Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Nzeri 2013

Ese indimi tuvuga zakomotse ku ‘munara w’i Babeli’?

Ese indimi tuvuga zakomotse ku ‘munara w’i Babeli’?

“Yehova arabatatanya bakwira ku isi hose, amaherezo barorera kubaka uwo mugi. Ni yo mpamvu uwo mugi wiswe Babeli, kuko aho ari ho Yehova yasobanyirije ururimi rw’isi yose.”—Intangiriro 11:8, 9.

ESE iyo nkuru ivugwa muri Bibiliya yabayeho koko? Ese abantu batangiye kuvuga indimi zitandukanye icyarimwe, nk’uko bivugwa muri iyo nkuru? Hari abanenga ibivugwa muri iyo nkuru ya Bibiliya igaragaza uko indimi abantu bavuga zabayeho n’uko zakwirakwiriye mu isi. Hari umwanditsi wihandagaje avuga ati “inkuru y’impimbano y’umunara w’i Babeli ni imwe mu nkuru zidasobanutse kurusha izindi zose zabayeho.” Hari na rabi w’Umuyahudi wayise “inkuru ibaranywe ubujiji igerageza gusobanura aho ibihugu byakomotse.”

Kuki abantu batemera inkuru ivuga iby’umunara w’i Babeli? Muri make, ni uko ivuguruza ibitekerezo bimwe na bimwe birebana n’aho indimi zakomotse. Urugero, hari intiti zivuga ko amatsinda y’indimi atapfuye kubaho gutya gusa, ahubwo ko yagiye avuka buhoro buhoro aturutse ku rurimi abantu bari basanzwe bavuga. Izindi ntiti zitekereza ko indimi zagiye zivuka zidaturutse kuri urwo rurimi abantu bari basanzwe bavuga, ahubwo ko zavuye ku mvugo imeze nko guhuma, zikagera ku rwunge rw’amajwi asobanutse. Ibyo bitekerezo hamwe n’ibindi bivuguruzanya, byatumye abantu benshi bemeranya n’ibyo Porofeseri W.T. Fitch yanditse mu gitabo cye, agira ati “ntituramenya neza inkomoko nyayo y’indimi.”—The Evolution of Language.

Abahanga mu bushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe mu matongo n’abandi bashakashatsi, bavumbuye iki ku birebana n’inkomoko y’indimi tuvuga n’uko zagiye zitera imbere? Ese ibyo bavumbuye bishyigikira bimwe mu bitekerezo tumaze kuvuga, cyangwa bishyigikira ibivugwa mu nkuru ya Bibiliya ivuga iby’umunara w’i Babeli? Reka tubanze dusuzume ibivugwa muri iyo nkuru yo muri Bibiliya.

IGIHE BYABEREYE N’AHO BYABEREYE

Bibiliya ivuga ko gutatanya abantu no gusobanya indimi zabo byabereye ‘mu gihugu cy’i Shinari,’ cyaje kwitwa Babuloni (Intangiriro 11:2). Byabayeho ryari? Bibiliya ivuga ko mu gihe cya Pelegi wavutse imyaka igera  kuri 250 mbere y’uko Aburahamu avuka, ‘isi yiciyemo ibice.’ Ku bw’ibyo, ibivugwa mu nkuru y’umunara w’i Babeli bimaze imyaka igera ku 4.200 bibaye.—Intangiriro 10:25; 11:18-26.

Zimwe mu ntiti zivuga ko indimi zivugwa muri iki gihe zaturutse ku rurimi abantu bari basanzwe bavuga, ubu hakaba hashize imyaka igera ku 100.000. * Hari abandi bavuga ko indimi zo muri iki gihe zifitanye isano n’izindi ndimi abantu bari basanzwe bavuga, ubu hakaba hashize imyaka igera ku 6.000. None se abahanga mu by’indimi basobanura bate ibirebana n’ukuntu indimi zimwe na zimwe zabayeho hanyuma zigacika? Hari ikinyamakuru cyagize kiti “ibitekerezo batanga ntibisobanutse. Abahanga mu by’indimi si kimwe n’abahanga mu by’ibinyabuzima, kuko bo nta bintu byataburuwe bafite byabafasha kumenya amateka” (The Economist). Nanone icyo kinyamakuru cyavuze ko ibyo umuhanga umwe mu by’indimi wemera ubwihindurize yagezeho, bishingiye ku “mibare yo gukekeranya gusa.”

