Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Ukuboza 2012

Amavuta n’ibindi bintu bisigaga mu bihe bya Bibiliya

Amavuta n’ibindi bintu bisigaga mu bihe bya Bibiliya

Mu bintu abagore bo mu bihe bya Bibiliya bakoreshaga birimbisha, harimo ibyo bisigaga mu maso no ku mubiri

Umugore amaze koga maze yisiga amavuta ahumura neza. Afunguye agasanduku gato k’amabara menshi, kandi kariho imitako. Ako gasanduku karimo uducupa duto, harimo udukoze mu kirahuri dufite ishusho y’akabindi, udukoze mu mahembe y’inzovu, mu bikonoshwa cyangwa mu mabuye. Utwo ducupa turimo amavuta n’imibavu itandukanye, urugero nk’umubavu wa karidamomu, sinamomu, ubuki, ububani, ishangi n’ibindi.

Wa mugore avanye muri ako gasanduku utuntu tumeze nk’utuyiko, utumeze nk’udusahani n’utumeze nk’utubakure, atuvangisha amavuta yateganyije kwisiga uwo munsi. Arangije yirebeye mu ndorerwamo ikozwe muri buronze, kugira ngo yinogereze.

KUVA kera, abagore bashishikazwa no kwiyitaho kugira ngo babe beza. Amashusho yo ku mva za kera ayo ku nkuta n’andi yo ku mabuye aconze, yerekana ko abantu bo muri Mezopotamiya no muri Egiputa bari bamenyereye kwisiga amavuta no kwitera imibavu. Ibishushanyo by’abagore bo muri Egiputa babaga bisize cyane ku maso, byarakundwaga cyane.

None se twavuga iki ku Bisirayelikazi? Ese na bo barisigaga, ibi byo kunoza uburanga? None se bisigaga iki? Birumvikana ko nta bishushanyo byo ku mva za kera, cyangwa byo ku nkuta byo muri Isirayeli ya kera dushobora kubona ngo tubirebereho. Icyakora inkuru zimwe na zimwe zo muri Bibiliya n’ubushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe mu matongo yo mu bihugu bivugwa muri Bibiliya, bigaragaza muri make ibyo abagore bisigaga mu bihe bya Bibiliya.

Ibikoresho bifashishaga

Ibintu bashyiragamo ibyo kwisiga, Isirayeli

Hari ibikoresho byinshi byakoreshwaga mu kwisiga no kwitera imibavu byagiye bitabururwa mu gihugu cya Isirayeli. Muri byo harimo utubakure n’utundi dukoresho dushashe ducuzwe mu mabuye baseragaho ibintu byo kwisiga kandi bakabivangiraho. Hari n’uducupa dufite ishusho nk’iya karoti bashyiragamo imibavu, inzabya z’amavuta y’agati kitwa narada n’indorerwamo ziconzwe mu mabuye ya buronze. Babonye n’ikiyiko kibajwe mu ihembe ry’inzovu gishushanyijeho amababi y’umukindo ku ruhande rumwe, ku rundi hashushanyije umutwe w’umugore uzengurutswe n’inuma nyinshi.

Abakire bagomba kuba barabikaga ibintu byo kwisiga mu bikonoshwa biriho imitako. Utuyiko duto bakoreshaga bisiga, twabaga dukoze mu mahembe y’inzovu cyangwa mu biti. Hari tumwe twabaga dufite ishusho y’abakobwa barimo boga kandi dushushanyijeho n’ibindi bintu, twabonetse muri Egiputa no mu duce tw’ahahoze ari mu gihugu cya Kanani. Ibyo byose bigaragaza ko abagore b’icyo gihe bakundaga kwisiga amavuta no kwitera imibavu.

