Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Gashyantare 2013

“Ivanjiri ya Yuda” iteye ite?

“Ivanjiri ya Yuda” iteye ite?

MURI Mata 2006, ibinyamakuru byo hirya no hino ku isi byakwirakwije inkuru ishishikaje, yavugaga iby’intiti zari zimaze gusohora ibikubiye mu nyandiko yari imaze kuvumburwa yiswe “Ivanjiri ya Yuda.” Ibyo binyamakuru byavugaga ko iyo nyandiko yahinduye uko abantu babonaga Yuda, umwigishwa wagambaniye Yesu. Iyo nyandiko ivuga ko Yuda yari intwari, ko ari we ntumwa yari isobanukiwe ibya Yesu kurusha izindi, kandi ko yatanze Yesu ngo yicwe bitewe n’uko yari abimusabye.

Ese ibyo iyo nyandiko ivuga ni ukuri? None se niba ibyo ivuga ari ukuri, yaba ihishura amateka y’abantu bamwe na bamwe, urugero nka Yuda Isikariyota, Yesu Kristo cyangwa Abakristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere? Ese ibyo byagombye guhindura uko tubona Kristo n’inyigisho ze?

UKO “IVANJIRI YA YUDA” YAVUMBUWE

Uko “Ivanjiri ya Yuda” yavumbuwe ntibiramenyekana. Abashakashatsi mu byataburuwe mu matongo si bo bayivumbuye kandi si bo bemeje ibyayo. Ahubwo, yatangiye kugurishwa mu buryo butunguranye mu mpera y’imyaka ya za 70 cyangwa mu ntangiriro y’imyaka ya za 80. Ishobora kuba yaravumbuwe muri Egiputa mu mwaka wa 1978, mu buvumo bashyinguragamo abantu. Ni umwe mu myandiko ine yari igize kodegisi cyangwa ubwoko bw’ibitabo bya kera, yanditswe mu rurimi rw’igikobute (ururimi rwo muri Egiputa ya kera).

Kubera ko aho iyo kodegisi yahoze muri Egiputa hashyuhaga ku buryo byatumaga itangirika, igihe bayihavanaga yatangiye kwangirika. Mu mwaka wa 1983 yaje kwerekwa intiti zimwe na zimwe, ariko nta washoboye kuyigura kubera ko yari ihenze cyane. Iyo kodegisi yaje kurushaho kwangirika kubera ko yamaze indi myaka myinshi ititabwaho kandi ibitswe nabi. Mu wa 2000, yaguzwe n’Umusuwisikazi ucuruza ibintu byaranze amateka ya kera. Uwo Musuwisikazi yaje kuyishyikiriza itsinda ry’impuguke mpuzamahanga ryaterwaga inkunga n’ikigo cyo mu Busuwisi gishinzwe ibihangano bya kera, hamwe n’isosiyete ikora ubushakashatsi ku bya siyansi (National Geographic). Izo mpuguke zahawe inshingano itoroshye yo gusubiza iyo kodegisi umwimerere wayo, kuko yari  yaracagaguritse. Nanone zagombaga kugaragaza igihe iyo kodegisi yandikiwe, zigahindura ibirimo mu zindi ndimi kandi zikabisobanura.

Ubushakashatsi bwakorewe kuri iyo kodegisi, bwagaragaje ko ishobora kuba yaranditswe mu kinyejana cya gatatu cyangwa icya kane. Icyakora, izo ntiti zavuze ko umwandiko wo mu rurimi rw’igikobute w’iyo “Vanjiri ya Yuda,” wari warahinduwe uvanywe mu mwandiko w’umwimerere w’ikigiriki wanditswe mbere yaho. None se iyo kodegisi yanditswe ryari, kandi se yanditswe mu yihe mimerere?

“IVANJIRI YA YUDA” YANDITSWE MU GIHE CY’ABAGUNOSITIKI

Inyandiko za mbere zavuze iby’icyo gitabo cy’“Ivanjiri ya Yuda,” ni iz’umwanditsi wiyitaga Umukristo wabayeho mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya kabiri witwaga Irénée. Mu gitabo yanditse kivuga ibirebana no kurwanya ubuhakanyi, yavuze ibya rimwe mu matsinda yari afite inyigisho atemeraga. Yagize ati “[abagize iryo tsinda] bavuga ko umugambanyi Yuda yari azi neza ibyo bintu, kandi ko ari we wenyine washohoje iyobera ry’ubugambanyi, kuko ari we wenyine wari uzi ukuri kurusha abandi. Binyuze kuri we, ibintu byose byo mu isi no mu ijuru byaguye mu rujijo. Nguko uko bahimbye inkuru ivuga iby’ayo mateka atarabayeho, bayita Ivanjiri ya Yuda.”—Against Heresies.

