Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  Nzeri 2012

Izina ry’Imana mu rurimi rw’igiswayire

Izina ry’Imana mu rurimi rw’igiswayire

Ururimi rw’“igiswayire” rwibutsa abantu benshi Afurika n’inyamaswa zaho ziba zigenda mu mikenke ya Serengeti. Icyakora, hari ibindi bintu dushobora kwibukira ku rurimi rw’igiswayire n’abaruvuga.

IGISWAYIRE ni ururimi ruvugwa n’abantu bagera kuri miriyoni ijana bo mu bihugu birenga 12 byo muri Afurika yo hagati n’iy’iburasirazuba. * Mu bihugu bimwe na bimwe, urugero nka Kenya, Tanzaniya na Uganda, ni ururimi rw’igihugu cyangwa rukoreshwa mu butegetsi. Mu bihugu bikikije ibyo, ni ururimi ruhuriweho n’abantu benshi, kuko rufasha abantu bo mu turere dutandukanye guhahirana no gushyikirana mu buryo bworoshye.

Igiswayire cyagize uruhare rukomeye mu guhuza abaturage bo muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba. Urugero, muri Tanzaniya honyine hari indimi nibura 114 zivugwa n’amoko atandukanye. Tekereza ukoze urugendo rw’ibirometero biri hagati ya 40 na 80 uvuye iwanyu, maze ukagera mu gace bavuga ururimi ruhabanye n’urwawe! Hari n’aho usanga ururimi runaka rukoreshwa n’imidugudu mito ituwe n’abantu bake. Washyikirana na bo ute? Nta washidikanya ko iyo abantu bafite ururimi bahuriraho bibagirira akamaro cyane.

Amateka y’igiswayire

Abantu bemeza ko igiswayire cyatangiye gukoreshwa guhera nibura mu kinyejana cya cumi. Icyakora, cyatangiye kwandikwa mu kinyejana cya 16. Abiga kuvuga igiswayire bahita babona ko  gifite amagambo atari make ajya gusa n’ay’icyarabu. Koko rero, nibura 20 ku ijana by’amagambo akoreshwa mu giswayire akomoka mu cyarabu, mu gihe andi hafi ya yose akomoka mu ndimi zo muri Afurika. Ntibitangaje rero kuba igiswayire cyaramaze imyaka ibarirwa mu magana cyandikwa mu nyuguti z’icyarabu.

Muri iki gihe, igiswayire cyandikwa mu nyuguti z’ikiromani. Byagenze bite kugira ngo bahindure inyuguti bacyandikagamo? Kugira ngo tubone igisubizo, reka duse n’abasubira mu myaka ya 1850, igihe abamisiyonari ba mbere bari baturutse mu Burayi bageraga muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, kugira ngo bageze ubutumwa bwo muri Bibiliya ku baturage baho.

Ijambo ry’Imana rigera muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba

Mu mwaka wa 1499, igihe Vasco de Gama yakoraga urugendo ruzwi cyane mu majyepfo y’Afurika, abamisiyonari bo muri Porutugali batangije idini Gatolika muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, maze bashinga misiyoni muri Zanzibari. Icyakora abantu bo muri ako gace bamaze imyaka igera kuri 200 barwanya Abanyaporutugali n’idini ry’“Abakristo” bari barashinze, maze amaherezo barabirukana.

Byasabye indi myaka 150 kugira ngo Ijambo ry’Imana ryongere kugera muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba. Icyo gihe ryazanywe n’umumisiyonari w’Umudage witwaga Johann Ludwig Krapf. Igihe yageraga i Mombasa muri Kenya mu mwaka wa 1844, abenshi mu bari baturiye akarere k’inkengero z’inyanja muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba bari Abisilamu, mu gihe abenshi mu baturage bari batuye kure y’inkengero bo bari mu madini gakondo. Krapf yumvaga ko Bibiliya igomba kugera ku bantu bose.

