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Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi—wo kwigwa  |  Ukuboza 2015

Bibiliya ivuguruye y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya

Bibiliya ivuguruye y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya

MU GIHE cy’imyaka myinshi, Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya yagiye ivugururwa, ariko iyasohotse mu mwaka wa 2013 yo yari ivuguruye mu buryo buhambaye. Urugero, amagambo y’icyongereza yo muri iyo Bibiliya yagabanutseho 10 ku ijana ugereranyije na Bibiliya y’icyongereza yari isanzwe. Hari amagambo akunze gukoreshwa muri Bibiliya yanonosowe. Ibice bimwe na bimwe byanditswe mu buryo bw’ubusizi, kandi hongewemo ibisobanuro ahagana hasi ku ipaji. Muri iyi ngingo ntitwasuzuma ibyahindutse byose ngo tubirangize, ariko reka dusuzume bimwe mu bintu by’ingenzi byanonosowe.

Ni ayahe magambo akunze gukoreshwa muri Bibiliya yanonosowe? Nk’uko twabivuze mu ngingo ibanziriza iyi, twanonosoye uko twahinduraga amagambo “Shewoli,” “Hadesi” n’“ubugingo.” Ariko kandi, hari n’andi magambo yanonosowe.

Urugero, ijambo ryahindurwagamo ‘ineza yuje urukundo’ ryahinduwemo ‘urukundo rudahemuka,’ kuko ari bwo igitekerezo kiba gihinduye neza. Iyo mvugo isigaye ikoreshwa, ikubiyemo ibisobanuro by’ijambo “ubudahemuka,” rikunda kujyanirana na yo muri Bibiliya.—Zab 36:5; 89:1.

Amagambo amwe n’amwe yahindurwaga mu buryo budahinduka, yahinduwe mu buryo butandukanye bitewe n’aho yakoreshejwe. Urugero, ijambo ry’igiheburayo ʽoh·lamʹ, buri gihe ryahindurwagamo “ibihe bitarondoreka,” rishobora kugira ibindi bisobanuro. Ibyo byatumye muri Zaburi ya 90:2 muri Bibiliya ivuguruye, iryo jambo rihindurwa ngo “uhereye iteka ryose ukageza iteka ryose,” ariko muri Mika 5:2 ho hakoreshwa ijambo ryumvikanisha igitekerezo cy’igihe runaka kizwi.

Ijambo ry’igiheburayo n’iry’ikigiriki rihindurwamo “imbuto” mu rurimi rw’icyongereza, riboneka kenshi mu Byanditswe, kandi rikoreshwa mu birebana n’ubuhinzi cyangwa rigakoreshwa mu buryo bw’ikigereranyo rivuga “urubyaro.” Ubuhinduzi bwa kera bwa Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya, bwakoreshaga ijambo “imbuto” ahantu  hose iryo jambo ryabonekaga, harimo no mu Ntangiriro 3:15. Icyakora, mu rurimi rw’icyongereza ijambo “imbuto” ntirigikunze gukoreshwa ryerekeza ku “rubyaro.” Ku bw’ibyo, Bibiliya ivuguruye ikoresha ijambo “urubyaro” mu Ntangiriro 3:15 n’indi mirongo ifitanye isano n’uwo (Intang 22:17, 18; Ibyah 12:17). Ahandi hantu haboneka ijambo ry’igiheburayo n’iry’ikigiriki rihindurwamo “imbuto” mu rurimi rw’icyongereza, ryagiye rihindurwa hakurikijwe ibyabaga bivugwa.—Intang 1:11; Zab 22:30; Yes 57:3.

