Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  No. 4 2017

Elias Hutter yari umuhinduzi w’umuhanga

Elias Hutter yari umuhinduzi w’umuhanga

ESE washobora gusoma Bibiliya y’igiheburayo? Uretse no kuyisoma, ushobora no kuba utarayibona. Icyakora numenya iby’intiti yabayeho mu kinyejana cya 16 yitwa Elias Hutter na Bibiliya ebyiri z’igiheburayo yahinduye, uzarushaho gukunda Bibiliya yawe.

Elias Hutter yavukiye mu mugi muto wa Görlitz mu mwaka wa 1553, hafi y’umupaka wa Polonye na Repubulika ya Tchèque. Yize indimi zikoreshwa mu bihugu byo mu Burasirazuba bwo Hagati, muri kaminuza y’Abaluteriyani iri i Jena. Igihe yari afite imyaka 24, yabaye umwarimu w’igiheburayo mu mugi wa Leipzig. Kubera ko yaharaniraga ivugurura mu burezi, yaje gushinga ishuri ahitwa Nuremberg aho abanyeshuri bigaga igiheburayo, ikigiriki, ikilatini n’ikidage mu gihe cy’imyaka ine. Icyo gihe, nta yandi mashuri makuru cyangwa za kaminuza byari kubishobora.

IBYIZA BYA BIBILIYA YAHINDUYE

Ipaji iriho izina rya Bibiliya y’igiheburayo ya Hutter yo mu wa 1587

Mu mwaka wa 1587, Hutter yasohoye Bibiliya y’igiheburayo bakunze kwita Isezerano rya Kera. Iyo Bibiliya yitwaga Derekh ha-Kodesh, bisobanura ngo “Inzira yo Kwera.” Iryo zina ryavanywe muri Yesaya 35:8. Iyo Bibiliya yari nziza cyane, ku buryo hari abavuze ko “ubwiza bwayo bwigaragaza muri byose.” Ariko icyatumye igira agaciro cyane, ni uko yafashije abanyeshuri kwiga igiheburayo neza.

Kugira ngo twiyumvishe akamaro ka Bibiliya y’igiheburayo yahinduwe na Hutter, reka dusuzume inzitizi ebyiri umuntu wabaga atazi neza igiheburayo yahuraga na zo, igihe yabaga ayisoma. Iya mbere ni uko igiheburayo gifite inyuguti zihariye kandi zitamenyerewe. Iya kabiri ni uko uturemajambo tuza imbere cyangwa inyuma y’igicumbi, dutuma umuntu atamenya neza ijambo bashaka kuvuga. Reka dufate urugero rw’ijambo ry’igiheburayo, ne’phesh (נפשׁ) risobanura “ubugingo.” Muri Ezekiyeli 18:4, iryo jambo ritangirwa n’akaremajambo ha (ה), ku buryo iyo byombi bihujwe bibyara han·ne’phesh (הנפשׁ), ibisobanuro by’iryo jambo bigahita bihindukaho gato. Umuntu utazi igiheburayo neza ashobora kwibwira ko ijambo han·ne’phesh (הנפשׁ) nta ho rihuriye na ne’phesh (נפשׁ).

Kugira ngo Hutter afashe abanyeshuri be, yakoresheje ubuhanga bwo gucapa inyuguti z’igiheburayo zitose kandi akaziha ishusho yihariye. Igicumbi cy’ijambo cyabaga kiri mu nyuguti zitose, naho uturemajambo tuza imbere n’utuza inyuma tukaba mu nyuguti zanditse mu buryo bwihariye. Ibyo byafashaga abanyeshuri kumenya igiheburayo, kuko babaga bazi igicumbi cy’ijambo. Bibiliya  y’Ubuhinduzi bw’Isi Nshya ifite ibisobanuro, na yo ikoresha ubwo buryo mu bisobanuro by’ahagana hasi ku ipaji. * Iyo Bibiliya igaragaza igicumbi cy’ijambo mu nyuguti zitose, naho uturemajambo tw’imbere n’utw’inyuma tukaba mu nyuguti zisanzwe. Ibiri kuri aya mafoto bigaragaza uko Bibiliya y’igiheburayo ya Hutter yahinduye umurongo wo muri Ezekiyeli 18:4, n’ibisobanuro by’ahagana hasi ku ipaji by’uwo murongo muri Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’Isi Nshya ifite ibisobanuro.