Ibyo basigaga ku maso

Umwe mu bakobwa ba Yobu uvugwa muri Bibiliya yitwaga “Kereni-Hapuki.” Mu giheburayo, iryo zina risobanura “ihembe ry’irangi ry’umukara (basiga ku maso),” ni ukuvuga agacupa cyangwa agasanduku babikagamo ibintu basiga ku maso bimeze nka tiro, cyangwa irangi ryo ku maso (Yobu 42:14). Nubwo muri rusange iryo zina rishobora kuba ryarerekezaga ku bwiza bwe, ryumvikanisha ko abagore bo muri icyo gihe bakundaga kwisiga ibintu bituma baba beza.

 Birashishikaje kuba iyo Bibiliya ivuga ibyo kwisiga amarangi ku maso, buri gihe iba ivuga ibyerekeye abagore bitwaraga nabi, urugero nk’Umwamikazi Yezebeli w’umugambanyi cyangwa Yerusalemu yahemutse, igereranywa n’indaya mu buhanuzi bwa Yeremiya n’ubwa Ezekiyeli (2 Abami 9:30; Yeremiya 4:30; Ezekiyeli 23:40). Hataburuwe ibintu byinshi bikozwe mu birahuri no mu mabuye byarimo udukoresho bifashishaga mu kwisiga irangi ryo ku maso. Ibyo bintu ni gihamya y’uko abagore benshi bo muri Isirayeli y’abahakanyi, cyane cyane ab’ibwami n’ab’abakire, bari bafite akamenyero ko kwisiga irangi ryo ku maso cyangwa ibindi bintu.

Amavuta ahumura yakoreshwaga mu bintu byera cyangwa mu bindi

Imibavu ikozwe mu mavuta y’imyelayo ni iya kera cyane muri Isirayeli. Igitabo cyo muri Bibiliya cyo Kuva kivugwamo ibintu byakoreshwaga mu gukora amavuta ahumura neza yakoreshwaga n’umutambyi mu rusengero. Ayo mavuta yabaga akoze muri sinamomu, ishangi n’ibindi bimera bihumura (Kuva 30:22-25). Abashakashatsi mu byataburuwe mu matongo babonye muri Yerusalemu ahantu hakorerwaga imibavu yakoreshwaga mu rusengero, bakaba bakeka ko  ari iyo mu kinyejana cya mbere. Muri Bibiliya harimo imirongo myinshi ivuga iby’amavuta ahumura neza yakoreshwaga mu rusengero cyangwa mu buzima busanzwe.—2 Ibyo ku Ngoma 16:14; Luka 7:37-46; 23:56.

Akantu babikagamo imibavu, Isirayeli

Kubera ko muri ako gace amazi yari ingume, abantu bitaga ku mibiri yabo bakoresheje amavuta ahumura neza. Abisigaga amavuta ntibabaga bagamije gusa kurinda uruhu rwabo mu gihe cy’ubushyuhe bwinshi, ahubwo babaga banagamije kunoza uburanga (Rusi 3:3; 2 Samweli 12:20). Mbere y’uko umukobwa w’Umuyahudikazi witwaga Esiteri ashyikirizwa Umwami Ahasuwerusi, yamaze amezi 12 bamufasha kunoza uburanga bwe. Yabanje kumara amezi 6 bamuhezura bakoresheje amavuta y’ishangi, nyuma yaho bamara andi mezi atandatu bamusiga amavuta ahumura neza kugira ngo arusheho kuba mwiza.—Esiteri 2:12.

Imibavu cyangwa amavuta ahumura, byabaga bifite agaciro nk’ak’ifeza na zahabu. Igihe umwamikazi w’i Sheba yakoraga urugendo rurerure ruzwi cyane ajyanywe no gusura Umwami Salomo, mu mpano yahawe harimo amabuye y’agaciro, zahabu n’amavuta ahumura (1 Abami 10:2, 10). Igihe umwami Hezekiya yerekaga intumwa z’Abanyababuloni ubutunzi bwe, yazeretse “amavuta ahumura neza n’andi mavuta meza” ari kumwe n’ifeza na zahabu n’intwaro ze zose.—Yesaya 39:1, 2.