Kuki amagambo menshi yari yarahinduwe ijambo ku ijambo yagize icyo anonosorwaho? Umugereka A1 wo muri Bibiliya ivuguruye uvuga ko Bibiliya ihinduye neza “yumvikanisha igitekerezo gikubiye mu ijambo cyangwa mu nteruro yo mu rurimi rw’umwimerere, igihe cyose kugihindura ijambo ku rindi bishobora kukigoreka cyangwa kugipfukirana.” Mu gihe inshoberamahanga yo mu rurimi rw’umwimerere ishobora guhindurwa ijambo ku rindi mu zindi ndimi ikumvikana, ihindurwa ityo. Muri ubwo buryo, amagambo ngo “ugenzura . . . imitima” yo mu Byahishuwe 2:23 arumvikana mu ndimi nyinshi. Icyakora muri uwo murongo, amagambo ngo “ugenzura impyiko” ashobora kudahita yumvikana mu zindi ndimi. Ku bw’ibyo, muri Bibiliya ivuguruye “impyiko” zahinduwemo “ibitekerezo byimbitse,” kuko ari byo byumvikanisha igitekerezo cyo mu rurimi rw’umwimerere. Mu buryo nk’ubwo ijambo ry’umwimerere ryahinduwemo “ingano nziza” mu Gutegeka kwa Kabiri 32:14, iyo ryahindurwaga ijambo ku ijambo ryumvikanishaga “ibinure byo ku mpyiko z’ingano.” Ni na yo mpamvu amagambo ngo “iminwa yanjye ntiyakebwe” mu ndimi nyinshi atumvikana neza nk’amagambo yo muri Bibiliya ivuguruye agira ati ‘sinzi kuvuga.’—Kuva 6:12.

Kuki amagambo kera yahindurwaga ngo “abahungu ba Isirayeli,” n’andi ngo “abahungu batagira ba se,” ubu muri Bibiliya ivuguruye ahindurwamo ngo “Abisirayeli,” andi agahindurwamo ngo “imfubyi”? Mu giheburayo, imvugo yakoreshejwe igaragaza niba herekezwa ku muntu w’igitsina gabo cyangwa uw’igitsina gore. Icyakora, hari imvugo yerekeza ku gitsina gabo, ariko ishobora no kwerekeza ku gitsina gore. Urugero, iyo usomye imirongo imwe n’imwe, usanga iyikikije igaragaza ko amagambo ngo “abahungu ba Isirayeli” yerekeza ku bagabo n’abagore. Ku bw’ibyo, muri Bibiliya ivuguruye ayo magambo yahinduwemo ngo “Abisirayeli.”—Kuva 1:7; 35:29; 2 Abami 8:12.

Mu buryo nk’ubwo, ijambo ry’igiheburayo rikoreshwa ku gitsina gabo ubusanzwe mu rurimi rw’icyongereza rihindurwamo “abahungu,” mu Ntangiriro 3:16 ryari ryarahinduwemo “abana” muri Bibiliya z’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya. Ariko mu Kuva 22:24, iryo jambo ry’igiheburayo ryari ryarahinduwemo “abahungu,” ubu muri Bibiliya ivuguruye ryahinduwemo “abana,” maze uwo murongo ugira uti ‘abana banyu bazaba imfubyi.’ Hakurikijwe iryo hame mu yindi mirongo, maze muri Bibiliya ivuguruye amagambo ngo “umuhungu utagira se” ahindurwamo ngo “umwana utagira se” cyangwa “imfubyi” (Guteg 10:18; Yobu 6:27). Uko ni ko byari byarahinduwe no muri Bibiliya ya Septante. Hari andi magambo menshi y’igiheburayo asigaye ahindurwa mu buryo bworoshye mu cyongereza kugira ngo umwandiko urusheho gusobanuka no kumvikana neza.

Ubu ibice byinshi byanditswe mu buryo bw’ubusizi, nk’uko byari biri mu nyandiko z’umwimerere

 Kuki ubu hari ibice byinshi byanditswe mu buryo bw’ubusizi? Mu rurimi rw’umwimerere ibice byinshi byo muri Bibiliya byari byanditse mu buryo bw’ubusizi. Mu ndimi zo muri iki gihe, incuro nyinshi ubusizi burangwa n’injyana, ariko mu giheburayo ho ubusizi bwarangwaga no kugaragaza aho ibintu bihuriye cyangwa aho bitandukaniye. Mu giheburayo injyana ntishingira ku magambo yakoreshejwe, ahubwo ishingira ku buryo ibitekerezo bitondetse.

Muri Bibiliya za mbere z’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya imirongo yo muri Yobu no muri Zaburi yanditswe mu mikarago, bikaba bigaragaza ko mu rurimi rw’umwimerere yari indirimbo cyangwa imivugo. Ubwo buryo bwo kwandika mu buryo bw’ubusizi buba bugamije gutsindagiriza ibintu no gufasha abantu kwibuka. Muri Bibiliya ivuguruye yo mu mwaka wa 2013, igitabo cy’Imigani, Indirimbo ya Salomo n’ibice byinshi byo mu bitabo by’abahanuzi, na byo byanditse mu mikarago kugira ngo bigaragare ko byari byaranditswe mu buryo bw’ubusizi kandi bigaragaze aho ibintu bihuriye cyangwa aho bitandukaniye. Urugero rw’ibyo rugaragara muri Yesaya 24:2, aho buri gace k’interuro karimo ijambo rinyuranye n’irindi, kandi buri gace k’interuro kakuzuzanya n’akagakurikira kugira ngo hatsindagirizwe ko ntawuzacika urubanza rw’Imana. Gusobanukirwa ko iyo mirongo yari yanditswe mu buryo bw’ubusizi bifasha umusomyi kumenya ko umwanditsi wa Bibiliya atapfuye kubyandika gutyo gusa, ahubwo ko yashakaga gutsindagiriza ubutumwa bw’Imana.

