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 INGINGO YO KU GIFUBIKO | UBUZIMA BWABAYEHO BUTE?

Ibibazo bibiri twagombye kwibaza

Ibibazo bibiri twagombye kwibaza

1 Ubuzima bwatangiye bute?

ICYO BAMWE BABIVUGAHO. Ubuzima bwabayeho mu buryo bw’impanuka, buturutse ku kintu kidafite ubuzima.

IMPAMVU HARI ABATANYURWA N’ICYO GISUBIZO. Muri iki gihe, abahanga mu bya siyansi bazi byinshi ku miterere y’uduce duto tw’umubiri n’imikorere yatwo kurusha mbere hose. Nyamara ntibashobora gusobanura neza icyo ubuzima ari cyo. Hari itandukaniro rinini cyane hagati y’ikintu kidafite ubuzima n’ikinyabuzima icyo ari cyo cyose, nubwo cyaba kigizwe n’ingirabuzimafatizo imwe gusa.

Abahanga mu bya siyansi ntibashobora kwemeza uko ibintu byari byifashe ku isi, mu myaka ibarirwa muri za miriyari ishize. Ntibavuga rumwe ku byerekeye aho ubuzima bwatangiriye, niba ari mu kirunga cyangwa munsi y’inyanja. Hari n’abatekereza ko ibintu by’ibanze bigize ubuzima byabanje kwiremera ahandi hantu mu isanzure ry’ikirere, bikagera ku isi biturutse muri nyakotsi. Icyakora ibyo ntibisubiza cya kibazo cyo kumenya uko ubuzima bwatangiye, ahubwo bigaragaza gusa ko ubuzima bwaturutse ahandi.

Abahanga mu bya siyansi batekereza ko hashobora kuba harabanje kubaho molekile, zaje kuvamo ibice by’ingirabuzimafatizo bizwi muri iki gihe bigena uko ikinyabuzima kizaba giteye. Bavuga ko izo molekile zabayeho mu buryo bw’impanuka, ko zororoka kandi ko zishobora kuba zaraturutse ku kintu kitagira ubuzima. Ariko nta gihamya bigeze batanga yerekana ko izo molekile zabayeho, cyangwa ngo babe bakorera molekile nibura imwe muri laboratwari.

Ibinyabuzima bibika amakuru kandi bikayakoresha mu buryo bwihariye. Ingirabuzimafatizo zihererekanya amabwiriza ari mu bice byazo bigena uko ikinyabuzima kizaba giteye, zikayasobanura kandi zikayakurikiza. Hari abahanga mu bya siyansi bagereranya ibyo bice na porogaramu ya orudinateri, naho imikorere y’ingirabuzimafatizo ikagereranywa n’imikorere y’ibindi bice bya orudinateri. Nyamara abashyigikira ubwihindurize ntibashobora gusobanura aho ayo makuru aturuka.

Molekile zigize poroteyine zigira uruhare rw’ingenzi mu mikorere y’ingirabuzimafatizo. Molekile imwe ya poroteyine iba igizwe n’uduce tubarirwa mu magana two mu rwego rwa shimi, dusobekeranye mu buryo buri kuri gahunda. Nanone kandi, kugira ngo molekile ya poroteyine igire akamaro, igomba kwihina ku buryo ikora ishusho ifite impande eshatu zigaragara. Hari abahanga mu bya siyansi banavuze ko amahirwe yo kugira ngo molekile imwe ya poroteyine ibeho mu buryo bw’impanuka ari make cyane. Umuhanga mu bya fiziki witwa Paul Davies yaranditse ati “kubera ko ingirabuzimafatizo nzima igomba kuba igizwe na poroteyine zitandukanye, biragoye kuvuga ko zabayeho mu buryo bw’impanuka.”

UMWANZURO. Nyuma y’imyaka ibarirwa muri za mirongo hakorwa ubushakashakatsi mu nzego hafi ya zose za siyansi, na n’ubu biracyagaragara ko ubuzima buturuka ku bindi binyabuzima.

