Soma ibirimo

Jya kuri meni ya kabiri

Reba urutonde rw'ibirimo

Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

Nimukanguke!  |  Kanama 2015

 INGINGO YO KU GIFUBIKO

Ingirabuzimafatizo zawe ni nk’inzu y’ibitabo!

Ingirabuzimafatizo zawe ni nk’inzu y’ibitabo!

MU MWAKA wa 1953, umuhanga mu binyabuzima witwa James Watson n’uwitwa Francis Crick, bakoze ubushakashatsi bwahinduye amateka, butuma turushaho gusobanukirwa neza ibinyabuzima. Bavumbuye ko ADN, ni ukuvuga aside iba mu ntimatima y’ingirabuzimafatizo, imeze nk’urwego rwihotaguye. * Iyo aside ibitse amakuru atagira ingano. Ibyo bituma ingirabuzimafatizo zigereranywa n’amazu y’ibitabo. Ibyo bintu bitangaje bavumbuye byatumye tumenya byinshi mu birebana n’ibinyabuzima. Ariko se ayo makuru abitse mu ngirabuzimafatizo afite akahe kamaro? Ahubwo se yagezemo ate?

 AMAKURU ARI MU NGIRABUZIMAFATIZO AFITE AKAHE KAMARO?

Ese waba waribajije uko umurama uvamo igiti, n’uko intanga ngabo ihura n’intanga ngore bikavamo umuntu? Ese wigeze wibaza igituma usa n’ababyeyi bawe? Ibisubizo by’ibyo bibazo bifitanye isano n’amakuru ari muri ADN.

Ingirabuzimafatizo hafi ya zose zifite ADN. Iyo ADN igizwe na za molekile zihambaye zimeze nk’urwego rurerure rwihotaguye. Muri ADN zose ziri mu mubiri w’umuntu, harimo utuntu two mu rwego rwa shimi tumeze nk’imitambiko y’urwego tugera kuri miriyari eshatu. Utwo tuntu dutondetse ari tubiri tubiri, ku buryo buri mutambiko uba ugizwe n’ibice bine. Ibyo bice uko ari bine bigaragazwa n’inyuguti zitangira amazina yabyo ari zo A, C, G na T. * Mu wa 1957 wa muhanga witwa Crick yavuze ko utwo tuntu tumeze nk’imitambiko tugenda dutondetse, ari two tubitse ayo makuru agizwe na za kode. Mu myaka ya za 60 ni bwo izo kode zatangiye gusobanuka.

Amakuru yose, yaba aboneka mu buryo bw’amafoto, amajwi cyangwa mu magambo, ashobora gusesengurwa mu buryo butandukanye. Urugero za orudinateri ziyasesengura mu buryo bwa elegitoroniki. Ingirabuzimafatizo zo zibika amakuru kandi zikayasesengura mu buryo bwa shimi, kandi ADN ni yo ibigiramo uruhare runini. Kugira ngo ingirabuzimafatizo zigabanyemo ibice maze habeho ibinyabuzima bishya, ADN ni yo itanga amakuru. Ngibyo ibituma habaho amoko atandukanye y’ibinyabuzima.

Ingirabuzimafatizo zikoresha ayo makuru zite? Amakuru yo muri ADN yagereranywa n’amabwiriza yifashishwa mu gutegura ifunguro runaka, agenda akurikizwa mu byiciro. Iyo akurikijwe havamo umugati cyangwa biswi. Mu buryo  nk’ubwo amabwiriza yo muri ADN ni yo atuma habaho ibinyabuzima bitandukanye urugero nk’ishu cyangwa inka. Icyakora nta muntu ugira uruhare mu mikorere y’ingirabuzimafatizo kuko zikoresha. Ibyo na byo bigaragaza ko imikorere yazo ihambaye.

Amakuru ari mu ngirabuzimafatizo yo muri bagiteri yakwandikwa mu gitabo cy’amapaji 1.000

Amakuru avuga imiterere y’uko ikinyabuzima kizaba giteye arabikwa, kugeza igihe azaba akenewe. Ni yo atuma ingirabuzimafatizo zangiritse cyangwa izapfuye zisimburwa, kandi agatuma umubyeyi agira ibyo ahuriraho n’abamukomokaho. None se ADN irimo amakuru angana iki? Reka dufate urugero rwa bagiteri, ari cyo kinyabuzima gito kurusha ibindi. Umuhanga mu bya siyansi w’umudage witwa Bernd-Olaf Küppers, yaravuze ati “amakuru aba mu ngirabuzimafatizo imwe yo muri bagiteri uyanditse ashobora kujya mu gitabo cy’amapaji igihumbi.” Ni yo mpamvu umwarimu wa shimi witwa David Deamer yanditse ati “ikinyabuzima gito kurusha ibindi byose na cyo ubona gihambaye cyane.” Ubwo se amakuru yose aba ari muri ADN ziba mu mubiri w’umuntu angana iki? Küppers yagize ati “amakuru yose arimo, yakwandikwa mu bitabo bibarirwa mu bihumbi.”

