Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Kamena 2013

Ubutunzi bw’agaciro bwamaze igihe kirekire buhishwe

Ubutunzi bw’agaciro bwamaze igihe kirekire buhishwe

Iyo ntiti ikibona uwo mwandiko wa kera yagize ngo irarota. Nyuma yo kuwusuzumana ubwitonzi incuro nyinshi, isuzuma imyandikire yawo n’imiterere y’ikibonezamvugo, yaje gutahura ko ari ibice bya Bibiliya y’ikinyajeworujiya ya kera kurusha izindi.

UBWO butunzi bw’agaciro bwavumbuwe ahagana mu mpera z’Ukuboza 1922, igihe umuhanga w’Umunyajeworujiya witwa Ivané Javakhishvili yakoraga ubushakashatsi ku birebana n’amateka y’inyuguti z’ikinyajeworujiya. Muri ubwo bushakashatsi yaje kubona kopi ya Talmud y’i Yerusalemu yanditswe mu giheburayo. Ubwo yayisuzumaga, yabonye undi mwandiko wanditswe mu kinyajeworujiya usa n’uwasibamye munsi y’uwo mwandiko w’igiheburayo. *

Uwo mwandiko “uhishwe” wari wanditswe munsi y’uwa Talmud, wari agace ko muri Bibiliya k’igitabo cya Yeremiya ko mu kinyejana cya gatanu. Mbere y’uko uwo mwandiko uvumburwa, umwandiko wa Bibiliya mu rurimi rw’ikinyajeworujiya wa kera kurusha indi wari uwo mu kinyejana cya cyenda. Nyuma yaho gato, haje kuvumburwa ibindi bice by’ibitabo byo muri Bibiliya byo mu kinyejana cya gatanu cyangwa mbere yaho. Tekereza ukuntu byari bishishikaje kuvumbura umwandiko wo muri Bibiliya wabayeho nyuma y’ibinyejana bike gusa Yesu n’intumwa ze babaye ku isi!

Ni nde wari warahinduye uwo mwandiko? Ese ni umuntu umwe cyangwa ni itsinda ry’abantu? Kugeza ubu, nta nyandiko yo mu rwego rw’amateka yaba yaravumbuwe ku buryo yatanga igisubizo cy’icyo kibazo. Uwaba yarayihinduye wese, ikigaragara ni uko iyo Bibiliya cyangwa bimwe mu bice byayo byahinduwe mu kinyajeworujiya mu kinyejana cya kane, kandi ko kuva icyo gihe Abanyajeworujiya bashoboraga kubona Ijambo ry’Imana cyangwa kuryigishwa mu rurimi rwabo kavukire.

Inkuru igaragaza ukuntu Abanyajeworujiya bari bazi Ibyanditswe, iboneka mu gitabo gishobora kuba cyaranditswe mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya gatanu (The Martyrdom of St. Shushanik the Queen). Igihe umwanditsi w’icyo gitabo yabaraga inkuru ibabaje y’umwamikazi, yashyiragamo imirongo ya Bibiliya yo muri Zaburi, mu Mavanjiri no mu bindi bitabo byo muri Bibiliya, cyangwa akayerekezaho. Uwo mwanditsi yanavuze ko umugabo wa Shushanik witwa Varsken wari guverineri w’intara ya Kartli yo mu bwami bwa Jeworujiya, yaretse “Ubukristo” akajya mu idini ry’Abaperesi rya Zoroastre, kugira ngo acururutse abatware bakomeye bo mu Buperesi. Yanasabye umugore we kureka kuba Umukristo, ariko arabyanga. Uwo mugore yaje guhumurizwa n’Ibyanditswe, mu minsi ya nyuma y’ubuzima bwe.

 Kuva mu kinyejana cya gatanu, guhindura Bibiliya y’ikinyajeworujiya no kuyandukura ntibyigeze bihagarara. Bibiliya nyinshi zo mu kinyajeworujiya zandikishije intoki, zigaragaza ko abandukuzi n’abahinduzi bazo bakoze akazi katoroshye. Reka turebe ibintu bibiri biranga iyo nkuru ishishikaje, ni ukuvuga imirimo yo guhindura Bibiliya no kuzicapa.

