyigisho z’idini. Yize ibyerekeye ubuvuzi, amategeko na tewolojiya, aza no kuba padiri mu mwaka wa 1512 kandi aba umwarimu w’inyigisho z’idini wa arikiyepisikopi wa Mainz.

Mu mizo ya mbere, Capito yagerageje gucogoza ishyaka ry’abaharaniraga Ivugurura, bitewe n’uko babwirizaga ubutumwa butandukanye n’inyigisho za Kiliziya Gatolika. Icyakora nyuma yaho gato, na we yatangiye gushyigikira Ivugurura. Byagenze bite? Umuhanga mu by’amateka witwa James M. Kittelson yavuze ko iyo inyigisho zabaga zinyuranye, Capito yumvaga ko “Bibiliya ari yo igomba kwifashishwa mu kuzisuzuma, kuko ari yo yonyine y’ukuri.” Nguko uko Capito yaje kubona ko inyigisho ivuga ko umugati na divayi bihinduka mu buryo bw’igitangaza umubiri n’amaraso bya Kristo n’iyo gusenga abatagatifu, zidahuje n’Ibyanditswe. (Reba ingingo ifite umutwe uvuga ngo “ Kugira ngo barebe niba ibyo bintu ari ko biri koko.”) Mu mwaka wa 1523, yeguye ku nshingano ye ikomeye yo gukorana na arikiyepisikopi, yimukira mu mugi wa Strasbourg wari ihuriro ry’abari bashyigikiye ivugurura ry’inyigisho zo mu rwego rw’idini icyo gihe.

 Abarwanyaga inyigisho z’idini bajyaga bahurira kwa Capito mu mugi wa Strasbourg, kandi nta gushidikanya ko bajyaga impaka ku nyigisho nyinshi z’idini n’izo muri Bibiliya. Igitabo kivuga iby’Ivugurura cyavuze ko nubwo mu bari bashyigikiye Ivugurura hari abari bagikomeye ku nyigisho y’Ubutatu, inyandiko za Capito zagaragazaga ko “yifashe ntagire icyo avuga ku nyigisho y’Ubutatu” (The Radical Reformation). Kubera iki? Ni ukubera ko yari ashimishijwe n’ukuntu umuhanga mu bya tewolojiya wo muri Esipanye witwa Michael Servetus yifashishije Bibiliya kugira ngo avuguruze inyigisho y’Ubutatu. *

Kubera ko Capito yabonaga ko guhakana inyigisho y’Ubutatu byashoboraga kumuteza akaga gakomeye, yagize amakenga ntiyashyira ahagaragara ibitekerezo bye. Icyakora inyandiko ze zigaragaza ko iyo yabaga yiherereye yanengaga inyigisho y’Ubutatu na mbere y’uko ahura na Servetus. Nyuma yaho umupadiri w’Umugatolika yaje kwandika ko Capito na bagenzi be “bajyaga impaka rwihishwa ku nyigisho z’idini z’amayobera kurusha izindi, maze bakamagana iyobera ry’Ubutatu Butagatifu.” Nyuma y’imyaka 100, Capito yashyizwe ku mwanya wa mbere ku rutonde rw’abanditsi bazwi cyane bahakanaga Ubutatu.

Wolfgang Capito yemeraga ko kuba kiliziya itaragize icyo igeraho byatewe n’uko ‘yirengagije Ibyanditswe’

Capito yizeraga ko Bibiliya ari yo soko y’ukuri. Yaravuze ati “mureke Bibiliya n’amategeko ya Kristo abe ari byo bituyobora mu birebana na tewolojiya.” Dukurikije ibyavuzwe na dogiteri Kittelson, Capito “yashimangiye ko kuba abahanga mu bya tewolojiya bataragize icyo bageraho byatewe n’uko birengagije Ibyanditswe.”

Icyo cyifuzo gikomeye yari afite cyo kumenya ukuri ko mu Ijambo ry’Imana, yari agihuriyeho n’umusore witwaga Martin Cellarius (nanone uzwi ku izina rya Martin Borrhaus) wabaga kwa Capito mu wa 1526.

