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Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Mata 2014

Thomas Emlyn—Ese yari umuntu utuka Imana cyangwa yarwaniriraga ukuri?

Thomas Emlyn—Ese yari umuntu utuka Imana cyangwa yarwaniriraga ukuri?

THOMAS Emlyn yari muntu ki, kandi se kuki yarwaniriye ukuri? Ni iki twamwigiraho cyatugirira akamaro muri iki gihe?

Kugira ngo tubone ibisubizo by’ibyo bibazo, turasubira mu mateka y’u Bwongereza na Irilande, ahagana mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 17 n’intangiriro z’icya 18. Icyo gihe idini ry’Abangilikani ryari rifite ububasha bukomeye ku bantu. Abari bagize amatsinda atandukanye y’Abaporotesitanti n’abandi bantu, bari bamaze kurambirwa inyigisho z’iryo dini.

YARI MUNTU KI?

Thomas Emlyn yavutse ku itariki ya 27 Gicurasi 1663 mu mugi wa Stamford mu ntara ya Lincolnshire, mu Bwongereza. Igihe yari afite imyaka 19 ni bwo yatanze ikibwiriza cye cya mbere. Nyuma yaho yigishije iyobokamana umugore w’umutware wabaga i Londres, hanyuma yimukira i Belfast muri Irilande.

Ageze i Belfast yatangiye kujya yigishiriza mu rusengero, kandi yagiye abwiriza ubutumwa mu duce dutandukanye, harimo n’umugi wa Dublin.

KUKI YASHINJWE ICYAHA CYO GUTUKA IMANA?

Muri icyo gihe, Emlyn yigaga Bibiliya abyitondeye. Ibyo yiyigishaga byatumye ashidikanya ku nyigisho y’Ubutatu yari asanzwe yemera. Amaze gukora ubushakashatsi mu Mavanjiri, yemeye adashidikanya ko ibyo yari amaze kumenya ari ukuri.

Emlyn ntiyahise ashyira ahagaragara ibyo yari amaze kugeraho. Icyakora, bamwe mu bazaga mu rusengero yigishirizagamo rwari mu mugi wa Dublin, baje kubona ko yari yararetse kwigisha Ubutatu. Amaze kumenya ko inyigisho yari amaze kuvumbura zitari kwakirwa neza, yaranditse ati “ndamutse nshyize ahagaragara ibyo maze kugeraho, sinakwizera ko nazakomereza imirimo yanjye aha ngaha.” Muri Kamena 1702, bagenzi be babiri bamubajije impamvu atacyigisha inyigisho y’Ubutatu, avuga ko atakiyemera, ndetse asaba kwegura ku mirimo ye.

Igitabo cya Emlyn gitanga impamvu zishingiye ku Byanditswe zigaragaza ko Yesu atari we Mana Isumbabyose

Nyuma y’iminsi mike yavuye i Dublin muri Irilande, ajya mu Bwongereza. Icyakora nyuma y’amezi abiri n’igice yasubiye i Dublin gukemura utubazo tumwe na tumwe, ariko yari agamije kwimukira i Londres burundu. Igihe yari akiri i Dublin, yanditse igitabo kivuga ibya Yesu Kristo (An Humble Inquiry Into the Scripture-Account of Jesus Christ), yizeye ko cyari kuzatuma abantu bemera ko ibyo yavugaga ari ukuri. Muri icyo gitabo, yatanze impamvu zishingiye ku Byanditswe zigaragaza ko Yesu atari we Mana Isumbabyose. Ibyo byarakaje cyane abari abayoboke b’itorero yahozemo i Dublin, maze bahita bamuhimbira ikirego.

Emlyn yarafashwe maze ajya kuburanishirizwa mu Rukiko rw’Umwamikazi i Dublin ku ya 14 Kamena 1703. Mu gitabo yanditse, yavuze ko yajyanywe mu rukiko “azira ko yanditse kandi agasohora igitabo kirimo amagambo yo gutuka Imana no kuyisebya, kivuga ko Yesu Kristo atangana n’Imana Data” (True Narrative of the Proceedings). Icyakora byaragaragaye ko urwo rubanza rwarimo akarengane. Abasenyeri barindwi b’idini ry’Abangilikani  muri Irilande bari bicaranye n’abacamanza, kandi Emlyn ntiyari yemerewe kwiregura. Richard Levins, umunyamategeko wubahwaga cyane, yabwiye Emlyn ko atari kuzemererwa kwiregura, ahubwo ko yari “kuzahigwa nk’ikirura.” Richard Pyne wari uhagarariye urwego rw’ubutabera muri Irilande, yarangije urubanza abwira abari bagize inteko y’abacamanza ko nibatagera ku mwanzuro wari witezwe, “abatware be ari bo basenyeri, bari kubereka icyo bari cyo.” Ashobora kuba yarashakaga kumvikanisha ko abo bacamanza bari guhanwa bikomeye.

