Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi—wo kwigwa  |  Gashyantare 2015

Amahanga ategurirwa kumva “inyigisho za Yehova”

Amahanga ategurirwa kumva “inyigisho za Yehova”

‘Umutware arizera, kuko yari atangajwe n’inyigisho za Yehova.’—IBYAK 13:12.

1-3. Ni izihe nzitizi abigishwa ba Yesu bari guhura na zo mu murimo wo kubwiriza ubutumwa bwiza mu “mahanga yose”?

YESU KRISTO yahaye abigishwa be umurimo ukomeye. Yarababwiye ati “nimugende muhindure abigishwa mu bantu bo mu mahanga yose.” Uko bari kugenda bakora uwo murimo, amaherezo ‘ubutumwa bwiza bw’ubwami bwari kuzabwirizwa mu isi yose ituwe, kugira ngo bubere amahanga yose ubuhamya.’—Mat 24:14; 28:19.

2 Abigishwa ba Yesu baramukundaga bagakunda n’ubutumwa bwiza. Ariko kandi, bagomba kuba baribazaga ukuntu bari gushobora gusohoza iyo nshingano. Mu by’ukuri bari bake. Nanone bigishaga abantu ko Yesu ari Umwana w’Imana, nyamara yari yarishwe. Abantu babonaga ko abo bigishwa be bari “abantu batize bo muri rubanda rusanzwe” (Ibyak 4:13). Ikindi kandi, bagombaga kubwiriza ubutumwa bwari butandukanye n’imigenzo abayobozi b’idini bubahwaga cyane bari bamaze imyaka ibarirwa mu magana bigisha. Kubera ko abigishwa batubahwaga no mu gihugu cyabo cya Isirayeli, bashobora kuba baribazaga niba hari umuntu uwo ari we  wese wo mu bwami bw’agatangaza bw’Abaroma washoboraga kubatega amatwi.

3 Byongeye kandi, Yesu yari yaraburiye abigishwa be ko bari kwangwa kandi bagatotezwa, ndetse ko bamwe bari kwicwa (Luka 21:16, 17). Bari guhura n’abagambanyi, abahanuzi b’ibinyoma, kandi bagahangana n’ukwiyongera k’ubwicamategeko (Mat 24:10-12). Ese niyo ubutumwa babwirizaga buza kwakirwa neza aho bari kubujyana hose, bari gushobora bate kubugeza “mu turere twa kure cyane tw’isi” (Ibyak 1:8)? Abigishwa bashobora kuba baribazaga uko bari gukora uwo murimo bahanganye n’ibyo bibazo byose?

4. Ni ibihe bintu byiza abigishwa bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bagezeho mu murimo wo kubwiriza?

4 Uko impungenge abigishwa bari bafite zishobora kuba zari ziri kose, babwirije ubutumwa bwiza babigiranye ishyaka, atari i Yerusalemu n’i Samariya gusa, ahubwo no mu bindi bihugu. Nubwo bahuye n’ibibazo, mu gihe cy’imyaka 30 gusa ubutumwa bwiza bwari ‘bwarabwirijwe mu baremwe bose bari munsi y’ijuru.’ Ikindi kandi, ‘bweraga imbuto kandi bukagwira mu isi yose’ (Kolo 1:6, 23). Reka dufate urugero: ibyo intumwa Pawulo yavugiye ku kirwa cya Shipure n’ibyo yahakoreye, byatumye umutware w’Umuroma witwaga Serugiyo Pawulo ‘yizera, kuko yari atangajwe n’inyigisho za Yehova.’—Soma mu Byakozwe 13:6-12.

5. (a) Ni iki Yesu yijeje abigishwa be? (b) Ni iki igitabo kimwe cyavuze ku birebana n’ikinyejana cya mbere?