Imibavu cyangwa amavuta byavanwaga mu ndabo, mu mbuto, mu bibabi, mu mariragege cyangwa mu bishishwa by’ibiti, byabaga ari bike cyane. Bibiliya ivuga bimwe muri ibyo bimera, urugero nk’imisagavu, amariragege yitwa budola, urubingo ruhumura neza, sinamomu, ububani, ishangi, habaseleti na narada. Bimwe muri byo byarimezaga kandi byabaga mu kibaya cya Yorudani. Ibindi byatumizwaga hanze urugero nko mu Buhinde, mu Majyepfo ya Arabiya n’ahandi.

Inkomoko y’“amavuta ahumura neza”

Nk’uko twigeze kubivuga, amavuta ahumura neza avugwa muri Bibiliya mu nkuru y’umwamikazi Esiteri, iy’umwamikazi w’i Sheba n’iy’Umwami Hezekiya. Mu mwaka wa 1988, hari ikintu kirimo amavuta cyavumbuwe mu buvumo buri hafi ya Qumran, mu gace k’uburengerazuba bw’Inyanja y’Umunyu. Ayo mavuta yavuzweho byinshi. Ese aho si yo mavuta ahumura neza avugwa muri Bibiliya? Nta gisubizo kidasubirwaho abashakashatsi baratanga. Kugeza n’ubu, abahinzi baracyagerageza gutera ibiti byari bizwi cyane byavagamo ayo mavuta.

Ikintu babikagamo ibyo kwisiga, Isirayeli

Hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko amavuta ahumura neza avugwa muri Bibiliya, yavaga mu bimera byeraga mu gace ka Eni-gedi. Abashakashatsi bahataburuye amatanura, inzabya n’ibindi bikoresho bikozwe mu byuma no mu magufwa byo mu kinyejana cya gatandatu Mbere ya Yesu, bisa n’ibyakoreshwaga mu tundi turere mu gukora imibavu. Abahanga benshi bemeza ko ibimera byavagamo ayo mavuta ahumura bikomoka muri Arabiya cyangwa muri Afurika. Impumuro yayo yavanwaga mu mariragege y’ibyo bimera. Ayo mavuta yarahendaga cyane, ku buryo uko bahingaga ibiti yavagamo n’uko bayakoraga byagizwe ibanga.

Nanone ayo mavuta yakoreshwaga no mu rwego rwa politiki. Urugero, umuhanga mu by’amateka witwa Josèphe, yavuze ko Mark Antony yahaye umwamikazi wo muri Egiputa witwaga Cléopâtre ibiti byavagamo ayo mavuta ahenze cyane. Umuhanga mu by’amateka w’Umuroma witwa Pline na we yavuze ko mu gihe cy’Intambara y’Abayahudi yabaye mu kinyejana cya mbere, abasirikare b’Abayahudi bagerageje kurimbura ibiti byose byavagamo ayo mavuta ahumura neza, kugira ngo abasirikare b’Abaroma batabyigarurira.

Bibiliya hamwe n’ubushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe mu matongo, bituma tumenya muri make uko amavuta n’ibindi bintu byo kwisiga byakoreshwaga mu bihe bya Bibiliya. Icyakora, Bibiliya ntibuzanya ibyo kunoza uburanga cyangwa ubundi buryo bwo kwiyitaho. Ahubwo igaragaza ko twagombye kwiyubaha no gushyira mu gaciro mu birebana no kwirimbisha (1 Timoteyo 2:9). Intumwa Petero yavuze ko ‘umwuka wo gutuza no kugwa neza, ari wo ufite agaciro kenshi mu maso y’Imana.’ Muri iyi si aho imideri n’imirimbo bidasiba guhinduka, iyo nama ni yo y’ingenzi cyane ku bagore b’Abakristo, baba abato cyangwa abakuze.—1 Petero 3:3, 4.