“Nta kindi nzira uretse ukuri [kw’Imana] n’ikuzo ryayo.”​—Thomas Emlyn.

Igihe Emlyn yahamywaga icyaha, uwamuburaniraga yamugiriye inama yo kugihakana, ariko arabyanga. Yaciwe ihazabu kandi akatirwa igifungo cy’umwaka umwe. Kubera ko atashoboraga kwishyura iyo hazabu, yafunzwe imyaka ibiri kugeza ubwo incuti ye yemereje abategetsi ko bamugabanyiriza amafaranga yari kwishyura. Yafunguwe ku ya 21 Nyakanga 1705. Ibikorwa by’urukozasoni yakorewe ni byo byatumye avuga ya magambo twavuze tugitangira, agira ati “nta kindi nzira uretse ukuri [kw’Imana] n’ikuzo ryayo.”

Emlyn yimukiye i Londres maze yifatanya n’indi ntiti mu bya Bibiliya yitwaga William Whiston, na we wari waraciwe azira ko yatangaje ibyo yumvaga ko ari ukuri ko muri Bibiliya. Whiston yubahaga Emlyn, akavuga ko “‘ari we muntu wa mbere kandi w’ibanze’ washyigikiye ‘ubukristo bwa kera.’”

KUKI YANZE KWEMERA UBUTATU?

Kimwe na William Whiston n’indi ntiti izwi cyane yitwaga Isaac Newton, Emlyn yatahuye ko Bibiliya idashyigikira inyigisho y’Ubutatu ivugwa mu nyigisho za Athanase. Yabisobanuye agira ati “nyuma yo kubitekerezaho neza no kwiga Ibyanditswe byera, . . . nasanze mfite impamvu ikomeye . . . yo guhindura uko numvaga inyigisho y’Ubutatu.” Yashoje avuga ati “Imana ari na yo Se wa Yesu Kristo, ni yo yonyine Isumbabyose.”

Ni iki cyatumye Emlyn agera kuri uwo mwanzuro? Yabonye imirongo myinshi y’Ibyanditswe igaragaza ko Yesu atandukanye na Se. Dore imwe muri yo (ibyo Emlyn yavuze kuri iyo mirongo biri mu nyuguti ziberamye):

  •  Yohana 17:3: “Nta na rimwe Kristo avugwaho ko ari we Mana imwe cyangwa ko ahwanye na yo, cyangwa ko ari we Mana yonyine.” Data ni we wenyine witwa “Imana y’ukuri yonyine.”

  •  Yohana 5:30: “Umwana ntakora ibyo ashaka, ahubwo akora ibyo Se ashaka.”

  •  Yohana 5:26: “Ubuzima yabuhawe na Se.”

  •  Abefeso 1:3: “Mu gihe Yesu Kristo akunze kwitwa Umwana w’Imana, nta na rimwe Data yitwa Se w’Imana; nyamara akunze kwitwa Se w’Umwami wacu Yesu.”

Emlyn amaze gusuzuma ibyo bimenyetso byose, yavuganye icyizere ati “nta murongo n’umwe wo mu Byanditswe byera ugaragaza ko Data, Umwana n’Umwuka Wera ari bamwe kandi ko bibumbiye hamwe nk’uko abenshi babitekereza.”

IBYO BITWIGISHA IKI?

Abantu benshi muri iki gihe batinya gushyigikira ukuri ko mu Byanditswe. Ariko Emlyn yemeye kurwanirira ukuri ko muri Bibiliya. Yabajije ikibazo kigira kiti “niba umuntu adashobora kwemera inyigisho z’ukuri z’ingenzi abona ko zumvikana kandi zifite ibimenyetso bifatika bigaragara mu Byanditswe, kuki yakwirirwa abisoma cyangwa abikorera ubushakashatsi?” Emlyn ntiyari guhakana ukuri.

Urugero Emlyn n’abandi badusigiye, rwagombye gutuma twisuzuma tukareba niba twiteguye kurwanirira ukuri mu gihe ibyo twizera bishidikanyijweho. Natwe dushobora kwibaza tuti “ikintu cy’ingenzi kuri twe ni ikihe? Ese ni ukubahwa n’abantu no gushimwa na bo cyangwa ni ugushyigikira ukuri kw’Ijambo ry’Imana?”