Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Umunara w’Umurinzi  |  No. 2 2016

Ni nde washyize ibice n’imirongo muri Bibiliya?

Ni nde washyize ibice n’imirongo muri Bibiliya?

REKA tuvuge ko uri Umukristo wo mu kinyejana cya mbere. Itorero ryanyu rimaze guhabwa ibaruwa ryohererejwe n’intumwa Pawulo. Mu gihe irimo isomwa, wumvise Pawulo asubiramo kenshi amagambo yo mu ‘byanditswe byera’ by’igiheburayo (2 Timoteyo 3:15). Wifuje kumenya aho ayo magambo aboneka. Icyakora kuyabona ntibyoroshye! Kubera iki?

MU BYANDITSWE BY’IKIGIRIKI NTA BICE N’IMIRONGO BYABAGAMO

Zirikana ukuntu inyandiko z’‘ibyanditswe byera’ zariho mu gihe cya Pawulo zari zimeze. Imwe muri zo yagaragajwe aha, ni umuzingo w’igitabo cya Yesaya wavanywe mu Nyanja y’Umunyu. Urabona umeze ute? Ni umwandiko uhurutuye, utagira utwatuzo, ntunagire imibare igaragaza ibice n’imirongo dukoresha muri iki gihe.

Abanditse Bibiliya ntibayigabanyijemo ibice cyangwa imirongo. Banditse gusa ubutumwa bwose bwaturukag a ku Mana, kugira ngo uzabusoma azabusome uko buri, adasoma uduce. Ese wowe iyo ubonye ibaruwa wohererejwe n’incuti yawe, ntuyisoma yose uko yakabaye, aho gusoma igice cyayo?

Ariko kuba nta bice cyangwa imirongo byabonekaga muri Bibiliya, byari biteje ikibazo. Iyo Pawulo yashakaga gusubiramo amagambo yabaga yakuye ahandi, yarivugiraga gusa ati “nk’uko byanditswe ngo” cyangwa ngo “nk’uko Yesaya yari yarabivuze” (Abaroma 3:10; 9:29). Kubona aho ayo magambo yabaga aherereye ntibyabaga byoroshye. Umuntu byoroheraga ni uwabaga amenyereye gukoresha “ibyanditswe byera.”

Nanone ibyo ‘byanditswe byera’ byari ubutumwa bwaturutse ku Mana. Ahagana ku iherezo ry’ikinyejana cya mbere, Bibiliya yari igizwe n’ibitabo 66. Ni yo mpamvu abasoma Bibiliya muri iki gihe, bishimira cyane kuba irimo imibare igaragaza ibice n’imirongo, bibafasha kubona amagambo bifuza, urugero nk’ayo Pawulo yagiye asubiramo mu mabaruwa ye.

Ibyo bishobora gutuma wibaza uti “none se ni nde washyize imibare igaragaza ibice n’imirongo muri Bibiliya?”

NI NDE WASHYIZEMO IMIBARE IGARAGAZA IBICE?

Umuyobozi w’idini w’Umwongereza witwa Stephen Langton waje kuba Arikiyepisikopi wa Cantorbéry, ni we washyize imibare igaragaza ibice muri Bibiliya. Yabikoze mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 13, igihe yigishaga muri Kaminuza y’i Paris mu Bufaransa.

Intiti zabayeho mbere ya Langton zari zaragerageje gushyira ibice muri Bibiliya, kugira ngo abantu bajye babyifashisha mu kugaragaza aho amagambo runaka aherereye. Ku bw’ibyo, gushakisha amagambo mu gice runaka cya Bibiliya byari byoroshye kuruta kuyashakira mu gitabo cyose, kuko hari ibitabo byabaga ari birebire, urugero nk’igitabo cya Yesaya gifite ibice 66.