5 Abigishwa ba Yesu bari bazi ko batashoboraga kubwiriza ku isi hose ku bw’imbaraga zabo gusa. Yesu yari yarababwiye ko yari kuba hamwe na bo, kandi ko umwuka wera wari kubafasha (Mat 28:20). Hari imimerere yo muri icyo gihe na yo ishobora kuba yarafashije abo bigishwa. Igitabo kimwe cyagize kiti “birashoboka ko ikinyejana cya mbere ari cyo gihe cyiza kurusha ibindi bihe byose itorero ryari rikwiriye kuvukamo . . . Mu kinyejana cya kabiri, Abakristo batangiye kubona ko Imana yari yarateguriye inzira Ubukristo.”—Evangelism in the Early Church.

6. (a) Ni iki turi busuzume muri iki gice? (b) Ni iki tuzasuzuma mu gice gikurikira?

6 Nta cyo Bibiliya ivuga ku birebana n’uruhare Imana yaba yaragize mu byabaye mu kinyejana cya mbere byatumye umurimo wo kubwiriza ushobora gukorwa. Ariko kandi, tuzi ko Yehova yashakaga ko ubutumwa bwiza bubwirizwa, Satani we akaba atarabishakaga. Muri iki gice, turi busuzume ibintu bimwe na bimwe bishobora kuba byaratumye umurimo wo kubwiriza ubutumwa bwiza mu kinyejana cya mbere urushaho koroha. Mu gice gikurikira, tuzasuzuma ibintu byabaye muri iki gihe bikadufasha kubwiriza ubutumwa bwiza kugeza ku mpera z’isi.

UKO AMAHORO YA ROMA YABAFASHIJE

7. Amahoro ya Roma yerekeza ku ki, kandi se kuki icyo gihe cyari gitandukanye n’ibindi bihe?

7 Mu kinyejana cya mbere, igihe cy’amahoro cyabayeho mu Bwami bwa Roma cyatumye Abakristo babwiriza mu buryo bworoshye. Icyo gihe cyiswe Amahoro ya Roma (cyangwa Pax Romana mu kilatini). Muri icyo gihe, ubutegetsi bwa Roma bwaburizagamo ibikorwa byo kwigomeka. Ni iby’ukuri ko rimwe na rimwe habaga “intambara n’inkuru zivuga iby’intambara” nk’uko Yesu yari yarabihanuye (Mat 24:6). Ingabo z’Abaroma zarimbuye Yerusalemu mu mwaka wa 70, kandi ku mipaka y’ubwo bwami hagiye haba intambara zoroheje. Icyakora, ibihugu byinshi byategekwaga n’ubwo bwami byari bifite amahoro, kandi abigishwa bashoboraga gukora ingendo, bakanabwiriza mu buryo bworoshye. Icyo gihe cy’amahoro cyamaze imyaka igera kuri 200. Hari igitabo cyavuze ko icyo gihe ari bwo abantu benshi bagize  amahoro yamaze igihe kirekire kurusha ikindi gihe cyose.

8. Ni mu buhe buryo Amahoro ya Roma yagiriye akamaro Abakristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere?

8 Umuhanga mu bya tewolojiya wo mu kinyejana cya gatatu witwa Origène yagize ati “iyo haza kubaho ubwami bwinshi, biba byaratumye inyigisho za Yesu zitagera mu bihugu byinshi . . . kubera ko abagabo bo muri ibyo bihugu bari kuba bahatirwa kujya mu gisirikare kugira ngo barwanirire ibihugu byabo. . . . None se izo nyigisho zasabaga abantu kubana amahoro ndetse ntizibemerere kwihorera, zari kugira icyo zigeraho zite iyo mbere yo kuza kwa Yesu ibintu biza kuba bitarahindutse mu bihugu byinshi, kandi ngo abantu babe batuje?” Nubwo ababwiriza b’Ubwami batotezwaga mu bihugu byategekwaga na Roma, bakoresheje neza icyo gihe cy’amahoro maze babwiriza ubutumwa bwiza hose.—Soma mu Baroma 12:18-21.

