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Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Werurwe 2014

Uko Ijambo ry’Imana ryamenyekanye muri Esipanye

Uko Ijambo ry’Imana ryamenyekanye muri Esipanye

‘Igihe nzaba ngiye muri Esipanye, niringiye ko nzabareba mukamperekeza maze kubashira urukumbuzi mu rugero runaka.’—Abaroma 15:24.

AYO magambo intumwa Pawulo yayandikiye Abakristo bagenzi be b’i Roma, ahagana mu mwaka wa 56. Bibiliya ntivuga niba Pawulo yaragiye muri Esipanye. Yaba yaragiyeyo cyangwa ataragiyeyo, icyo tuzi ni uko ubutumwa bwiza bwo mu Ijambo ry’Imana Bibiliya bwageze muri Esipanye mu kinyejana cya kabiri, bitewe n’imihati Pawulo n’abandi bamisiyonari b’Abakristo bashyizeho.

Mu gihe gito imiryango y’Abakristo yatangiye kuba myinshi muri Esipanye. Ibyo byatumye abaturage b’icyo gihugu bakenera Bibiliya ihinduye mu kilatini. Iyo Bibiliya yari ikenewe kuko mu kinyejana cya kabiri Esipanye yari imaze igihe itegekwa n’Abaroma, kandi ikilatini kikaba cyarakoreshwaga cyane mu bwami bugari bwa Roma.

BIBILIYA Z’IKILATINI ZAJE ZIKENEWE

Abakristo ba mbere bo muri Esipanye bahinduye Bibiliya zitandukanye mu rurimi rw’ikilatini, zizwi ku izina rya Vetus Latina Hispana. Izo Bibiliya zamaze imyaka myinshi zikoreshwa muri Esipanye, mbere y’uko Jérôme arangiza guhindura Bibiliya yo mu rurimi rw’ikilatini izwi cyane yitwa Vulgate, mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya gatanu.

Bibiliya yahinduwe na Jérôme, akaba yarayirangirije i Betelehemu muri Palesitina, yageze muri Esipanye mu gihe gito cyane. Igihe Lucinius wari umwigishwa wa Bibiliya urangwa n’ishyaka yamenyaga ko Jérôme arimo ahindura Bibiliya mu kilatini, yifuje gutunga iyo Bibiliya nshya vuba uko bishoboka kose. Yohereje i Betelehemu abandukuzi batandatu kugira ngo bandukure umwandiko w’iyo Bibiliya maze bawujyane muri Esipanye. Mu binyejana byakurikiyeho, Bibiliya yitwa Vulgate yagiye ikoreshwa kugeza igihe isimburiye za Bibiliya ziswe Vetus Latina Hispana. Izo Bibiliya zo mu rurimi rw’ikilatini zafashije abaturage bo muri Esipanye gusoma Bibiliya no gusobanukirwa ubutumwa buyikubiyemo. Ariko igihe ubwami bwa Roma bwahirimaga, hari hakenewe Bibiliya zo mu zindi ndimi.

BIBILIYA YANDITSWE KU BISATE BY’AMABUYE

Mu kinyejana cya gatanu, Abagoti n’andi moko akomoka mu Budage bigaruriye Esipanye, maze muri icyo gihugu hatangira kuvugwa urundi rurimi ari rwo rw’ikigoti. Abahigaruriye bari mu idini rya gikristo ritemera inyigisho y’Ubutatu ryitiriwe Arius. Nanone bari bafite Bibiliya yabo yo mu rurimi rw’ikigoti yitwa Ulfilas. Iyo Bibiliya yakoreshejwe muri Esipanye kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya gatandatu, igihe umwami w’Abagoti witwaga Reccared yavaga mu idini rya Arius, agahinduka Umugatolika. Yategetse ko ibitabo by’iryo dini byose bikusanywa bigatwikwa, hakubiyemo n’iyo Bibiliya yitwa Ulfilas. Ibyo byatumye inyandiko zose zo mu rurimi rw’ikigoti zibagirana muri Esipanye.