Akigera muri Afurika yahise atangira kwiga igiswayire. Muri Kamena 1844, igihe yari amaze igihe gito ahageze, yatangiye umurimo utoroshye wo guhindura Bibiliya. Ikibabaje ni uko mu kwezi kwakurikiyeho yahise apfusha umugore we bari bamaranye imyaka ibiri, nyuma y’iminsi mike agapfusha akana ke k’agakobwa. Nubwo ibyo byamuteye agahinda kenshi, yakomeje umurimo w’ingenzi wo guhindura Bibiliya. Mu mwaka wa 1847 yasohoye ibice bitatu bibanza by’igitabo cy’Intangiriro, bikaba byarabaye umwandiko wa mbere ucapye wasohotse mu rurimi rw’igiswayire.

Imirongo yo mu Ntangiriro 1:1-3, yahinduwe na Johann Krapf mu giswayire, mu wa 1847

Krapf ni we wa mbere wakoresheje inyuguti z’ikiromani mu kwandika igiswayire, aho gukoresha iz’icyarabu zari zimenyerewe. Yavuze ko imwe mu mpamvu zatumye adakoresha inyuguti z’icyarabu, ari uko “zari kugora Abanyaburayi” bari kuziga urwo rurimi. Nanone “inyuguti z’ikiromani zari gutuma ‘ba kavukire biga indimi z’i Burayi mu buryo bworoshye.’” Ariko kandi, hari abantu bamaze imyaka myinshi bakoresha inyuguti z’icyarabu, ku  buryo hari n’ibitabo bya Bibiliya byanditswe hakoreshejwe izo nyuguti. Icyakora, gukoresha inyuguti z’ikiromani byatumye abantu benshi biga igiswayire bitabagoye. Nta gushidikanya ko abamisiyonari benshi n’abandi bantu biga igiswayire bashimishijwe n’iryo hinduka.

Uretse kuba Krapf ari we wahinduye bwa mbere Ijambo ry’Imana mu giswayire, yanashyiriyeho urufatiro abahinduzi babayeho nyuma yaho. Yanditse igitabo cya mbere cy’ikibonezamvugo cy’igiswayire, asohora n’inkoranyamagambo y’urwo rurimi.

Izina ry’Imana mu giswayire

Imirongo yo muri Matayo igice cya mbere muri Bibiliya y’igiswayire yo mu wa 1891, mu nyuguti z’icyarabu

Igihe inyandiko y’ibice bitatu bya mbere by’igitabo cy’Intangiriro yasohokaga, izina ry’Imana ryari ryarahinduwemo ngo “Imana Ishoborabyose.” Ariko hari abandi bantu bageze muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19, maze batangira guhindura Bibiliya yose mu giswayire. Muri bo harimo Johann Rebmann, William Taylor, Harry Binns, Edward Steere, Francis Hodgson na Arthur Madan.

Igishishikaje ni uko zimwe muri Bibiliya za mbere abo bantu bahinduye zibonekamo izina ry’Imana, atari mu mirongo mike gusa, ahubwo mu Byanditswe by’Igiheburayo byose. Abayihinduriye muri Zanzibari bahinduye izina ry’Imana ngo “Yahuwa,” mu gihe abari i Mombasa bo barihinduye ngo “Jehova.”

Mu mwaka wa 1895, Bibiliya yose yari yaramaze guhindurwa mu giswayire. Mu myaka mirongo yakurikiyeho, hari izindi Bibiliya zahinduwe mu giswayire, nubwo zimwe muri zo zitakwirakwijwe cyane. Mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 20, hashyizweho imihati kugira ngo haboneke Bibiliya ikoresha igiswayire cyumvwa n’abantu bo muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba. Ku bw’ibyo, mu mwaka wa 1952 hasohotse Bibiliya ikoreshwa muri ibyo bihugu (Swahili Union Version), kandi irakwirakwizwa cyane kurusha izindi. Nanone ibyo byatumye uburyo bwemewe kurusha ubundi bwo guhindura izina ry’Imana mu giswayire buba “Yehova.”

