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Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Nimukanguke!  |  Nzeri 2015

 ABANTU BA KERA

Hérodote

Hérodote

BYARI byifashe bite mu myaka ibarirwa mu bihumbi ishize? Abantu bakurikizaga iyihe migenzo? Ubushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe mu matongo bwadufasha kubona ibisubizo, ariko ntibwadusobanurira byose. Kugira ngo tumenye imitekerereze y’abantu ba kera, dushobora kwifashisha inyandiko z’amateka zanditswe n’umuntu wabayeho muri icyo gihe. Uwo muntu yabayeho kera, ubu hakaba hashize imyaka igera ku 2.400. Uwo nta wundi, uretse umuhanga mu by’amateka w’Umugiriki witwaga Hérodote, wabayeho mu kinyejana cya gatanu Mbere ya Yesu. Yanditse igitabo cy’Amateka (Histoires).

Hérodote yiyemeje gukora ubushakashatsi ku ntandaro z’intambara z’Abagiriki, by’umwihariko ku bitero Abaperesi bagabye mu wa 490 no mu wa 480 Mbere ya Yesu. Ibyo bitero byabaye Hérodote akiri umwana. Uretse ibyo bitero, nanone yanditse ibirebana n’ibyo yabonye mu bihugu byagendaga byigarurirwa n’Abaperesi.

IBYO YANDITSE BIRENZE AMATEKA

Hérodote yari umuhanga mu kubara inkuru. Yasobanuraga inkuru neza kandi abishishikariye, mbese ntagire na kimwe asiga. Inyandiko ze zirihariye kuko zidashingiye ku makuru yabaga yarabitswe mu butegetsi, kuko ayo makuru atapfaga kuboneka.

Icyo gihe abagerageje kugira ibyo bandika ni bake kuko handikwaga amagambo agaragaza ibigwi by’abantu gusa, na bwo akandikwa ku bibumbano. Hérodote yaritegerezaga, agasesengura imigenzo gakondo n’ibyo abandi bantu bamubwiraga. Kugira ngo akusanye amakuru, byamusabye gukora ingendo mu bihugu bitandukanye. Yakuriye mu gace kakoronizwaga n’u Bugiriki kitwa Halicarnassus (Bodrum y’ubu mu majyepfo ya Turukiya) kandi yasuye u Bugiriki kenshi.

Hérodote yakoze ingendo nyinshi ajya gukusanya amakuru

Nanone yiyemeje kujya mu majyaruguru, yerekeza ku  Nyanja Yirabura no mu mugi wa Scythie muri Ukraine y’ubu. Yakomereje mu majyepfo yerekeza muri Palesitina no muri Egiputa y’Epfo. Mu burasirazuba, asa n’aho yageze i Babuloni, agasoreza urugendo rwe mu burengerazuba, mu gace kakoronizwaga n’u Bugiriki, ubu hakaba ari mu majyepfo y’u Butaliyani. Aho yajyaga hose yaritegerezaga kandi akabaza, maze agakusanya amakuru ayakuye ku bantu yabonaga ko bashobora kumuha amakuru yizewe.

ESE IBYO YANDITSE NI UKURI?

Agace k’igitabo Histoires kanditse ku rufunzo

Ni iki cyemeza ko ibyo yanditse ari ukuri? Ibyo yiboneye n’amaso ye ndetse n’ibihugu yanyuzemo ni gihamya y’uko ibyo yanditse ari ukuri. Nanone uko yagiye asobanura imihango itaboneka mu Bugiriki, urugero nk’iyakorwaga mu gihe cyo gushyingura abami b’Abasikuti, cyangwa uko Abanyegiputa bosaga imirambo, bihuje neza n’ibyavumbuwe mu bushakashatsi bw’ibyataburuwe mu matongo. Hari abavuga ko ibyo yanditse kuri Egiputa “ari byinshi kandi ko ari iby’ingenzi kuruta ibindi byose byanditswe kera bivuga iby’icyo gihugu.”

Icyakora iyo Hérodote yabaga adafite ibimenyetso bifatika yashingiraho, yapfaga kwandika. Uretse n’ibyo, abantu bo mu gihe cye bemeraga ko ibigirwamana bigira uruhare mu mibereho y’abantu. Ubwo rero, dukurikije ibyo abahanga mu by’amateka bo muri iki gihe baheraho bemeza ko amateka runaka ahuje n’ukuri, ntitwakwemeza ko ibyo yanditse byose ari ukuri. Icyakora Hérodote yageragezaga gutandukanya inkuru y’impamo n’amakabyankuru. Yavuze ko ibyo yabwiwe byose atakwemeza ko ari ukuri. Yandikaga ibintu ari uko amaze kugereranya no gusesengura amakuru yabaga avanye hirya no hino.

Igitabo Hérodote yanditse (Histoires) ni cyo kintu cy’ingenzi yakoze mu buzima bwe. Dukurikije ubushobozi yari afite, twavuga ko yakoze igikorwa cy’indashyikirwa.