“KUMENYA IMANA Y’UKURI”

Ipaji iriho umutwe w’igitabo cyanditswe na Martin Cellarius aho yagereranyaga inyigisho za kiliziya na Bibiliya (On the Works of God)

Cellarius wavutse mu mwaka wa 1499, yigaga tewolojiya na filozofiya abigiranye umwete kandi yemeye gukora akazi k’ubwarimu mu mugi wa Wittenberg mu Budage. Kubera ko muri uwo mugi ari ho abaharaniraga Ivugurura bari baratangiriye gukorera, Cellarius yahise amenyana na Martin Luther n’abandi bashakaga kuvugurura inyigisho za kiliziya. None se Cellarius yashoboye ate gutandukanya inyigisho z’abantu n’ukuri ko mu Byanditswe?

Hari igitabo cyavuze ko Cellarius yemeraga ko kugira ngo umuntu asobanukirwe ibintu neza “agomba gusoma Ibyanditswe ashyizeho umwete, akajya agereranya imirongo y’Ibyanditswe buri gihe, agasenga kandi akihana” (Teaching the Reformation). Ni iki Cellarius yabonye igihe yasuzumaga Bibiliya?

Muri Nyakanga 1527, Cellarius yasohoye ibyo yagezeho mu gitabo kivuga ibirebana n’imirimo y’Imana (On the Works of God). Yavuze ko amasakaramentu ya kiliziya, urugero nk’iry’Ukarisitiya rivuga ko umugati na divayi bihinduka umubiri n’amaraso bya Yesu, ari ikigereranyo gusa. Porofeseri Robin Barnes yavuze ko igitabo cya Cellarius kirimo nanone “ibisobanuro by’ubuhanuzi bw’Ibyanditswe buvuga ko hirya no hino hari kuzabaho ibyago n’imibabaro, bikazakurikirwa n’igihe cyo guhindura isi yose nshya, abantu bakabaho banyuzwe.”​—2 Petero 3:​10-13.

Icyakora, hari amagambo ashishikaje cyane Cellarius yavuze ku birebana na kamere ya Yesu Kristo. Nubwo atavuguruje inyigisho y’Ubutatu mu buryo bweruye, yashyize itandukaniro hagati ya “Data wo mu ijuru” n’ “Umwana we Yesu Kristo,” maze yandika ko Yesu ari umwe mu mana nyinshi n’abana benshi b’Imana Ishoborabyose.​—Yohana 10:​34, 35.

Mu gitabo Robert Wallace yanditse mu wa 1850 (Antitrinitarian Biography), yavuze ko inyandiko za Cellarius zari zitandukanye n’inyigisho y’Ubutatu  yari yogeye mu kinyejana cya 16. * Ibyo ni byo byatumye intiti zitandukanye zigera ku mwanzuro w’uko Cellarius yarwanyaga Ubutatu. Hari abavuze ko yabaye umwe mu bantu Imana yakoresheje kugira ngo “bamenyekanishe Imana y’ukuri na Kristo.”

UKURI KONGERA GUHABWA AGACIRO

Ahagana mu mwaka wa 1527, Johannes Campanus, umwe mu ntiti zikomeye z’icyo gihe, na we yagiye gutura mu mugi wa Wittenberg. Nubwo yari mu mugi wari ihuriro ry’abaharaniraga Ivugurura, ntiyashimishwaga n’inyigisho za Martin Luther. Kubera iki?

Campanus yarwanyije inyigisho ivuga ko umugati na divayi bihinduka umubiri n’amaraso bya Kristo n’ivuga ko umugati na divayi biba biri kumwe n’umubiri wa Kristo. * Umwanditsi witwa André Séguenny yavuze ko Campanus yemeraga ko “umugati uhora ari umugati akurikije ibiwugize, ariko waba ukoreshejwe mu isakaramentu ry’Ukarisitiya ukaba ugereranya umubiri wa Kristo.” Mu nama yabereye Marburg Colloquy mu mwaka wa 1529, yari igamije kujya impaka kuri izo nyigisho zombi, Campanus ntiyari yemerewe gutanga ibitekerezo yari yaravanye mu Byanditswe. Nyuma yaho, bagenzi be babaga mu mugi wa Wittenberg baharaniraga Ivugurura bamuhaye akato.