Paragarafu ibonekamo izina ry’Imana Yehova, ku ipaji ibanza yo muri “Swahili Union Version”

Ikibabaje ni uko igihe abantu barekaga gucapa izo Bibiliya za mbere, izina ry’Imana na ryo ryagendanye na zo. Zimwe muri Bibiliya za nyuma yaho zarikuyemo burundu, izindi zirigumisha mu mirongo mike. Urugero, muri ya Bibiliya y’igiswayire yakoreshwaga muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, izina ry’Imana ryabonekagamo incuro 15 gusa. Ariko igihe iyo Bibiliya yavugururwaga mu mwaka wa 2006, ryasigayemo incuro 11. *

Bibiliya zahinduwe bwa mbere zigaragaza izina ry’Imana ryahinduwemo “Yahuwa” na “Jehova”

Nubwo iyo Bibiliya yavanye izina ry’Imana ahantu hafi ya hose riboneka, hari ikintu gishishikaje ifite. Kuri imwe mu mapaji abanza, hari amagambo yumvikana neza, avuga ko izina ry’Imana ari Yehova. Ibyo byafashije cyane abantu bifuza kumenya ukuri, gutahura izina rya Data wo mu ijuru muri Bibiliya zabo bwite.

Ariko si aho byarangiriye. Mu mwaka wa 1996, hasohotse Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi  nshya bw’Ibyanditswe bya Kigiriki bya Gikristo mu giswayire. Ni yo Bibiliya ya mbere y’igiswayire yashubije izina rya Yehova ahantu 237 ryahoze, kuva muri Matayo kugeza mu Byahishuwe. Iyo Bibiliya yaje gukurikirwa n’indi yuzuye yitwa Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya bw’Ibyanditswe Byera mu giswayire, yasohotse mu mwaka wa 2003. Kugeza ubu, hamaze gucapwa kopi z’iyo Bibiliya y’igiswayire zigera ku 900.000.

Ubu izina ry’Imana ntirigihishwe ngo ribe ryarasimbujwe andi mazina y’icyubahiro, cyangwa ngo riboneke gusa mu bisobanuro by’ijambo ry’ibanze. Ubu iyo abantu b’imitima itaryarya basomye Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya mu giswayire, barushaho kwegera Yehova uko basomye izina ry’Imana, dore ko ribonekamo incuro zirenga 7.000.

Nanone hakozwe ibishoboka byose kugira ngo iyo Bibiliya ikoreshe igiswayire cyoroshye kandi gihuje n’igihe, gishobora kumvwa n’abantu bose bo muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba bavuga igiswayire. Uretse ibyo, amakosa yabonekaga muri Bibiliya nyinshi z’icyo gihe yarakosowe. Ku bw’ibyo, uyisoma ashobora kwizera ko arimo asoma “amagambo y’ukuri akwiriye,” nk’uko yahumetswe n’Umuremyi wacu Yehova Imana.—Umubwiriza 12:10.

Abantu benshi bishimira gukoresha “Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya bw’Ibyanditswe Byera” mu giswayire

Abantu benshi bagaragaje ko bishimiye Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya mu giswayire. Umuhamya wa Yehova w’imyaka 21 witwa Vicent umara igihe kirekire abwiriza, yaravuze ati “nashimishijwe cyane n’uko Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya ikoresha igiswayire cyoroshye, kandi ikaba yarashubije izina rya Yehova aho ryahoze, mu gihe izindi zari zararivanyemo.” Umugore ufite abana batatu witwa Frieda, yavuze ko iyo Bibiliya yamufashije gusobanurira abantu inyigisho zo muri Bibiliya.

Ubu hashize imyaka irenga 150 Ijambo ry’Imana ritangiye guhindurwa mu giswayire. Yesu yavuze ko ‘yamenyekanishije izina rya [Se]’ (Yohana 17:6). Muri iki gihe, muri ako karere ka Afurika hari Abahamya ba Yehova barenga 76.000 bavuga ururimi rw’igiswayire, batunze iyo Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya. Abo Bahamya bishimira kuyikoresha kugira ngo bamenyeshe abantu bose izina rya Yehova.

^ par. 3 Igiswayire gikoreshwa muri ibyo bihugu kiratandukanye.

^ par. 18 Iryo zina riboneka mu Ntangiriro 22:14; Kuva 6:2-8 (incuro ebyiri); 17:15 (rivugwa ngo Yahweh); Abacamanza 6:24; Zaburi 68:20; 83:18; Yesaya 12:2; 26:4; 49:14 no muri Yeremiya 16:21.