“Iyi Vanjiri ntiyanditswe n’umuntu wabayeho mu gihe kimwe na Yuda, kandi wari umuzi neza”

Irénée yari agamije cyane cyane kuvuguruza inyigisho zitandukanye z’Abakristo b’Abagunositiki, bihandagazaga bavuka ko hari inyigisho zihariye bahishuriwe. Icyo gihe hariho amatsinda menshi y’Abagunositiki, kandi buri tsinda ryari rifite uko risobanura icyo ryitaga ukuri kwa gikristo. Abagunositiki bamamaje inyigisho zishingiye ku nyandiko zabo, zirushaho gukwirakwira cyane mu kinyejana cya kabiri.

Izo nyandiko z’Abagunositiki zemeza ko intumwa za Yesu zizwi cyane zitari zisobanukiwe ubutumwa bwe, kandi ko hari inyigisho y’ibanga Yesu yasobanuriye zimwe mu ntumwa ze. * Bamwe muri abo Bagunositiki bizeraga ko iyo umuntu akiri muzima muri iyi si, aba ari muri gereza. Ni yo mpamvu bavuga ko “imana muremyi” ivugwa mu Byanditswe by’Igiheburayo, idakomeye uyigereranyije n’izindi mana zikomeye bizeraga. Bizeraga ko umuntu ufite icyo bitaga ubumenyi nyakuri, yari gusobanukirwa iryo “banga” maze akava muri uyu mubiri.

Ibyo ni na ko bimeze ku “Ivanjiri ya Yuda.” Iyo vanjiri ibimburirwa n’amagambo agira ati “iri ni ibanga Yesu yamenyesheje Yuda Isikariyota mu gihe cy’iminsi umunani, hasigaye iminsi itatu ngo bizihize Pasika.”

Ese aho iyo kodegisi, si yo Irénée yagize icyo avugaho, ikaba yari imaze ibinyejana byinshi bivugwa ko yaburiwe irengero? Marvin Meyer wari mu bagize itsinda rya mbere ryasesenguye iyo kodegisi kandi rikayihindura mu zindi ndimi, yavuze ko “ibyo [Irénée] yavuze bihuje neza n’umwandiko w’igikobute witwa Ivanjiri ya Yuda.”

INTITI NTIZIVUGA RUMWE KURI YUDA UVUGWA MURI IYO VANJIRI

“Ivanjiri ya Yuda” ivuga ko Yesu yasetse abigishwa be abannyega, igihe bagaragazaga ko badafite ubumenyi nyakuri. Iyo vanjiri ivuga ko Yuda ari we wenyine mu ntumwa 12, wari uzi neza kamere ya Yesu. Ngo ibyo ni byo byatumye Yesu amuhishurira “amayobera y’ubwami.”

Itsinda rya mbere ry’intiti ryahinduye “Ivanjiri ya Yuda” mu zindi ndimi, ryagendeye ku bisobanuro Irénée yatanze. Umwandiko bahinduye, wumvikanisha ko Yuda ari we mwigishwa wenyine Yesu yakundaga, kandi ko yari gusobanukirwa inyigisho z’amayobera, bityo “akinjira mu bwami.” Ngo nubwo intumwa zayobye zari gushyiraho usimbura Yuda, we yari kuba “umwuka wa cumi na gatatu,” wari “kuruta abandi [bigishwa bose],” kuko Yesu yavuze ati “uzatanga umuntu wanyambitse.”

 Abanditsi bandika ibitabo bikundwa cyane, urugero nka Bart Ehrman na Elaine Pagels, nanone bakaba ari inzobere mu birebana n’amateka y’Abakristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere n’Abagunositiki, na bo bahise bandika ibitabo bisesengura kandi bisobanura “Ivanjiri ya Yuda.” Umwandiko wo muri ibyo bitabo wari umeze nk’uwahinduwe na rya tsinda rya mbere. Icyakora nyuma yaho gato, izindi ntiti, urugero nka April DeConick na Birger Pearson, zagaragaje ko zifite impungenge. Zavuze ko ya sosiyete ikora ubushakashatsi ku bya siyansi yihutiye gusohora ibikubiye muri uwo mwandiko wa kera, kugira ngo gusa uvugwe mu itangazamakuru. Nanone izo ntiti zavuze ko abasesenguye uwo mwandiko batakurikije amabwiriza abigenga, kuko itsinda ryawusesenguye ryasabwe gusinya amasezerano yo kubigira ubwiru.