Ariko kandi, abahanga mu by’indimi bafite “ibintu bifatika biranga indimi.” Ibyo bintu ni ibihe, kandi se bivuga iki ku birebana n’inkomoko y’indimi abantu bavuga? Hari igitabo cyavuze kiti “inyandiko za kera kurusha izindi, ari na zo abantu bashobora kwifashisha mu bushakashatsi bwabo mu birebana n’indimi, zimaze imyaka itarenze 4.000 cyangwa 5.000” (The New Encyclopædia Britannica). None se abahanga mu bushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe mu matongo bavanye he izo nyandiko zivuga iby’“inkomoko y’indimi”? Bazivumbuye mu majyepfo ya Mezopotamiya, ahahoze umugi wa Shinari. * Ku bw’ibyo, ibimenyetso bifatika bishobora kuboneka, bihuza n’ibivugwa muri Bibiliya.

INDIMI ZITANDUKANYE, IMITEKEREREZE ITANDUKANYE

Inkuru yo muri Bibiliya ivuga ko Imana ‘yasobanyije ururimi [rw’abantu b’i Babeli] kugira ngo hatazagira uwumva ururimi rw’undi’ (Intangiriro 11:7). Ibyo byatumye abubatsi “barorera kubaka uwo mugi” w’i Babeli, maze Imana ibatatanyiriza “ku isi hose” (Intangiriro 11:8, 9). Ku bw’ibyo, Bibiliya ntivuga ko indimi zose zivugwa kuri iyi si zakomotse ku rurimi abantu bari basanzwe bavuga. Ahubwo ivuga ko habayeho indimi zitandukanye mu buryo butunguranye, zikaba zari indimi nshya zihagije. Buri rurimi rwashoboraga kumvikanisha ibyiyumvo n’ibitekerezo by’abantu baruvuga, kandi rwose rwihariye ku buryo warutandukanya n’izindi.

Akabumbano ko muri Mezopotamiya, kariho inyandiko ikoresha ibimenyetso ko mu kinyagihumbi cya 3 Mbere ya Yesu

Bite se ku birebana n’amatsinda atandukanye y’indimi? Ese ni amwe cyangwa aratandukanye? Lera Boroditsky, umuhanga mu bya siyansi akaba n’umwarimu wungirije muri kaminuza ya Stanford, yaranditse ati “uko abahanga mu by’indimi bagenda basesengura mu buryo bwimbitse indimi zivugwa ku isi (zigera ku 7.000 cyangwa zirenga, izasesenguwe zikaba ari nke cyane), basanga hari ibintu byinshi zitandukaniyeho batari bazi.” Ubwo rero nubwo indimi ziri mu itsinda rimwe zishobora kuba zisa, urugero nk’igikanto n’igihaka zivugwa mu majyepfo y’u Bushinwa, mu by’ukuri ziba zitandukanye n’izo mu rindi tsinda ry’indimi, urugero nk’igikatarani cy’iburengerazuba cyangwa ikivarensiya zo muri Esipanye.

Indimi zigira uruhare mu mitekerereze y’abantu no ku buryo bavuga ibibakikije, urugero nk’amabara, ubwinshi bw’ibintu, ahantu n’amerekezo. Urugero, mu rurimi rumwe umuntu ashobora kuvuga ati “dore  igiheri ku kuboko kwawe kw’iburyo.” Ariko mu rundi rurimi ho, akaba yavuga ati “dore igiheri mu majyepfo y’uburengerazuba bw’ukuboko kwawe.” Iryo tandukaniro rishobora guteza urujijo. Ntibitangaje rero kuba abubatsi b’umunara w’i Babeli barananiwe gukomeza umushinga wabo.

ESE NI IMVUGO IMEZE NKO GUHUMA CYANGWA NI URWUNGE RW’AMAJWI ASOBANUTSE?

None se ururimi abantu bari basanzwe bavuga, rwari ruteye rute? Bibiliya ivuga ko umugabo wa mbere ari we Adamu, yari afite ubushobozi bwo guhimba amagambo mashya igihe yitaga amazina inyamaswa zose n’ibiguruka (Intangiriro 2:20). Nanone Adamu yahimbiye umugore we umuvugo agira ngo agaragaze ko amwishimiye. Umugore we na we yasobanuye neza itegeko Imana yabahaye avuga n’ingaruka zari guterwa no kutumvira kwabo (Intangiriro 2:23; 3:1-3). Ubwo rero, ururimi rwa mbere abantu bavugaga rwabafashije gushyikirana neza, kandi buri wese akaganira n’undi bitamugoye.