BIBILIYA ZITANGIRA GUHINDURWA ARI NYINSHI

Giorgi Mtatsmindeli wo muri Jeworujiya wabayeho mu kinyejana cya 11 yaravuze ati “jyewe Giorgi, umuntu woroheje wihaye Imana, nahinduye iki gitabo cya Zaburi, ngihindura mu kinyajeworujiya nkivanye mu Kigiriki, mbikora mbyitondeye kandi niyushye akuya.” Kuki byari ngombwa ko hahindurwa Bibiliya mu kinyajeworujiya, kandi hari hashize ibinyejana byinshi hari iyahinduwe muri urwo rurimi?

Mu kinyejana cya 11, Bibiliya z’ikinyajeworujiya zandikishijwe intoki zakwirakwizwaga zari nke cyane. Hari ibitabo bimwe na bimwe byari byarazimiye burundu. Nanone, ururimi rwari rwarahindutse ku buryo bitari byoroshye gusobanukirwa Bibiliya za kera. Nubwo hari abahinduzi batari bake bihatiye gusubiza Bibiliya y’ikinyajeworujiya uko yari imeze, Giorgi ni we wabigizemo uruhare rukomeye. Yafataga Bibiliya z’ikinyajeworujiya zariho icyo gihe akazigereranya n’iy’ikigiriki, hanyuma ibice biburamo akabihindura. Hari n’igihe yahinduraga igitabo cyose. Kubera ko yari umuyobozi w’ikigo cy’abihaye Imana, ku manywa yakoraga imirimo irebana n’ako kazi, nijoro agahindura Bibiliya.

Undi muntu wabayeho mu gihe kimwe na Giorgi witwa Ephrem Mtsire yakomereje aho yari ageze. Yanditse agatabo karimo amabwiriza agenewe abahinduzi. Ako gatabo karimo amahame y’ingenzi y’ubuhinduzi, urugero nko guhindura uhereye ku rurimi rw’umwimerere mu gihe bishoboka, gukurikiza umwandiko w’umwimerere uko ushoboye kose, ariko nanone umwandiko umaze guhindura ukagumana umwimerere wawo. Nanone yatangije uburyo bwo kwandika ibisobanuro ahagana hasi ku ipaji no gushyira impuzamirongo hagati y’inkingi, muri Bibiliya z’ikinyajeworujiya. Uretse ibyo, Ephrem yanahinduye bundi bushya ibitabo byinshi byo muri Bibiliya. Ibyo Giorgi na Ephrem bakoze, byifashishijwe cyane n’abandi bahinduzi ba nyuma yaho.

Mu kinyejana cyakurikiyeho, muri Jeworujiya handitswe ibitabo byinshi. Mu migi ya Gelati na Ikalto hashinzwe ibigo byinshi by’ubushakashatsi. Intiti nyinshi zitekereza ko Bibiliya ya Gelati, muri iki gihe ikaba ibitswe mu kigo cya Jeworujiya gishinzwe gushyingura inyandiko zandikishijwe intoki, yahinduwe n’umwe mu ntiti z’i Gelati cyangwa zo mu mugi wa Ikalto.

None se guhindura Bibiliya byamariye iki abaturage bo muri Jeworujiya? Mu kinyejana cya 12, umusizi wo muri icyo gihugu witwa Shota Rustaveli yanditse igisigo cyitwa Vepkhis-tqaosani (Umurwanyi wambaye uruhu rw’urusamagwe). Icyo gisigo cyagize uruhare rukomeye mu guhindura imitekerereze y’abantu mu gihe cy’ibinyejana byinshi, ku buryo abaturage bacyise Bibiliya ya kabiri yo mu kinyajeworujiya. Indi ntiti yo muri Jeworujiya yitwa K. Kekelidze yavuze ko nubwo  nta wakwemeza ko ibyo uwo musizi yanditse yabivanye muri Bibiliya, “bimwe mu byo yavuze bifitanye isano n’imirongo itandukanye yo muri Bibiliya.” Icyakora nubwo ibyavuzwe muri icyo gisigo byari amakabyankuru, akenshi cyibanda ku mico myiza, urugero nk’ubucuti nyakuri, kugira ubuntu, kubaha abagore no gukunda abo tutazi urukundo ruzira ubwikunde. Iyo mico hamwe n’indi ivugwa muri Bibiliya yagize uruhare ku mitekerereze y’abaturage bo muri Jeworujiya mu gihe cy’ibinyejana byinshi, kandi na n’ubu ni yo ikibaranga.