AYO MAKURU ARASOBANUTSE

Küppers yaravuze ati “uko amakuru yo muri ADN yanditswe byagereranywa n’uko ururimi rwandikwa. Ayo makuru atondetse mu buryo busobanutse nk’uko amagambo y’ururimi aba atondetse mu buryo busobanutse.” Muri make, amakuru yanditse muri ADN afite “icyo twagereranya n’ikibonezamvugo cyangwa amategeko agenga ururimi.” Ayo mategeko ni yo agena uko amabwiriza yo mu ngirabuzimafatizo ashyirwaho n’uko akurikizwa.

“Amagambo” cyangwa “interuro” bigize amakuru yo muri ADN, birimo amabwiriza agena uko za poroteyine n’ibindi bintu byo mu rwego rwa shimi bikorwa, byose hamwe bikaba ari byo byubatse ingirabuzimafatizo zitandukanye zigize umubiri wacu. Urugero, ayo mabwiriza ni yo umubiri wifashisha ukora ingirabuzimafatizo z’amagufwa, iz’imitsi, iz’ubwonko cyangwa iz’uruhu. Hari umuhanga mu binyabuzima wemera inyigisho y’ubwihindurize wagize ati “nubwo tudashobora kubyiyumvisha, ibyanditse muri ADN byanditswe neza ku buryo dushobora kubisobanukirwa.”

Umwe mu banditsi ba Bibiliya witwa Dawidi yaravuze ati “amaso yawe yabonye  urusoro rwanjye, mu gitabo cyawe hari handitswemo ibirebana n’iminsi ingingo zarwo zose zaremeweho” (Zaburi 139:16). Birumvikana ko Dawidi yakoresheje amagambo y’ubusizi. Ariko kandi, ibyo yavuze ni ukuri nk’uko bimeze ku banditsi ba Bibiliya bose. Nta n’umwe muri bo wagenderaga ku makabyankuru cyangwa ibintu bitabayeho byavugwaga mu migani y’abantu b’icyo gihe.2 Samweli 23:1, 2; 2 Timoteyo 3:16.

Bigenda bite ngo umwana ase n’ababyeyi be?

AYO MAKURU YAGEZE MURI ADN ATE?

Ubusanzwe iyo abahanga muri siyansi basobanura ibintu bigoye, ibisobanuro batanga bituma abantu bibaza ibindi bibazo. Uko ni ko byagenze kuri ADN. Bamaze kumenya ko ADN irimo amakuru umuntu atapfa gusobanukirwa, abantu bareba kure baribajije bati “none se ayo makuru yagezemo ate?” Birumvikana ko nta muntu wigeze abona uko ADN za mbere zabayeho. Ubwo rero ni twe twagombye kwishakira igisubizo. Ariko kandi, ibisobanuro byose bitangwa byagombye kuba bishingiye ku bintu bifatika. Reka dufate ingero.

  • Mu mwaka wa 1999, hari ibibumbano bya kera byataburuwe muri Pakisitani biriho ibimenyetso bidasanzwe. Kugeza ubu nta wuramenya icyo ibyo bimenyetso bisobanura. Nubwo bimeze bityo, bivugwa ko ibyo bimenyetso byashyizweho n’abantu.

  • Nyuma y’imyaka mike Watson na Crick bavumbuye uko ADN iteye, hari abahanga muri fiziki babiri batangiye gukora ubushakashatsi ku bimenyetso by’amajwi anyura mu kirere. Ibyo byatumye hatangira gukorwa ubushakashatsi ku binyabuzima abantu batekereza ko biri ahandi hantu hatari ku isi.

Ibyo bigaragaza iki? Bigaragaza ko abantu bemera ko amakuru yose babonye, yaba yanditse mu buryo bw’ibimenyetso biri ku kibumbano cyangwa mu majwi, aba aturuka ku muntu ufite ubwenge. Kugira ngo bayemere si ngombwa ko baba bariboneye uwo muntu ayandika. Nyamara igihe bavumburaga amakuru ahambaye aboneka muri ADN, abenshi bavuze ko ayo makuru yapfuye kubaho gutya gusa. Ubwo se ibyo bavuga bifite ishingiro? Ahubwo se bihuje na siyansi? Hari abahanga muri siyansi bazwi, bavuga ko ibyo bintu bitapfa kubaho. Muri bo harimo Dogiteri Gene Hwang na Porofeseri Yan-Der Hsuuw. Dore icyo babivuzeho.