GUKORA INGENDO BYARI BYOROSHYE

9, 10. Kuki abigishwa bashoboraga gukora ingendo mu Bwami bwa Roma bitabagoye?

9 Imihanda yari yarubatswe n’Abaroma yagiriye akamaro Abakristo. Kugira ngo Roma itume abaturage bayo bagira umutekano kandi igenzure ibikorwa byabo, yari yarashyizeho ingabo zikomeye kandi zishoboye. Kugira ngo abasirikare bashobore gukora ingendo mu buryo bwihuse, hari hakenewe imihanda myiza kandi Abaroma bari abahanga mu kuyubaka. Abenjenyeri b’Abaroma bubatse imihanda ireshya n’ibirometero 80.000, yahuzaga intara hafi ya zose. Iyo mihanda yanyuraga mu mashyamba, mu butayu no mu misozi.

10 Uretse iyo mihanda, Abaroma bashoboraga no gukoresha inzira zo mu mazi zareshyaga n’ibirometero 27.000. Amato y’Abaroma yanyuraga mu nzira zo mu nyanja zigera kuri 900 zahuzaga ibyambu bibarirwa mu magana. Ku bw’ibyo, Abakristo bashoboraga gukora ingendo mu turere twinshi twategekwaga na Roma. Nubwo ibibazo bitaburaga, intumwa Pawulo n’abandi bashoboraga gukora ingendo mu bihugu bitandukanye byayoborwaga na Roma, bitabaye ngombwa ko bitwaza impapuro z’inzira. Ntihabagaho ibiro byagenzuraga abinjira n’abasohoka. Kubera ko abagizi ba nabi batinyaga ibihano bya Roma, imihanda yarimo umutekano mu rugero runaka. Ingendo zo mu nyanja na zo ntizari ziteje akaga kubera ko ingabo z’Abaroma zarwaniraga mu mazi zatumaga inzira zo mu nyanja zitabamo abambuzi. Nubwo hari igihe Pawulo yakoraga ingendo mu mato akamumenekeraho, kandi akaba yaragiye ahura n’akandi kaga mu nyanja, Ibyanditswe ntibivuga ko yigeze ahura n’abambuzi.—2 Kor 11:25, 26.

UKO URURIMI RWABAFASHIJE

Gukoresha kodegisi byatumaga umuntu abona umurongo w’Ibyanditswe mu buryo bworoshye (Reba paragarafu ya 12)

11. Kuki abigishwa bakoreshaga ururimi rw’ikigiriki?

11 Ikigiriki cyavugwaga na rubanda (cyangwa Koine) cyatumye amatorero ya gikristo ashobora gushyikirana no kunga ubumwe. Kubera ko umutegetsi w’Umugiriki witwaga Alexandre le Grand yari yarigaruriye uturere twinshi, abantu benshi bo muri utwo turere bavugaga ikigiriki. Ku bw’ibyo, abagaragu b’Imana bashoboraga kuvugana n’abantu b’amoko yose, kandi ibyo byatumye ubutumwa bwiza bukwirakwira hirya no hino. Byongeye kandi, Abayahudi babaga mu Misiri bari barahinduye Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo mu kigiriki. Abantu benshi bari bamenyereye ubwo buhinduzi bwiswe Bibiliya ya Septante, kandi abigishwa ba Kristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bakundaga gukoresha imirongo yo muri iyo Bibiliya. Nanone kandi, Abakristo babonye ko ikigiriki cyari kubafasha mu nyandiko zabo. Cyari gifite amagambo menshi yari kubafasha gusobanura ibintu byo mu buryo bw’umwuka.

12. (a) Kodegisi ni iki, kandi se kuki kuyikoresha byari byoroshye kurusha umuzingo? (b) Ni ryari Abakristo batangiye gukoresha kodegisi?