UMURYANGO WA CYAMI WIYEMEZA GUCAPA BIBILIYA

Mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 17, abari bagize umuryango wa cyami wo muri Jeworujiya bifuzaga cyane kubona Bibiliya icapye. Kugira ngo babigereho, Umwami Vakhtang VI yubatse icapiro mu murwa mukuru ari wo Tbilisi. Icyakora, umwandiko wa Bibiliya wagombaga gucapwa ntiwari wakabonetse. Twavuga ko Bibiliya y’ikinyajeworujiya yari yongeye guhishwa. Icyo gihe habonekaga inyandiko zandikishijwe intoki z’ibitabo bimwe na bimwe, kandi na zo ntizari zuzuye. Uretse n’ibyo, zari zanditswe mu rurimi rudahuje n’igihe. Impuguke mu by’iyigandimi yitwa Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani, ni we wahawe inshingano yo gusubiramo izo nyandiko no kongera kuzandukura.

Orbeliani yahise atangira uwo murimo kandi yawukoranye umwete. Kubera ko yari azi indimi nyinshi hakubiyemo ikigiriki n’ikilatini, yashoboraga kwifashisha ibindi bitabo, aho kwifashisha gusa inyandiko z’ikinyajeworujiya zari zihari. Ariko kandi, abayobozi b’idini ry’Aborutodogisi bo muri Jeworujiya ntibamwishimiye, kuko yari wa muntu uhora yiteguye kwakira ibitekerezo by’abandi. Bamushinje kugambanira idini kandi bemeza umwami ko agomba kumubuza guhindura Bibiliya. Hari ibitabo byo mu kinyajeworujiya byavuze ko abayobozi b’iryo dini bakoze inama, maze bagahatira Orbeliani gutwika Bibiliya yari amaze imyaka anonosora.

Birashishikaje kuba muri iki gihe hakiriho kopi ya Bibiliya ya Mtskheta, nanone izwi ku izina rya Bibiliya ya Saba. Iyo Bibiliya ibonekamo amagambo Orbeliani yandikishije ikaramu. Icyakora hari abashidikanya ko iyo Bibiliya ari yo abayobozi barwanyaga, kuko umugereka wayo ari wo wonyine abantu bemeza ko wanditswe na Orbeliani.

Nubwo havutse ibyo bibazo byose, bamwe mu bagize umuryango wa cyami bari bakibona ko imirimo yo gucapa Bibiliya ari ingenzi. Hagati y’umwaka wa 1705 n’uwa 1711, hacapwe ibice bimwe na bimwe bya Bibiliya. Amaherezo mu mwaka wa 1743, haje gusohoka Bibiliya yuzuye biturutse ku nkunga ya Bakari na Vakhushti bari ibikomangoma muri Jeworujiya. Icyo gihe noneho nta washoboraga kuyihisha.

^ par. 3 Mu bihe bya kera, ibikoresho byo kwandikaho byari bike cyane kandi byarahendaga cyane. Ni yo mpamvu byari bimenyerewe ko abantu basiba umwandiko w’umwimerere, aho wari uri bakazongera kuhandika undi mwandiko. Ijambo ry’ikigiriki ryakoreshejwe basobanura uko byakorwaga, ryumvikanisha igitekerezo cyo “kongera guhanagura.”

National Center of Manuscripts

IBINDI WAMENYA

UBUTUMWA BWIZA BUTURUKA KU MANA

Ese Imana ifite izina?

Imana ifite amazina menshi y’icyubahiro, urugero nk’Ishoborabyose, Umuremyi n’Umwami. Icyakora izina bwite ry’Imana riboneka incuro zigera ku 7.000 muri Bibiliya.

IBIBAZO ABANTU BAKUNZE KWIBAZA

Ese Bibiliya—Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya ihuje n’ukuri?

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