Igisate cy’ibuye cyo mu kinyejana cya 6 kibonekaho umwandiko wa Bibiliya mu rurimi rushamikiye ku kilatini

Icyakora no muri icyo gihe Ijambo ry’Imana ryakomeje gukwirakwizwa muri Esipanye. Uretse ururimi rw’ikigoti, muri icyo gihugu hari hakivugwa urundi rurimi rushamikiye ku kilatini ari na rwo rwaje gukomokwaho n’izindi ndimi zavugwaga ku mwigimbakirwa wa Ibérie. * Inyandiko za kera zo muri izo ndimi zari zanditse ku bisate by’amabuye. Izo nyandiko ni izo mu kinyejana  cya gatandatu n’icya karindwi, zimwe muri zo zikaba zibonekamo imirongo yo muri Zaburi no mu Mavanjiri. Hari igisate cy’ibuye cyanditseho Zaburi ya 16 yose.

Kuba hariho imirongo y’Ibyanditswe yari yanditswe ku mabuye, byerekana ko icyo gihe abantu bo muri rubanda bandukuraga Ijambo ry’Imana kandi bakarisoma. Uko bigaragara, abarimu bahaga abanyeshuri bigaga gusoma no kwandika imyitozo yo kwandika imirongo yo muri Bibiliya. Ibisate by’amabuye bandikagaho byari bihendutse ugereranyije n’impu zakoreshwaga n’abihaye Imana bandikaga Bibiliya zirimo amashusho, hagati y’ikinyejana cya 5 n’icya 15.

Ishusho yo muri ya Bibiliya yo mu mugi wa León irimo amashusho menshi. Nubwo izo Bibiliya ari iz’agaciro kenshi, nta ruhare rugaragara zagize mu gukwirakwiza ubutumwa bwo mu Ijambo ry’Imana mu baturage

Imwe muri Bibiliya nziza cyane irimo amashusho, iboneka muri kiliziya ya San Isidoro mu mugi wa León muri Esipanye. Iyo Bibiliya yo mu wa 960, ifite impapuro 516 zifite cm 47 kuri cm 34, ikaba ipima ibiro 18. Hari indi Bibiliya nk’iyo yo mu mwaka wa 1020, iboneka mu isomero ry’i Vatikani, ikaba yitwa Bibiliya ya Ripoll. Ni imwe muri Bibiliya zifite amashusho menshi zo hagati y’ikinyejana cya 5 n’icya 15. Kugira ngo uwihaye Imana yandike Bibiliya nk’iyo, yashoboraga kumara umunsi wose yandika inyuguti imwe, cyangwa akamara icyumweru cyose yandika umutwe muto wo hejuru ku ipaji. Icyakora nubwo izo Bibiliya ari iz’agaciro kenshi, nta ruhare rugaragara zagize mu gukwirakwiza ubutumwa bwo mu Ijambo ry’Imana mu baturage.

BIBILIYA MU CYARABU

Igihe Abisilamu bigaruriraga Esipanye mu kinyejana cya munani, hari urundi rurimi rwatangiye kuhavugwa. Mu turere bakoronije, icyarabu cyatangiye kugenda kivugwa cyane kurusha ikilatini, biba ngombwa ko hakenerwa Bibiliya muri urwo rurimi rushya.

Kuva mu kinyejana cya 5 kugeza mu cya 8, Bibiliya z’ikilatini n’iz’icyarabu zafashije Abesipanyoli gusoma Ijambo ry’Imana

Nta gushidikanya ko hagati y’ikinyejana cya 5 n’icya 15, muri Esipanye hakwirakwijwe Bibiliya nyinshi zo mu cyarabu, cyane cyane Amavanjiri. Birashoboka ko mu kinyejana cya munani ari bwo musenyeri w’i Seville witwaga Jean yahinduye Bibiliya yuzuye mu cyarabu. Ikibabaje ni uko inyinshi muri izo Bibiliya z’icyarabu zazimiye. Igice cya Bibiliya kigizwe n’Amavanjiri cyahinduwe mu cyarabu mu kinyejana cya cumi rwagati, kiboneka muri katederali ya León muri Esipanye.