Dogiteri Gene Hwang ni umuhanga mu mibare. Hari igihe yemeraga inyigisho y’ubwihindurize, ariko yaje kwisubiraho. Yabwiye ikinyamakuru Nimukanguke! ati “kwiga ibirebana na ADN byatumye nsobanukirwa neza imiterere n’imikorere y’ibinyabuzima. Ibyo namenye byatumye ndushaho gutinya Umuremyi, mbona ko afite ubwenge buhambaye.”

Porofeseri Yan-Der Hsuuw, umuyobozi wa kaminuza yo muri Tayiwani ikora ubushakashatsi ku birebana n’imyororokere, na we hari igihe yemeraga inyigisho y’ubwihindurize. Ariko nyuma yo gukora ubushakashatsi, yaje kubona ko ibyo yemeraga atari ukuri. Yagize icyo avuga ku birebana n’uko ingirabuzimafatizo zigenda zigabanyamo ibice n’uko ziba zitandukanye. Yagize ati “ingirabuzimafatizo zororokera ahantu hakwiriye kandi zikororoka mu buryo bukwiriye.  Zirabanza zikishyira hamwe zikavamo ingirabika, izo ngirabika na zo zikavamo ibice by’umubiri n’ingingo z’umubiri zitandukanye. Ni nde muhanga wakwandika ayo mabwiriza ku buryo ibintu byagenda neza bityo? Nyamara amabwiriza arebana n’uko intanga ngabo ihura n’intanga ngore bikazavamo umuntu, yanditse mu buryo busobanutse neza cyane muri ADN. Iyo nsuzumye ibyo byose, bituma nemera ntashidikanya ko Imana ari yo yaremye ibinyabuzima.”

Gene Hwang (ibumoso) na Yan-Der Hsuuw

ESE IBYO HARI ICYO BIKUREBAHO?

Kirahari rwose. Niba Imana ari yo yaturemye, dukwiriye kuyiha icyubahiro ntitwumve ko twabayeho biturutse ku bwihindurize (Ibyahishuwe 4:11). Nanone uwo Muremyi w’umunyabwenge afite impamvu yadushyize ku isi. Turamutse twarabayeho gutya gusa, kubaho nta cyo byaba bimaze. *

Nta gushidikanya ko hari abantu bareba kure bifuza kubona ibisubizo by’ibibazo bibaza kuri iyo ngingo. Viktor Frankl wigishaga ibirebana n’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe, yaravuze ati “abantu bashishikazwa mu buryo bwihariye no kumenya intego y’ubuzima. Mu yandi magambo, twebwe abantu twaremanywe icyifuzo cyo kumenya Imana, kandi icyo cyifuzo ntitwakigira tutararemwe na yo. Ariko se niba twararemwe n’Imana, yaba yaraduhaye n’uburyo bwo kuyimenya?

Yesu Kristo yashubije icyo kibazo agira ati “umuntu ntatungwa n’ibyokurya gusa, ahubwo atungwa n’ijambo ryose riva mu kanwa ka Yehova” Imana (Matayo 4:4). Ijambo ry’Imana ari ryo Bibiliya, ryatumye abantu babarirwa muri za miriyoni bamenya Imana, bishimira ubuzima kandi bagira ibyiringiro by’igihe kizaza (1 Abatesalonike 2:13). Nawe niwiga Bibiliya, uzabona iyo migisha. Birakwiriye rwose ko usuzuma icyo gitabo cyihariye.

^ par. 3 Kugira ngo Watson na Crick bagire icyo bageraho, bifashishije ibindi byari byaravumbuwe mbere yaho kuri ADN. ADN ni aside iba mu ntimatima y’ingiraguzimafatizo igenga uko ibinyabuzima bizaba biteye.—Reba ingingo igira iti “ Amatariki y’ingenzi arebana na ADN.”

^ par. 6 Izo nyuguti zihagarariye amazina akurikira: (A) adenine, (C) sitosine, (G) gwanine na (T) timine.

^ par. 22 Ikibazo kirebana n’irema hamwe n’ubwihindurize cyasesenguwe mu buryo burambuye mu dutabo Inkomoko y’ubuzima—Ibibazo bitanu umuntu akwiriye kwibaza” (mu gifaransa), na Ese ubuzima bwabayeho biturutse ku irema?tuboneka kuri www.jw.org.

IBINDI WAMENYA

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