Mu giheburayo, kumenya umwandiko wanditswe mu buryo busanzwe cyangwa uwanditswe mu buryo bw’ubusizi si ko buri gihe biba byoroshye. Ni yo mpamvu abahindura za Bibiliya batemeranya ku mirongo igomba kwandikwa mu buryo bw’ubusizi. Abahinduzi ni bo bihitiramo imirongo bandika mu buryo bw’igisigo. Imirongo imwe n’imwe yanditswe mu buryo busanzwe ariko ikagira amagambo arimo ubusizi, akoresha imvugo y’ikigereranyo, uturingushyo n’imvugo isanisha kugira ngo bahe uburemere ikirimo kivugwa.

Ikindi kintu gishya kiri muri iyo Bibiliya ivuguruye, ni ingingo z’ingenzi z’ibikubiye muri buri gitabo. Mu gitabo cy’Indirimbo ya Salomo, izo ngingo z’ingenzi zifite akamaro cyane kubera ko zituma umuntu amenya uko abavuga bagiye basimburana.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe ku nyandiko zo mu ndimi z’umwimerere zandikishijwe intoki, bwagize uruhe ruhare mu guhindura Bibiliya ivuguruye? Abahinduye Bibiliya ya mbere y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya bashingiye ku mwandiko w’igiheburayo w’Abamasoreti no ku mwandiko w’ikigiriki wubahwa wa Westcott na Hort. Ubushakashatsi ku mwandiko wa kera wa Bibiliya wandikishijwe intoki bwakomeje gutera imbere, maze butanga umucyo ku mirongo imwe n’imwe yo mu nyandiko y’umwimerere. Nanone habonetse Imizingo Yavumbuwe mu Nyanja y’Umunyu. Inyandiko nyinshi zandikishijwe intoki z’ikigiriki zakozweho ubushakashatsi. Inyandiko nyinshi zandikishijwe intoki zigenda ziboneka zashyizwe muri orudinateri, bituma umuntu ashobora kuzigereranya mu buryo bworoshye, ku buryo uhita ubona umwandiko w’igiheburayo cyangwa uw’ikigiriki mwiza kuruta undi. Komite y’Ubuhinduzi bwa Bibiliya y’Isi Nshya yifashishije iryo terambere ikora ubushakashatsi ku mirongo imwe n’imwe, bituma igira icyo iyihinduraho.

Urugero muri 2 Samweli 13:21, muri Septante harimo amagambo agira ati “ariko ntiyatera agahinda umuhungu we Amunoni yakundaga cyane, kuko yari imfura ye.” Bibiliya za mbere z’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya ntizarimo ayo magambo kubera ko ataboneka mu mwandiko w’Abamasoreti. Icyakora, Imizingo Yavumbuwe mu Nyanja y’Umunyu irimo ayo magambo, ubu akaba aboneka muri Bibiliya ivuguruye yo mu mwaka wa 2013. Ibyo ni na byo byatumye izina ry’Imana rishyirwa ahandi hantu hatanu mu gitabo cya Mbere cya Samweli. Nanone kandi, gukora ubushakashatsi ku nyandiko z’ikigiriki, byatumye hanonosorwa uko ibitekerezo byari bitondetse muri Matayo 21:29-31. Ku bw’ibyo bimwe mu byahindutse, bishingiye ku bintu bifatika biri mu nyandiko zandikishijwe intoki, aho kwibanda gusa ku mwandiko wubahwa wa Westcott na Hort.

Ibyo ni bike gusa mu byahindutse kuri Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya, abantu benshi bakaba babona ko ari impano ituruka ku Mana ivugana n’abantu. Ibyahindutse muri iyo Bibiliya byatumye barushaho kuyisoma no kuyisobanukirwa.