Amavanjiri ahinduye mu cyarabu yo mu kinyejana cya cumi

 HABONEKA BIBILIYA Z’ICYESIPANYOLI

Ahagana mu kinyejana cya 15, igikasitiliyani ari cyo cyesipanyoli, cyatangiye gukoreshwa ku mwigimbakirwa wa Ibérie. Urwo rurimi rushya rwari kuzagira uruhare rukomeye mu gukwirakwiza Ijambo ry’Imana. * Umwandiko wa mbere wa Bibiliya uhinduye mu cyesipanyoli wabonetse mu nyandiko yiswe La Fazienda de Ultra Mar (Ibyakorewe hakurya y’inyanja), yo mu ntango z’ikinyejana cya 13. Iyo nyandiko ibonekamo inkuru ivuga iby’urugendo rw’Abisirayeli, kandi ikubiyemo ubutumwa buboneka mu bitabo bitanu bya mbere bya Bibiliya n’ibindi bitabo byo mu Byanditswe by’Igiheburayo, Amavanjiri n’Inzandiko.

Umwami Alfonso wa X yashyigikiye umurimo wo guhindura Bibiliya mu cyesipanyoli

Icyakora abayobozi ba kiliziya ntibishimiye iyo Bibiliya. Konsili y’i Tarragona yo mu wa 1234, yategetse ko ibitabo byose bigize Bibiliya biri mu rurimi rw’icyesipanyoli bishyikirizwa umuyobozi w’idini kugira ngo bitwikwe. Igishimishije ni uko iryo tegeko ritigeze rihagarika umurimo wo guhindura Bibiliya waje gukorwa nyuma. Bavuga ko Umwami Alfonso wa X (1252-1284), ari na we watangije icyesipanyoli cyanditse, yifuzaga ko Ibyanditswe bihindurwa muri urwo rurimi rushya, kandi yarabishyigikiye. Icyo gihe, muri Bibiliya zo mu cyesipanyoli zahinduwe, harimo Bibiliya yabanjirije iyitiriwe Alfonso n’indi yitiriwe Alfonso yasohotse nyuma yaho gato, ari na yo yari Bibiliya nini yo mu cyesipanyoli icyo gihe.

Amapaji yo muri Bibiliya zo mu kinyejana cya 13, iyabanjirije iyitiriwe Alfonso (ibumoso) n’iyitiriwe Alfonso (iburyo)

Izo Bibiliya zombi zagize uruhare mu gutuma ururimi rw’icyesipanyoli rwari rukivuka rushinga imizi kandi rutera imbere. Intiti yitwa Thomas Montgomery yagize icyo ivuga kuri iyo Bibiliya yabanjirije iyitiriwe Alfonso, igira iti “uwahinduye iyi Bibiliya yasohoye igitabo gihinduye neza kandi cyumvikana. . . . Gikoresha imvugo yoroheje kandi yumvikana, yari ikenewe muri Bibiliya igenewe abantu batazi neza ikilatini.”

Icyakora izo Bibiliya za mbere z’icyesipanyoli zahinduwe bahereye kuri ya Bibiliya y’ikilatini ya Vulgate, aho guhera ku ndimi z’umwimerere. Guhera mu kinyejana cya 14, intiti z’Abayahudi zahinduye Ibyanditswe by’Igiheburayo mu cyesipanyoli zihereye ku mwandiko w’igiheburayo. Icyo gihe, igihugu cya Esipanye ni cyo gihugu cy’u Burayi cyari gituwe n’Abayahudi benshi, kandi abahinduzi b’Abayahudi bashoboraga kubona inyandiko nziza z’igiheburayo zandikishijwe intoki bashoboraga kwifashisha bahindura. *

Imwe muri izo Bibiliya nziza cyane ni Bibiliya ya Alba, yarangije kwandikwa mu kinyejana cya 15. Umwesipanyoli uzwi cyane kandi wari ukomeye witwa Luis de Guzmán, yasabye Rabi Moisés Arragel ko yahindura Bibiliya mu cyesipanyoli cy’umwimerere. Yatanze impamvu ebyiri zigaragaza ko iyo Bibiliya nshya yari ikenewe. Impamvu ya mbere ni uko “Bibiliya ziboneka mu rurimi rushamikiye ku kilatini zidahuje n’ukuri.” Iya kabiri yagiraga iti “abantu nkatwe bakeneye cyane Bibiliya irimo ibisobanuro biboneka mu mikika, byabafasha gusobanukirwa imirongo igoranye.” Icyifuzo cye kigaragaza ko abantu bo mu gihe cye bari bashishikajwe cyane no gusoma Bibiliya no kuyisobanukirwa. Nanone kigaragaza ko Ibyanditswe Byera mu ndimi kavukire byabonekaga cyane muri Esipanye.