 2 Ibinyabuzima byororotse bite?

ICYO BAMWE BABIVUGAHO. Ikinyabuzima cya mbere cyagiye kibyara ibindi binyabuzima bitandukanye harimo n’abantu. Ibyo byabayeho bitewe n’ihinduka ry’imiterere y’ibinyabuzima ibaho mu buryo bw’impanuka cyangwa kuba bishobora kwihanganira imimerere y’aho biri.

IMPAMVU HARI ABATANYURWA N’ICYO GISUBIZO. Hari ingirabuzimafatizo zihambaye kurusha izindi. Hari igitabo cyavuze ko ukuntu ingirabuzimafatizo zoroheje zishobora kuvamo ingirabuzimafatizo zihambaye, “akenshi bijyana n’iyobera rikomeye rya kabiri ry’ubwihindurize, irya mbere akaba ari inkomoko y’ubuzima.”

Muri buri ngirabuzimafatizo, abahanga mu bya siyansi bavumbuyemo za molekile zagereranywa n’utumashini, zigizwe na za poroteyine zikorera hamwe mu gusohoza imirimo ihambaye. Muri iyo mirimo harimo gutwara intungamubiri no kuzivanamo ingufu, gusana ingirabuzimafatizo no kuzoherezamo amabwiriza. Ese ihinduka ry’imiterere y’ibinyabuzima cyangwa kuba bishobora kwihanganira imimerere y’aho biri, ni byo byatumye ibyo bice bigize ingirabuzimafatizo bihambaye byiteranya kandi bigakorana neza? Abantu benshi kubyemera birabagora.

Kugira ngo abantu n’inyamaswa bibeho, intanga ngore ihura n’intanga ngabo maze bigakora igi. Ingirabuzimafatizo zororokera imbere muri iryo gi cyangwa urusoro, amaherezo zikagenda zigabanya, zigafata amasura atandukanye kandi zikagabana imirimo, kugira ngo zivemo ibice bitandukanye by’umubiri. Abashyigikira ubwihindurize ntibashobora gusobanura uko buri ngirabuzimafatizo “imenya” icyo igomba kuba cyo n’urugingo rw’umubiri igomba kwerekezamo.

Ubu abahanga mu bya siyansi bazi ko kugira ngo ubwoko bw’inyamaswa buvemo ubundi bwoko, bisaba ko habaho ihinduka mu ntimatima y’ingirabuzimafatizo, rikaba ku miterere ya za molekile. None se ko abahanga mu bya siyansi badashobora kugaragaza uko ubwihindurize bushobora gutuma habaho ingirabuzimafatizo nibura “yoroheje,” byaba bikwiriye kwemeza ko ihinduka ry’imiterere y’ibinyabuzima cyangwa kuba bishobora kwihanganira imimerere y’aho biri, ari byo byatumye habaho amoko atandukanye y’inyamaswa ari kuri uyu mubumbe? Umwarimu wigisha ibinyabuzima witwa Michael Behe yasobanuye ibijyanye n’imiterere y’inyamaswa, agaragaza ko nubwo abashakashatsi “bavumbuye ko hariho urusobe rutangaje rw’ibinyabuzima, batarasobanura ukuntu urwo rusobe rwabaho mu buryo bw’impanuka.”

Abantu bafite ubwimenye n’ubushobozi bwo gutekereza, kandi bafite imico y’ubumuntu urugero nko kugira ubuntu, kwigomwa n’ubushobozi bwo gutandukanya icyiza n’ikibi. Ihinduka ry’imiterere y’ibinyabuzima cyangwa igitekerezo cyo kuba bishobora kwihanganira imimerere y’aho biri, ntibishobora gusobanura aho iyo mico yihariye iranga abantu yaturutse.

UMWANZURO. Nubwo abantu benshi bakomeje kwemeza ko ubuzima bwabayeho biturutse ku bwihindurize, hari abandi batanyurwa n’ibisubizo abashyigikira ubwihindurize batanga ku birebana n’uko ibinyabuzima byatangiye kubaho n’uko byagiye byororoka.