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Imiyoboro yubatswe n’Abaroma igaragaza ubuhanga mu by’ubwubatsi

Imiyoboro yubatswe n’Abaroma igaragaza ubuhanga mu by’ubwubatsi

IMIYOBORO y’amazi y’i Roma iri mu nyubako za kera zihambaye kurusha izindi. Sextus Julius Frontinus (35—103), wari guverineri akaba yari anashinzwe iby’amazi i Roma, yaranditse ati “niba ubishidikanyaho, uzagereranye izo nyubako z’ingenzi cyane zakwirakwizaga amazi, na za piramide zidafite icyo zimaze cyangwa inyubako z’Abagiriki zidafashije abantu batangarira, uzasanga nta ho bihuriye.” *

Kuki iyo miyoboro yari ikenewe?

Ubusanzwe imigi ya kera yabaga yubatse hafi y’amazi menshi, kandi na Roma ni uko yari imeze. Mu mizo ya mbere, uruzi rwa Tibre, imigezi n’amasoko byo hafi aho byahaga uwo mugi amazi ahagije. Icyakora kuva mu kinyejana cya kane Mbere ya Yesu, umugi wa Roma waragutse cyane bituma n’amazi ukenera yiyongera.

Kubera ko abari bafite robine mu rugo bari bake, Abaroma bubatse hirya no hino ubwogero bubarirwa mu magana, bwaba ubwa rusange cyangwa ubw’abantu ku giti cyabo. Ubwogero bwa mbere bwa rusange bwubatswe mu mugi wa Roma, bwakoreshaga amazi yaturukaga mu muyoboro witwa Aqua Virgo, bukaba bwaratashywe mu kinyejana cya 19 Mbere ya Yesu. Uwubatse uwo muyoboro ari we Marcus Agrippa, akaba yari n’incuti magara ya Kayisari Awugusito, yashoye imari ye mu bikorwa byo kwita ku miyoboro y’amazi i Roma, kuyisana no kuyagura.

Nanone ubwogero bwaje kujya buhuza abantu benshi, ku buryo ubwogero bunini bwabaga bufite ubusitani n’isomero. Amazi yavaga mu bwogero yatemberaga mu miferege akajyana imyanda yabaga iri muri iyo miferege, harimo n’iyavuye mu misarani yabaga ifatanye n’ubwo bwogero.

Uko bubakaga imiyoboro n’uko bayitagaho

Ese iyo wumvise amagambo ngo “imiyoboro y’Abaroma,” uhita wumva inkingi ndende zihujwe na lento yihese? Kandi koko, izo nyubako zabaga zigize 20 ku ijana by’iyo miyoboro kandi igice kinini cyayo cyabaga cyubatse munsi y’ubutaka. Iyo myubakire yatumaga amazi agera ku baturage mu buryo budahenze, ikarinda iyo miyoboro gutwarwa n’isuri kandi ntigire icyo itwara ubutaka abaturage babaga batuyeho cyangwa ubwo bahingaga. Urugero,  umuyoboro wiswe Aqua Marcia warangije kubakwa mu mwaka wa 140 Mbere ya Yesu, wari ufite ibirometero 92 by’uburebure ariko inkingi ziwugize zari zubatse ku birometero 11 gusa cyangwa birengaho gato.

Mbere yo kubaka umuyoboro w’amazi, ba injenyeri babanzaga kugenzura isoko y’amazi, bagasuzuma ko amazi yayo ari urubogobogo, umuvuduko wayo n’uburyohe bwayo. Nanone basuzumaga imibereho y’abaturage banywaga ayo mazi. Iyo isoko yabaga imaze kwemerwa, ba kanyamigezi basuzumaga inzira umuyoboro w’amazi uzacamo n’ubuhaname bazawuha, bakanasuzuma ubugari n’uburebure bazawuha. Abacakara ni bo bubakaga iyo miyoboro. Kubaka imiyoboro byatwaraga imyaka itari mike, ibyo bigatuma ihenda, cyane cyane mu gihe byabaga ngombwa ko hubakwa inkingi zifatanyijwe na lento yihese.

Uretse n’ibyo, iyo miyoboro yagombaga kwitabwaho no kurindwa. Hari igihe umugi wa Roma wari ufite abakozi 700 bo kuyitaho. Nanone bateganyaga uburyo bwo kuzayitaho. Urugero, kugira ngo bagere ku bice by’imiyoboro byabaga bitwikiriwe n’ubutaka babikorere isuku, bafukuraga imyobo yo kuzanyuramo kugira ngo babigereho. Iyo habaga hagomba gusanwa ikintu gikomeye, ba injenyeri bayobyaga amazi mu gihe gito kugira ngo basane ahangiritse.

Imiyoboro y’amazi yo mu mugi wa Roma

Mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya gatatu, umugi wa Roma wagaburirwaga n’imiyoboro y’amazi minini 11. Uwa mbere witwaga Aqua Appia wubatswe mu wa 312 Mbere ya Yesu, ukaba warareshyaga n’ibirometero birenga 16, kandi hafi ya wose wari wubatse munsi y’ubutaka. Nanone hari uwitwa Aqua Claudia, igice cyawo kikaba kikiriho na n’ubu, wareshyaga n’ibirometero 69, ugizwe n’inkingi zihujwe na lento yihese zubatse ku birometero 10, zimwe muri zo zikaba zari zifite ubuhagarike bwa metero 27.

Iyo miyoboro yatwaraga amazi angana iki? Yabaga ari menshi cyane. Urugero, umuyoboro wa Aqua Marcia twigeze kuvuga, buri munsi woherezaga mu mugi wa Roma amazi angana na metero kibe 190.000. Iyo amazi yo muri iyo miyoboro yageraga mu duce two mu mugi, dore ko atakeneraga moteri, yayoborwaga mu bigega binini biyakira. Ibyo bigega na byo byabaga bishamikiyeho indi miyoboro y’amazi, yayajyanaga mu bindi bigega cyangwa mu nsisiro yabaga agomba gukoreshwamo. Hari abavuga ko ugereranyije, imiyoboro yagemuraga amazi mu mugi wa Roma yagiye yiyongera bikageza ubwo buri muturage yabonaga litiro 1.000 ku munsi.

Hari igitabo cyavuze ko uko ubwami bw’Abaroma bwagendaga bwaguka, ari na ko bagendaga bubaka “imiyoboro y’amazi mu duce bigaruriraga” (Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply). Abajya gutembera muri Aziya Ntoya, mu Bufaransa, muri Esipanye no muri Afurika ya Ruguru bashobora kuhabona izo nyubako za kera zihambaye.

^ par. 2 Abaroma si bo ba mbere bubatse imiyoboro y’amazi. Ibindi bihugu bya kera, urugero nka Ashuri, Egiputa, u Buhindi n’u Buperesi, byabatanze kuyubaka.