 12 Ni iki Abakristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bakoreshaga bigisha abantu Bibiliya? Babanje gukoresha imizingo. Ariko kandi, gukoresha imizingo ntibyari byoroshye kuko yagombaga kuzingwa no kuzingurwa, kandi ubusanzwe yabaga yanditsweho uruhande rumwe. Ivanjiri ya Matayo yonyine yashoboraga kuzura umuzingo wose. Ariko kandi, nyuma haje icyitwa kodegisi, akaba ari bwo bwoko bw’igitabo bwa mbere. Yari igizwe n’impapuro zateranyirijwe hamwe. Umusomyi yashoboraga kurambura iyo kodegisi ku ipaji runaka, maze agahita agera ku murongo w’Ibyanditswe yifuza. Nubwo nta wuzi neza igihe Abakristo batangiriye gukoresha kodegisi, hari igitabo cyagize kiti “mu kinyejana cya kabiri Abakristo bakoreshaga cyane kodegisi, ku buryo ishobora kuba yaratangiye gukoreshwa mbere y’umwaka wa 100.”

UKO AMATEGEKO Y’ABAROMA YABAFASHIJE

13, 14. (a) Pawulo yakoresheje ate ubwenegihugu bw’Abaroma? (b) Ni mu buhe buryo amategeko y’Abaroma yagiriye Abakristo akamaro?

13 Amategeko y’Abaroma yakurikizwaga mu bihugu byose byategekwaga na Roma, kandi kugira ubwenegihugu bw’Abaroma byaheshaga umuntu uburenganzira busesuye n’ubudahangarwa. Intumwa Pawulo yakoresheje kenshi uburenganzira yahabwaga n’uko yari afite ubwenegihugu bw’Abaroma. Igihe iyo ntumwa yari igiye gukubitirwa i Yerusalemu, yabajije umutware watwaraga umutwe w’abasirikare iti “mbese amategeko abemerera gukubita umuntu w’Umuroma atatsinzwe n’urubanza?” Birumvikana ko amategeko atabibemereraga. Igihe Pawulo yavugaga ko yavukanye ubwenegihugu bw’Abaroma, ‘abantu bari bagiye kumuhata ibibazo bamubabaza urubozo baramuretse. Nuko umukuru w’abasirikare aratinya, kuko yari amaze kumenya neza ko [Pawulo] ari Umuroma kandi akaba yari yamuboshye.’—Ibyak 22:25-29.

14 Kuba Pawulo yari afite ubwenegihugu bw’Abaroma byaramufashije igihe yari i Filipi (Ibyak 16:35-40). Igihe agatsiko k’abantu bari barakaye bashakaga kugirira nabi Abakristo muri Efeso, umuyobozi w’umugi amaze kubacecekesha yababwiye ko bicaga amategeko y’Abaroma (Ibyak 19:35-41). Nyuma yaho, igihe Pawulo yari i Kayisariya, yasabye kujya kuburanishirizwa i Roma imbere y’umwami w’abami, ashingiye ku burenganzira yahabwaga n’amategeko. Agezeyo yavuganiye ubutumwa  bwiza (Ibyak 25:8-12). Nguko uko Abakristo bakoresheje amategeko y’Abaroma kugira ngo ‘barwanirire ubutumwa bwiza, banatume umurimo wo kubwiriza ubutumwa bwiza wemerwa n’amategeko.’—Fili 1:7.