Mu gitabo Campanus yanditse, yashidikanyije ku nyigisho y’Ubutatu (Restitution)

Abaharaniraga Ivugurura barakajwe cyane cyane n’inyigisho ya Campanus irebana na Data, Umwana n’umwuka wera. Mu gitabo Campanus yanditse mu mwaka wa 1532, yavuze ko Yesu atandukanye na Se (Restitution). Yasobanuye ko Data n’Umwana “ari umwe,” nk’uko Bibiliya ivuga ko umugabo n’umugore iyo biyunze baba “umubiri umwe,” ariko bagakomeza kuba abantu babiri batandukanye (Yohana 10:​30; Matayo 19:​5). Campanus yavuze ko Ibyanditswe bikoresha iyo mvugo y’ikigereranyo ikoreshwa ku mugabo n’umugore, kugira ngo bigaragaze ko Data afite ububasha ku Mwana. Bigira biti ‘umutware w’umugore ni umugabo, naho umutware wa Kristo akaba Imana.’​—1 Abakorinto 11:​3.

Bite ku birebana n’umwuka wera? Nanone Campanus yifashishije Bibiliya, arandika ati “nta murongo w’Ibyanditswe ushyigikira ko Umwuka Wera ari umuperisona wa gatatu. . . . Umwuka w’Imana ni imbaraga ikoresha, kuko itegura kandi igasohoza imigambi yayo yose binyuze ku mbaraga zayo n’ibikorwa byayo bitagaragara.”​—Intangiriro 1:​2.

Luther yavuze ko Campanus yatukaga Imana kandi akarwanya Umwana wayo. Hari undi muntu waharaniraga Ivugurura wasabye ko Campanus yicwa. Ariko Campanus ntiyigeze acika intege. Hari igitabo cyavuze ko “Campanus yemeraga adashidikanya ko abantu baramutse batamenye ibyo bisobanuro by’intumwa kandi bishingiye kuri Bibiliya byerekeye ubutware bw’Imana n’ubw’umugabo, byazatuma Kiliziya irunduka.”​—The Radical Reformation.

Campanus ntiyigeze agambirira gushinga idini. Yavuze ko yari yarashakishije ukuri “mu dutsiko tw’amadini no mu bahakanyi,” ariko ntagire icyo ageraho. Ni yo mpamvu yizeraga ko Kiliziya Gatolika yari kuzisubiraho, ikagarura inyigisho za gikristo. Amaherezo ariko abayobozi ba Kiliziya Gatorika bafashe  Campanus baramufunga, ku buryo ashobora kuba yaramaze muri gereza imyaka irenga 20. Abahanga mu by’amateka bavuga ko yapfuye ahagana mu mwaka wa 1575.

“MUGENZURE IBINTU BYOSE”

Capito, Cellarius, Campanus n’abandi basuzumye Bibiliya babyitondeye kugira ngo bagaragaze itandukaniro riri hagati y’ukuri n’ikinyoma. Nubwo imyanzuro yose abo bantu bashakishije ukuri bagezeho itari ihuje neza na Bibiliya, bakoze ubushakashatsi mu Byanditswe bicishije bugufi, maze ukuri bamenye baguha agaciro.

Intumwa Pawulo yateye inkunga Abakristo bagenzi be agira ati “mugenzure ibintu byose, mwizirike ku byiza” (1 Abatesalonike 5:​21). Kugira ngo Abahamya ba Yehova bagufashe mu mihati ushyiraho ushakisha ukuri, banditse igitabo gifite umutwe ukwiriye ugira uti Ni iki mu by’ukuri Bibiliya yigisha?

^ par. 4 Reba ingingo ivuga ngo “Mureke byombi bikurane kugeza ku isarura,” iri ku ipaji ya 44 mu gitabo kivuga amateka y’Abahamya (Les Témoins de Jéhovah : Prédicateurs du Royaume de Dieu), cyanditswe n’Abahamya ba Yehova.

^ par. 8 Reba ingingo igira iti “Uko Michael Servetus yashakishije ukuri ari wenyine,” mu igazeti ya Nimukanguke! yo muri Gicurasi 2006, yanditswe n’Abahamya ba Yehova (mu gifaransa).

^ par. 17 Ku birebana n’ijambo “imana” Cellarius yakoresheje aryerekeza kuri Kristo, icyo gitabo cyaravuze kiti “yanditse ngo deus, aho kwandika ngo Deus, iryo rya nyuma rikaba ryerekeza gusa ku Mana Isumbabyose.”

^ par. 20 Inyigisho ivuga ko mu gihe cy’Ifunguro ry’Umwami rya Nimugoroba umugati na divayi biba “biri kumwe” n’umubiri wa Kristo yadukanywe na Luther.