“ISEZERANO RISHYA” MU GIHEBURAYO

Nanone Hutter yasohoye Bibiliya bakunze kwita Isezerano Rishya irimo indimi 12. Iyo Bibiliya yacapiwe i Nuremberg mu mwaka wa 1599, bakaba bakunda kuyita Bibiliya y’i Nuremberg irimo indimi nyinshi. Hutter yifuzaga kongeramo Ibyanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo bihinduye mu giheburayo. Yavuze ko n’iyo yari “gutanga ibingana iki” nta cyo yari gukora kugira ngo iyo Bibiliya y’igiheburayo ihindurwe kandi isohoke. * Ni yo mpamvu yahisemo kuyihindurira. Hutter yaretse indi mishinga yose yari afite, ahindura iyo Bibiliya mu mwaka umwe gusa.

Kuki Bibiliya y’Ibyanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo Hutter yahinduye mu giheburayo yari nziza? Intiti y’Umuheburayo yabayeho mu kinyejana cya 19 yitwa Franz Delitzsch, yagize icyo ayivugaho agira ati “iyo Bibiliya ihinduye mu giheburayo irimo amagambo Abakristo batari bazi, kandi na n’ubu abantu baracyayakoresha, kuko yakundaga gukoresha amagambo asobanutse kandi akwiriye.”

BIBILIYA YAHINDUYE ZAGIZE AKAMARO

Bibiliya Hutter yahinduye ntizatumye aba umukire, kuko zitaguzwe cyane. Icyakora zamaze igihe kirekire zikoreshwa kandi zagize akamaro. Urugero, mu wa 1661 William Robertson yasubiyemo Bibiliya y’Isezerano Rishya yahinduwe na Hutter kandi yongera kuyicapa. Nanone mu wa 1798, Richard Caddick na we yayisubiyemo. Igihe Hutter yahinduraga izina Kyʹri·os (Umwami) na The·osʹ (Imana) mu kigiriki cy’umwimerere, yayahinduyemo “Yehova” (יהוה, JHVH), iyo yabaga ayavanye mu Byanditswe by’igiheburayo, cyangwa aho yumvaga ko yerekeza kuri Yehova. Icyo ni ikintu cyiza cyane kuko Bibiliya nyinshi z’Isezerano Rishya zidakoresha iryo izina ry’Imana. Iyo ni gihamya igaragaza ko Bibiliya ya Hutter yashubije izina ry’Imana mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo.

Ubutaha nubona izina ry’Imana ari ryo Yehova mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo, cyangwa ukaribona muri Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’Isi Nshya ifite ibisobanuro ahagana hasi ku ipaji, uzibuke Bibiliya z’igiheburayo zahinduwe na Elias Hutter.

^ par. 7 Reba ibisobanuro bya kabiri by’ahagana hasi ku ipaji byo muri Ezekiyeli 18:4 n’Umugereka wa 3B, muri Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’Isi Nshya ifite ibisobanuro ahagana hasi ku ipaji.

^ par. 9 Birumvikana ko mbere yaho hari intiti zari zarahinduye Isezerano Rishya mu giheburayo. Muri zo harimo umupadiri wo muri Byzance witwa Simon Atoumanos wabayeho ahagana mu wa 1360. Undi ni Umudage witwa Oswald Schreckenfuchs wabayeho ahagana mu wa 1565. Bibiliya bahinduye ntizigeze zisohoka kandi kugeza ubu nta wamenya aho ziri.

IBINDI WAMENYA

Ni iki mu by’ukuri Bibiliya yigisha?

Uko izina ry’Imana rikoreshwa n’icyo risobanura

Izina ry’Imana bwite ryagiye rivanwa mu buhinduzi bwinshi bwa Bibiliya. Kuki barivanyemo? Ese gukoresha izina ry’Imana bifite akamaro?

UBUZIMA BWO KURI BETELI

Imurika rya Bibiliya ryubahisha izina rya Yehova

Iri ni imurika rya Bibiliya ribera ku cyicaro cyacu gikuru guhera mu mwaka wa 2013. Hari Bibiliya nyinshi utapfa gusanga ahandi twahawe kugira ngo zishyirwe muri iryo murika.