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Nimukanguke!  |  Kamena 2014

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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley

“Kuba yari umuhanga, arangwa n’ishyaka, gukunda umurimo no kwita ku bandi, kugira amatsiko menshi haba mu birebana n’imiterere y’ibintu, umuco n’imibanire y’abantu, uruhare yagize mu bya siyansi, tewolojiya na politiki n’urwo yagize mu mpinduramatwara [y’u Bufaransa] hamwe n’imibabaro yahuye na yo arengana, byagombye gutuma aba intwari y’ikinyejana cya cumi n’umunani.”—Frederic Harrison, umuhanga mu bya filozofiya.

NI IKI Joseph Priestley yakoze cyatumye amenyekana cyane? Ibyo yavumbuye n’ibitabo yanditse byahinduye uko abantu babonaga ibirebana n’ubutegetsi, kamere y’Imana n’umwuka uyu duhumeka.

Iyo Priestley yandikaga ibirebana na siyansi cyangwa idini, yamaganaga inyigisho n’imigenzo bidafite ishingiro, ahubwo agaharanira ukuri. Reka turebe uko byagenze.

UKO YASHAKISHIJE UKURI MU BIREBANA NA SIYANSI

Joseph Priestley yagiye mu bya siyansi ari nko kwishimisha gusa. Mu mwaka wa 1765, ubwo yari amaze kumenyana n’umuhanga mu bya siyansi wo muri Amerika witwaga Benjamin Franklin, yahise atangira gukora ubushakashatsi ku muriro w’amashanyarazi. Mu mwaka wakurikiyeho, abahanga mu bya siyansi bagenzi be batangajwe n’ibyo yari amaze kuvumbura, maze bamutorera kuba umunyamuryango w’isosiyete yo mu Bwongereza igamije guteza imbere ibya siyansi.

Nyuma yaho, Priestley yatangiye gukora ubushakashatsi mu birebana na shimi. Mu gihe gito yari amaze kuvumbura gazi zitandukanye, urugero nk’iyitwa amoniyake n’indi igizwe n’uruvange rwa azote na ogisijeni. Yashoboye no kuvanga amazi na gazi karubonike, bityo aba avumbuye ya mazi abamo gazi.

 Mu mwaka wa 1774, ubwo yakoreraga ubushakashatsi mu majyepfo y’u Bwongereza, yaje kuvumbura gazi yihariye ituma buji zaka cyane. Nyuma yaho yashyize mu kirahuri mililitiro 60 z’iyo gazi, ashyiramo n’imbeba. Imbeba yamazemo igihe gikubye incuro ebyiri icyo yari kumara iri mu kirahuri kirimo umwuka usanzwe. Priestley ubwe yahumetse iyo gazi aza kuvuga ko “nyuma yaho yumvise ahumeka neza.”

Icyo gihe Joseph Priestley yari avumbuye umwuka wa ogisijeni. * Icyakora yavuze ko avumbuye gazi isanzwe itavanzemo ibindi bintu byatuma ishya. Nubwo uwo mwanzuro utari uhuje n’ukuri, abenshi babona ko icyo ari “ikintu gikomeye yagezeho mu buzima bwe.”

UKO YASHAKISHIJE UKURI MU BIREBANA N’IDINI

Nk’uko Priestley yumvaga ko inyigisho z’impimbano zapfukiranye ukuri mu birebana na siyansi, ni na ko yumvaga ko imihango n’imigenzo byapfukiranye ukuri mu birebana n’idini. Igitangaje ni uko Priestley yaje kwemera bimwe mu bitekerezo bihabanye n’ibyo Bibiliya yigisha, nubwo yamaze igihe kirekire ayikoraho ubushakashatsi. Urugero, yigeze kumara igihe atemera ko Bibiliya yahumetswe n’Imana mu buryo bw’igitangaza. Nanone yahakanye inyigisho yo muri Bibiliya ivuga ko Yesu yabanje kuba mu ijuru mbere y’uko aza ku isi.

“Niba intego ya siyansi ari ugushakisha ukuri, Priestley yari umuhanga nyakuri muri siyansi.”—Katherine Cullen, umuhanga mu binyabuzima

Ku rundi ruhande, Priestley yashyize ahagaragara inyigisho z’ikinyoma zikiriho no muri iki gihe kandi zemerwa n’amadini menshi. Yanditse ko ukuri Yesu n’abigishwa be bigishije kwaje kwanduzwa n’inyigisho z’ikinyoma, urugero nk’inyigisho y’Ubutatu, iyo kudapfa k’ubugingo no gusenga ibishushanyo, ibyo bikaba ari ibintu Bibiliya yamagana.

Ibyo bitekerezo bye ku bijyanye n’idini no kuba yari ashyigikiye impinduramatwara y’Abafaransa n’iy’Abanyamerika byarakaje Abongereza bagenzi be. Mu mwaka wa 1791, abantu batwitse inzu ye na laboratwari maze ahungira muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika. Nubwo abenshi bamwibukira ku bushakashatsi yakoze mu bijyanye na siyansi, we yumvaga ko kwiga ibyerekeye Imana n’umugambi wayo ari byo “byari ingenzi cyane kandi ko ari byo bifite agaciro.”

^ par. 10 Mbere yaho, umuhanga mu bya shimi wo muri Suwede witwa Carl Scheele yari yaravumbuye ogisijeni, ariko ananirwa gushyira ahagaragara ibyo yavumbuye. Nyuma yaho, umuhanga mu bya shimi w’Umufaransa witwa Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier ni we wise uwo mwuka ogisijeni.