Abo bahinduzi n’abandukuzi bo hagati y’ikinyejana cya 5 n’icya 15, bafashije abaturage bize bo muri Esipanye,  gusoma Bibiliya mu rurimi rwabo bitabagoye. Ibyo ni byo byatumye umuhanga mu by’amateka witwa Juan Orts González avuga ko “Abesipanyoli bari bazi Bibiliya kurusha Abadage cyangwa Abongereza mbere y’igihe cya Luther.”

“Abesipanyoli bari bazi Bibiliya kurusha Abadage cyangwa Abongereza mbere y’igihe cya Luther.”—Umuhanga mu by’amateka witwa Juan Orts González

Icyakora ahagana mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 15, urukiko rwa kiliziya rwo muri Esipanye rwasohoye itegeko ribuzanya guhindura cyangwa gutunga Ibyanditswe mu rurimi kavukire urwo ari rwo rwose. Icyo gihe Bibiliya yamaze igihe kirekire idakoreshwa muri Esipanye, iza kongera gukoreshwa nyuma y’ibinyejana bitatu. Muri ibyo bihe bigoye, abahinduzi bake b’intwari bahinduye izindi Bibiliya nshya mu cyesipanyoli bari mu mahanga, bakazinjiza muri Esipanye rwihishwa. *

Nk’uko amateka avuga ibyo guhindura Bibiliya muri Esipanye hagati y’ikinyejana cya 5 n’icya 15 abigaragaza, abayirwanyaga bakoresheje amayeri menshi kugira ngo Ijambo ry’Imana ritamenyekana. Ariko ntibashoboye gucecekesha Ishoborabyose.—Zaburi 83:1; 94:20.

Umurimo utoroshye abahanga benshi bakoze watumye Bibiliya ishinga imizi muri Esipanye hagati y’ikinyejana cya 5 n’icya 15 kandi igera hirya no hino muri icyo gihugu. Abahinduzi bo muri iki gihe na bo bageze ikirenge mu cy’izo ntwari zahinduye Bibiliya mu kilatini, ikigoti, icyarabu n’icyesipanyoli. Ibyo byatumye abantu babarirwa muri za miriyoni bavuga icyesipanyoli muri iki gihe, bashobora gusoma Bibiliya mu rurimi rubagera ku mutima.

^ par. 10 Muri izo ndimi harimo igikasitiliyani, igikatalani, ikigalisiyani n’igiporutugali.

^ par. 17 Muri iki gihe, icyesipanyoli ni ururimi kavukire rw’abantu bagera kuri miriyoni 540.

^ par. 20 Reba ingingo igira iti “Uko Alfonso de Zamora yahinduye umwandiko uhuje n’ukuri urimo izina ry’Imana,” yasohotse mu nomero y’iyi gazeti yo ku itariki ya 1 Ukuboza 2011.

^ par. 23 Reba ingingo igira iti “Uko Casiodoro de Reina yarwaniriye Bibiliya y’icyesipanyoli,” yasohotse mu nomero y’iyi gazeti yo ku ya 1 Kamena 1996 (mu gifaransa).

Ikibasike. Mu mwaka wa 1571, Jean de Liçarrague yahinduye Ibyanditswe by’Ikigiriki mu kibasike, ku nkunga y’umwamikazi wa Navarre. Uwo murimo Liçarrague yakoze watumye hashyirwaho urufatiro rw’amategeko y’ikibonezamvugo cy’ururimi rw’ikibasike. Bivugwa ko uruhare Liçarrague yagize ku rurimi rw’ikibasike ari nk’urwo Jérôme yagize ku rurimi rw’ikilatini, cyangwa urwo Luther yagize ku rurimi rw’ikidage.