Icyakora ibyo na byo byateje ikibazo. Intiti zari zarashyize ibice muri Bibiliya mu buryo butandukanye. Urugero, hari abagabanyije Ivanjiri ya Mariko mo ibice bigera hafi kuri 50, aho kuba 16 nk’uko bimeze ubu. Igihe Langton yabaga i Paris, hari abanyeshuri bo mu bihugu bitandukanye bari barazanye Bibiliya zo mu ndimi zabo kavukire. Ariko abarimu n’abanyeshuri ntibashoboraga kugaragaza aho amagambo runaka  ari mu buryo bworoshye. Kubera iki? Ni uko Bibiliya bari bafite zari zigabanyijemo ibice mu buryo butandukanye.

Ngiyo impamvu yatumye Langton ashyira ibice muri Bibiliya bundi bushya. Hari igitabo cyagize kiti “abanditsi n’abasomyi bishimiye cyane ubwo buryo kandi ntibwatinze gukwirakwira hirya no hino mu Burayi” (The Book—A History of the Bible). Nguko uko Bibiliya yaje kugira ibice tubonamo muri iki gihe.

NI NDE WASHYIZEMO IMIRONGO?

Nyuma y’imyaka igera kuri 300, ahagana mu mwaka wa 1550, umuhanga mu birebana no gucapa w’Umufaransa witwa Robert Estienne, yarushijeho koroshya ibintu. Yari afite intego yo gushishikariza rubanda kwiga Bibiliya. Yatekerezaga ko Bibiliya iramutse igabanyijemo ibice n’imirongo mu buryo bumwe, byarushaho koroha.

Estienne si we wadukanye igitekerezo cyo gushyira imirongo muri Bibiliya, kuko hari abandi bari barabikoze mbere ye. Urugero, imyaka ibarirwa mu magana mbere yaho, abanditsi b’Abayahudi bari barashyize imirongo mu Byanditswe by’Igiheburayo abantu bakunze kwita Isezerano rya Kera, ariko ntibashyiramo ibice. Abagabanyije Bibiliya mo imirongo na bo bari barabikoze mu buryo butandukanye.

Estienne yashyize imirongo mu Byanditswe by’ikigiriki bya gikristo, cyangwa ibyo bakunze kwita Isezerano Rishya, iza isanga iyari isanzweho yo mu Byanditswe by’Igiheburayo. Mu wa 1553 yasohoye Bibiliya yuzuye ya mbere y’igifaransa, ifite ibice n’imirongo bihuye neza n’ibyo muri Bibiliya hafi ya zose zo muri iki gihe. Hari ababinenze bumvikanisha ko kuba Bibiliya yarashyizwemo ibice, bisa n’aho igizwe n’uduce dutandukanye tudafite icyo duhuriyeho. Ariko ubwo buryo bwahise bukoreshwa n’abandi bantu bakoraga imirimo ijyanye no gucapa.

KUYIGA BYARUSHIJEHO KOROHA

Gushyira ibice n’imirongo muri Bibiliya byoroheje ibintu. Byatumye buri murongo wo muri Bibiliya ugira aho ushakirwa, mbese nk’aho umubare ugaragaza umurongo ari nomero z’agasanduku k’amabaruwa. Ni iby’ukuri ko imibare igaragaza imirongo n’ibice itahumetswe n’Imana, kandi hakaba hari aho usanga umwandiko wa Bibiliya ugabanyijemo ibice mu buryo budasanzwe. Ariko kandi, ibice n’imirongo bidufasha kubona amagambo runaka yo muri Bibiliya mu buryo bworoshye no kuzirikana amagambo yadukoze ku mutima. Ni nk’aho twaca akarongo ku magambo cyangwa interuro twifuza kuzirikana mu nyandiko cyangwa mu gitabo runaka.

Nubwo kugira Bibiliya ifite ibice n’imirongo ari byiza, jya uzirikana buri gihe ko gusobanukirwa ubutumwa buturuka ku Mana bwose muri rusange ari byo byiza kurushaho. Imenyereze kujya usoma imirongo yose yegeranye, aho gusoma buri murongo ukwawo. Nubigenza utyo uzarushaho kumenya “ibyanditswe byera, bishobora gutuma ugira ubwenge bwo kuguhesha agakiza.”—2 Timoteyo 3:15.