KUBA ABAYAHUDI BARABAGA MU BIHUGU BYINSHI BYAGIZE AKAMARO

15. Abayahudi benshi bo mu kinyejana cya mbere babaga he?

15 Kuba Abayahudi barabaga mu bihugu byinshi byayoborwaga na Roma, bishobora kuba byaratumye Abakristo bo mu kinyejana cya mbere bakora umurimo wo kubwiriza mu buryo bworoshye. Imyaka ibarirwa mu magana mbere yaho, Abayahudi bari barajyanywe mu bunyage mu gihugu cya Ashuri, nyuma yaho abandi bajyanwa i Babuloni. Mu kinyejana cya gatanu mbere ya Yesu, Abayahudi bari mu ntara 127 zategekwaga n’Ubwami bw’Abaperesi (Esit 9:30). Igihe Yesu yari ku isi, hari Abayahudi babaga mu Misiri no mu bindi bice byo muri Afurika ya Ruguru, mu Bugiriki, muri Aziya Ntoya no muri Mezopotamiya. Bavuga ko mu bantu 60.000.000 babaga mu bihugu byategekwaga n’Ubwami bw’Abaroma, 1 kuri 14 yari Umuyahudi. Aho Abayahudi bajyaga hose, bakomezaga gukurikiza idini ryabo.—Mat 23:15.

16, 17. (a) Kuba Abayahudi barabaga mu bihugu byinshi byagiriye akahe kamaro abantu benshi batari Abayahudi? (b) Abakristo bakurikije bate urugero rw’Abayahudi?

16 Kubera ko Abayahudi bari barakwirakwiriye hirya no hino, abantu benshi batari Abayahudi bamenye Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo. Bamenye ko Imana y’ukuri ari imwe yonyine, kandi ko abayikorera bakurikiza amategeko n’amahame mbwirizamuco byo mu rwego rwo hejuru. Ikindi kandi, Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo byarimo ubuhanuzi bwinshi burebana na Mesiya (Luka 24:44). Kuba Abayahudi n’Abakristo baremeraga ko Ibyanditswe by’igiheburayo byari byarahumetswe n’Imana, byatumaga Pawulo abona aho ahera aganira n’abantu bari bafite imitima itaryarya. Ku bw’ibyo, iyo ntumwa yakundaga kujya mu masinagogi y’Abayahudi maze ikungurana na bo ibitekerezo ikoresheje Ibyanditswe.—Soma mu Byakozwe 17:1, 2.

17 Abayahudi bahuriraga hamwe buri gihe, haba mu masinagogi cyangwa ku gasozi, kugira ngo basenge Yehova. Bararirimbaga, bagasenga kandi bakaganira ku Byanditswe. Uko ni na ko bigenda mu matorero yacu muri iki gihe.

YEHOVA YARABAFASHIJE BASHOBORA KUBWIRIZA

18, 19. (a) Imimerere yariho mu kinyejana cya mbere yafashije ite Abakristo? (b) Ibyo twasuzumye muri iki gice byatumye ubona ute Yehova?

18 Nk’uko twabibonye, hari ibintu byatumye umurimo wo kubwiriza ubutumwa bwiza ukorwa mu buryo bworoshye. Amahoro ya Roma (cyangwa Pax Romana), uburyo bwo gukora ingendo bworoshye, kuba abantu benshi barashoboraga kuvuga ururimi rumwe, amategeko y’Abaroma no kuba Abayahudi barabaga mu bihugu byinshi, byatumye abigishwa ba Yesu bashobora gusohoza umurimo wo kubwiriza bari barahawe n’Imana.

19 Imyaka magana ane mbere yaho, umuhanga mu bya filozofiya w’Umugiriki witwaga Plato yanditse avuga ko kumenya Umuremyi byari bigoye cyane, kandi ko kumumenyesha buri muntu wese bitashobokaga. Icyakora, Yesu yagize ati “ibidashobokera abantu, ku Mana birashoboka” (Luka 18:27). Umuremyi w’ijuru n’isi ashaka ko abantu bamubona kandi bakamumenya. Byongeye kandi, Yesu yabwiye abigishwa be ati “muhindure abigishwa mu bantu bo mu mahanga yose” (Mat 28:19). Yehova Imana yafashije abagaragu be gusohoza iyo nshingano. Igice gikurikira kizagaragaza uko uwo murimo ukorwa muri iki gihe.