Mu ntiti zose zasesenguye iyo nyandiko, nta n’imwe yigeze yemeza ko ibikubiyemo ari ukuri

Kubera ko DeConick na Pearson bo bigengaga, bavuze ko intiti za mbere zahinduye nabi bimwe mu bice by’ingenzi bigize iyo kodegisi. Mu mwandiko w’iyo vanjiri DeConick yashubije uko wari umeze, Yesu yise Yuda “umudayimoni wa cumi na gatatu,” aho kuba “umwuka wa cumi na gatatu.” * Nanone yavuze ko Yesu yabwiye Yuda adaciye ku ruhande ko atari kuzinjira mu “bwami,” kandi ko ‘ataruta’ abandi bigishwa. Byongeye kandi ngo Yesu yabwiye Yuda ati “uzakora ibintu bibi kurusha abandi bose. Uzatanga umuntu wanyambitse.” DeConick we yumvaga ko “Ivanjiri ya Yuda” igamije gusebya izindi ntumwa zose. Umwanzuro DeConick na Pearson bagezeho, ni uko Yuda atagaragazwa nk’intwari mu “Ivanjiri ya Yuda.”

ICYO TWAVUGA KU CYO BITA “IVANJIRI YA YUDA”

Intiti zose zasesenguye iyo nyandiko, zaba zumva ko Yuda uvugwa muri iyo vanjiri yari intwari cyangwa umudayimoni, nta n’umwe muri zo wigeze yemeza ko ibikubiye muri iyo nyandiko ari ukuri. Bart Ehrman yabisobanuye agira ati “iyi Vanjiri ntiyanditswe na Yuda cyangwa ngo yandikwe n’umuntu umwiyitirira. . . . Iyi Vanjiri ntiyanditswe n’umuntu wabayeho mu gihe kimwe na Yuda, kandi wari umuzi neza . . . Ku bw’ibyo, iki si gitabo gishobora kuduha ibisobanuro by’inyongera ku birebana n’ibintu byabayeho mu gihe cya Yesu.”

Iyo “Vanjiri ya Yuda” ni inyandiko y’Abagunositiki yo mu kinyejana cya kabiri, yanditswe mbere na mbere mu rurimi rw’ikigiriki. Na n’ubu intiti ziracyajya impaka zishaka kumenya niba iyo “Vanjiri ya Yuda” iherutse kuvumburwa ari yo nyandiko Irénée yigeze kuvuga. Icyakora, iyo “Vanjiri ya Yuda” itanga gihamya ifatika y’uko hari igihe udutsiko tw’Abakristo b’ikinyoma binjije inyigisho zabo mu itorero, bigatuma ricikamo ibice. Aho kugira ngo iyo vanjiri ivuguruze Ibyanditswe, ishimangira imiburo yatanzwe n’intumwa, urugero nk’uwatanzwe na Pawulo mu Byakozwe 20:29, 30, ugira uti “nzi ko nimara kugenda . . . muri mwe ubwanyu hazaduka abantu bagoreka ukuri kugira ngo bireherezeho abigishwa.”

^ par. 11 Hari andi mavanjiri akunze kwitirirwa bamwe mu bitwa ko bari basobanukiwe neza ukuri kw’inyigisho za Yesu, urugero nk’“Ivanjiri ya Tomasi,” n’“Ivanjiri ya Mariya Magadalena.” Hatahuwe inyandiko za kera zo muri ubwo bwoko zigera hafi kuri 30.

^ par. 18 Intiti zumva ko uyu mwandiko ugaragaza ko Yuda ari umudayimoni, akaba ari we wari usobanukiwe neza uwo Yesu ari we kurusha abandi bigishwa. Nanone zagaragaje ko ibyo bihuje n’ukuntu abadayimoni bavugwa mu Mavanjiri basobanuye neza uwo Yesu ari we.—Mariko 3:11; 5:7.