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Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Nimukanguke!  |  No. 6 2017

 ABANTU BA KERA

Alhazen

Alhazen

USHOBORA kuba utarigeze wumva umuntu witwa Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. Mu bihugu byo mu burengerazuba bw’isi bamwita Alhazen, izina ry’Ikiratini ryakomotse ku izina rye ry’icyarabu rya al-Hasan. Icyakora, ibyo yagezeho bishobora kuba bikugirira akamaro. Bivugwa ko ari umwe mu bantu b’ingenzi cyane bagize uruhare mu guteza imbere siyansi.

Alhazen yavutse mu wa 965, i Basra muri Iraki. Yakundaga kwiga ibyerekeye inyenyeri, shimi, imibare, ubuvuzi, umuzika, urumuri, fiziki n’ibisigo. Ni ibihe bintu byihariye tumukesha?

URUGOMERO KU RUZI RWA NILI

Hari inkuru ivuga iby’umushinga wa Alhazen wo kubaka urugomero ku ruzi rwa Nili, yamamaye hirya no hino. Urwo rugomero rwaje kubakwa mu mwaka wa 1902 mu mugi wa Assouan, hashize hafi imyaka 1.000.

Iyo nkuru ivuga ko Alhazen yagize igitekerezo cyo kubaka urwo rugomero, kugira ngo agabanye amapfa n’imyuzure byabaga muri Egiputa. Caliph al-Hakim wayoboraga umugi wa Kayiro mu Misiri akimara kumva iyo nkuru, yatumyeho Alhazen ngo aze arwubake. Alhazen yakubise amaso urwo ruzi, abona ko atabishobora. Kubera ko Alhazen yatinyaga uwo muyobozi warakazwaga n’ubusa, yihinduye umusazi kugira ngo akize amagara ye. Uwo muyobozi yaje gupfa mu wa 1021, nyuma y’imyaka 11. Hagati aho, igihe Alhazen yari akirwaje indwara yo mu mutwe, yabonye umwanya wo gukora ubushakashatsi ku bindi bintu byamushishikazaga.

IGITABO YANDITSE

Alhazen yavuye muri ibyo bitaro amaze kwandika igice kinini k’igitabo kivuga iby’urumuri (Traité d’optique) kigizwe n’imibumbe irindwi, kikaba ari “kimwe mu bitabo by’ingenzi mu mateka ya fiziki.” Muri icyo gitabo, Alhazen yerekanye uko urumuri ruteye, uko rwigabanyamo amabara rugakwirakwira, uko indorerwamo zirabagiranisha  urumuri n’indi mikorere y’urumuri. Yanasobanuye imiterere y’ijisho n’imikorere yaryo.

Mu kinyejana cya 13, ibitabo bya Alhazen byari byarahinduwe mu Kilatini bikuwe mu Cyarabu. Mu binyejana byinshi byakurikiyeho, abashakashatsi b’i Burayi basubiragamo ibyanditse muri icyo gitabo. Ibitabo Alhazen yanditse byafashije abahanga b’i Burayi gukora teresikopi na mikorosikopi.

KAMERA IFITE AKUMBA KIJIMYE

Alhazen yagaragaje amahame akurikizwa mu gufotora, igihe yakoraga icyo twakwita kamera y’ikitegererezo. Iyo kamera yari igizwe n’“akumba kijimye” urumuri rwinjiragamo runyuze mu kobo gato, rukerekana ishusho icuritse y’ibiri hanze ku rukuta rw’imbere rwa ka kumba.

Alhazen yakoze icyo twagereranya na kamera y’ikitegererezo ifite akumba kijimye

Ahagana mu mwaka wa 1800, hari utwuma duto twongerewe muri iyo kamera y’ikitegererezo, ihinduka kamera nyayo. Kamera zo muri iki gihe zose zikorwa hakurikijwe amahame Alhazen yagendeyeho akora iyo kamera. Ayo mahame yo mu rwego rwa fiziki ni na yo ijisho rikurikiza. *

UBURYO BUSHINGIYE KURI SIYANSI

Ikintu gitangaje kiboneka mu bitabo bya Alhazen, ni ubushakashatsi bwitondewe yakoze ku bidukikije. Uburyo yakoragamo ubushakashatsi ntibwari busanzwe mu gihe ke. Ni umwe mu bashakashatsi ba mbere bemezaga ko ibintu ari ukuri bamaze kubikorera isuzuma rigaragara. Alhazen ntiyatinyaga kuvuguruza ibintu abantu bemeraga ari benshi, mu gihe nta bimenyetso bifatika bibyemeza.

Siyansi yo muri iki gihe ishingiye ku ihame rigira riti: “Garagaza ko ibyo wemera ari ukuri, ushingiye ku bimenyetso bifatika!” Bamwe bavuga ko Alhazen ari we “wahimbye amahame siyansi yo muri iki gihe igenderaho.” Ibyo bigaragaza ko hari byinshi tumukesha.

^ par. 13 Abantu bo mu bihugu byo mu burengerazuba bw’isi basobanukiwe isano riri hagati y’iyo kamera n’ijisho mu kinyejana cya 17, igihe byasobanurwaga na Johannes Kepler.