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Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Nimukanguke!  |  No. 3 2016

 ABANTU BA KERA

Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Semmelweis

NUBWO Ignaz Semmelweis atabaye icyamamare, ibyo yagezeho byagiriye akamaro imiryango myinshi yo muri iki gihe. Yavukiye mu mugi wa Buda (Budapest y’ubu), muri Hongiriya. Nyuma yaho yagiye kwiga muri Kaminuza y’i Vienne, aho yakuye impamyabushobozi mu by’ubuvuzi mu mwaka wa 1844. Igihe yari umuganga muri materinite mu bitaro by’i Vienne mu mwaka wa 1846, yahuye n’ikibazo gikomeye. Abagore barenga 13 ku ijana bapfaga babyara, bazize indwara banduriraga kwa muganga.

Hakozwe ubushakashatsi kugira ngo hamenyekane igitera iyo ndwara, ariko ntibyagira icyo bitanga. Nanone kandi, nta cyo batakoze ngo umubare w’abo iyo ndwara yahitanaga ugabanuke, ariko na byo biranga biba iby’ubusa. Semmelweis amaze kubona ukuntu ababyeyi benshi bicwaga n’iyo ndwara kandi bababaye cyane, yiyemeje gushakisha ikiyitera n’uko yayirwanya.

Ibitaro yakoragamo byari bifite materinite ebyiri. Ariko igitangaje ni uko muri materinite ya mbere ari ho hapfaga ababyeyi benshi kurusha mu ya kabiri. Aho izo materinite zombi zari zitandukaniye, ni uko iya mbere yakoragamo abimenyereza umwuga w’ubuganga, iya kabiri igakoramo ababyaza. None se kuki muri materinite ya mbere hapfaga abagore benshi? Kugira ngo Semmelweis amenye icyatumaga hapfa benshi, yakoze ubushakashatsi ngo amenye mu by’ukuri igitera iyo ndwara, ariko ibyo yakekaga byose yasanze atari byo.

Mu mwaka wa 1847, Semmelweis yageze ku kintu gifatika mu bushakashatsi bwe. Icyo kintu ni ikihe? Hari mugenzi we witwaga Jakob Kolletschka wapfuye, azize indwara yanduye igihe yakomerekaga ubwo yari arimo asuzuma umurambo. Igihe Semmelweis yasomaga raporo yakozwe ku bizamini byari bigamije kumenya icyishe Kolletschka, yabonye ibimenyetso bisa n’ibyagaragaraga ku  bagore bapfaga babyara. Ni yo mpamvu yatekereje ko ibyo we yitaga “uburozi” byavaga ku mirambo, bishobora kuba ari byo byanduzaga abagore batwite. Iyo abadogiteri n’abimenyereza umwuga w’ubuganga bamaraga gusuzuma imirambo maze bagasuzuma ababyeyi cyangwa bakababyaza, babanduzaga iyo ndwara. Umubare w’ababyeyi bapfaga bo muri materinite ya kabiri wari muto, kuko ababyaza baho batasuzumaga imirambo.

Semmelweis yahise ashyiraho itegeko ridakuka ryo gukaraba intoki n’imiti yabigenewe, mbere yo gusuzuma umugore utwite. Ibyagezweho birashimishije cyane! Muri Mata, umubare w’abagore bicwaga n’iyo ndwara wavuye kuri 18,27 ku ijana, ugera kuri 0,19 ku ijana mu mpera z’uwo mwaka.

“Intego yanjye ni ukugabanya umubare w’ababyeyi bapfa babyara, kuko bituma umugabo apfakara n’umwana akabura nyina.”—Ignaz Semmelweis

Icyakora ibyo Semmelweis yagezeho, si ko byashimishije bose kuko byavuguruzaga ibyo umuyobozi we yari yaragezeho. Uwo muyobozi yabonaga ko Semmelweis yashyiragaho amategeko atagoragozwa mu birebana n’isuku. Amaherezo Semmelweis yasezerewe kuri ako kazi asubira muri Hongiriya. Ahageze yakoze mu bitaro bya St. Rochus, mu rwego rwita ku bagore batwite. Yatangiye gukoresha bwa buryo bwo gukaraba intoki, bituma ababyeyi bicwaga n’iyo ndwara bagabanuka bagera munsi ya rimwe ku ijana.

Mu mwaka wa 1861, Semmelweis yasohoye igitabo kivuga ibyo yagezeho mu bushakashatsi bwe (The Cause, Concept, and Prophylaxisof Childbed Fever). Ikibabaje ni uko ibyo yari yaragezeho byamaze imyaka bitaremerwa. Hagati aho, iyo ndwara yakomeje koreka imbaga, kandi iyo bemera inama ze haba hararokotse benshi.

Ignaz Semmelweis yatangije uburyo bwo kugira isuku mu bitaro yari ayoboye.—Ishusho ya Robert Thom

Icyakora amaherezo Semmelweis yaje kwemerwa, ku buryo yafashwe nk’umuntu watangije uburyo bwo kwirinda za mikorobe. Igitabo yanditse cyagaragaje ko burya za mikorobe zitabonwa n’amaso zishobora gutera indwara. Ibyo yagezeho mu birebana no gutahura ibitera indwara, ni “umusanzu w’ingenzi mu iterambere ry’ubuvuzi.” Igishishikaje ni uko mu myaka irenga 3.000 mbere yaho, Amategeko ya Mose, yaje kwandikwa no muri Bibiliya, yari yaratanze amabwiriza ajyanye n’uko umuntu yakwitwara igihe yakoze ku murambo.