Igikorwa cyo gusobanya indimi cyabereye i Babeli, cyatumye abantu batakaza ubushobozi bwo guhuza ubwenge bwabo n’imbaraga zabo. Icyakora indimi nshya zari zivutse, kimwe n’urwa mbere, zari urwunge rw’amajwi asobanutse. Mu gihe cy’imyaka ibarirwa mu magana, abantu bagiye bubaka imigi ikomeye, barema imitwe ikomeye y’ingabo kandi bakora imirimo y’ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga (Intangiriro 13:12; 14:1-11; 37:25). Ese bari kugera ku iterambere rigeze aho, badakoresheje indimi zifite amagambo n’amategeko y’ikibonezamvugo bisobanutse? Bibiliya igaragaza ko ururimi abantu bari basanzwe bavuga n’indimi zavutse bubaka umunara w’i Babeli, atari imvugo imeze nko guhuma, ahubwo ko ari urwunge rw’amajwi asobanutse.

Ubushakashatsi bwo muri iki gihe bushyigikira icyo gitekerezo. Hari inkoranyamagambo igira iti “ibihugu bitandukanye byakorewemo ubushakashatsi, ndetse na bya bindi byitwa ko byasigaye inyuma, usanga bifite ururimi rusobanutse. Indimi zabyo nta ho wazitandukanyiriza n’izivugwa mu bihugu byitwa ko byateye imbere” (The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language). Ibyo ni na byo byavuzwe mu kindi gitabo cya Steven Pinker, umwarimu muri kaminuza ya Harvard. Yagize ati “nta rurimi na rumwe wavuga ko rwasigaye inyuma.”—The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language.

INDIMI MU GIHE KIZAZA

None se nyuma yo gusuzuma igihe ibintu biranga indimi byavumburiwe n’aho byavumbuwe, ibintu by’ingenzi bitandukanya amatsinda y’indimi n’imiterere ihebuje y’indimi za kera, ni uwuhe mwanzuro ushyize mu gaciro twafata? Abantu benshi bageze ku mwanzuro w’uko ibivugwa mu nkuru yo muri Bibiliya y’ibyabereye i Babeli ari ukuri kudashidikanywaho.

Bibiliya itubwira ko Yehova Imana yasobanyije indimi z’abantu i Babeli, bitewe n’uko bamwigometseho (Intangiriro 11:4-7). Icyakora yatanze isezerano rigira riti “nzahindura ururimi rw’abantu bo mu mahanga rube ururimi rutunganye kugira ngo bose bambaze izina rya Yehova, no kugira ngo bose bamukorere bafatanye urunana” (Zefaniya 3:9). Urwo ‘rurimi rutunganye,’ ari rwo kuri ko mu Ijambo ry’Imana, rutuma abantu bo hirya no hino ku isi bunga ubumwe. Uko bigaragara, birakwiriye ko mu gihe kizaza Imana izaha abantu ururimi rumwe rutunganye bakarushaho kunga ubumwe. Ibyo bizaba bivanyeho ingaruka zatewe no gusobanya indimi byabereye i Babeli.

^ par. 8 Buri gihe ibitekerezo abantu batanga ku birebana n’aho indimi zaturutse, byumvikanisha ko abantu bakomotse ku nguge. Niba wifuza kumenya ibyo abo bantu bavuze, reba agatabo kavuga iby’inkomoko y’ubuzima (Cinq questions à se poser sur l’origine de la vie, ipaji ya 27-29) kanditswe n’Abahamya ba Yehova.

^ par. 9 Abahanga mu bushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe mu matongo bavumbuye hafi y’i Shinari iminara y’insengero iriho ingazi, imeze nka piramide. Bibiliya ivuga ko abubatsi b’umunara w’i Babeli bubakishije amatafari aho kubakisha amabuye, hanyuma bakayafatanyisha godoro aho gukoresha umucanga na sima (Intangiriro 11:3, 4). Hari igitabo cyavuze ko muri Mezopotamiya, amabuye “atapfaga kuboneka cyangwa ntanaboneke na busa,” mu gihe godoro yo yabonekaga cyane.—The New Encyclopædia Britannica.