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Ikinyarwanda

Nimukanguke!  |  Gicurasi 2014

Uko abapfumu bahizwe bukware mu Burayi

Uko abapfumu bahizwe bukware mu Burayi

MU MYAKA ibarirwa mu magana ishize, mu Burayi batangiye gutinya abapfumu, bituma babahiga ngo babatsembe. Ibyo byabaye cyane cyane mu Bufaransa, mu Budage, mu majyaruguru y’u Butaliyani, mu Busuwisi no mu bihugu byo mu majyepfo y’u Burayi ari byo u Bubiligi, Luxembourg n’u Buholandi. Hari igitabo cyagize kiti “abantu babarirwa mu bihumbi mirongo bo mu Burayi no mu bihugu byakoronizwaga n’u Burayi barishwe, abandi babarirwa muri za miriyoni barafatwa, bababazwa urubozo, bahatwa ibibazo, bangwa urunuka, bashinjwa ibinyoma, naho abandi baterwa ubwoba” (Witch Hunts in the Western World). * None se, ubwo bwoba bukabije bwo gutinya abapfumu bwaje bute? Ni iki cyatumye bahigwa bukware?

Urukiko rwa Kiliziya n’igitabo kirwanya ubupfumu

Iyo ukurikiranye amateka, usanga Urukiko rwa Kiliziya rwaragize uruhare rukomeye mu byabaye. Hari igitabo cyavuze ko urwo rukiko rwashinzwe na Kiliziya Gatolika y’i Roma mu kinyejana cya 13, rugamije “gutuma abahakanyi bisubiraho no kubuza abantu kuva muri kiliziya” (Der Hexenwahn). Urwo rukiko rwakoraga nk’urwego rwa polisi ya kiliziya.

Ku itariki ya 5 Ukuboza mu mwaka wa 1484, Papa Innocent wa VIII yasohoye inyandiko yamagana ubupfumu. Yanashyizeho abahagarariye Urukiko rwa Kiliziya babiri ari bo Jakob Sprenger na Heinrich Kramer (nanone uzwi ku izina ry’ikilatini rya Henricus Institoris), kugira ngo bakurikirane ikibazo cy’ubupfumu. Abo bagabo bombi banditse igitabo cyitwa Malleus Maleficarum (Inyundo yo guhondesha abapfumu). Abagatolika n’Abaporotesitanti bemeraga ko ari cyo gitabo cyemewe gishyira ahagaragara ubupfumu. Icyo gitabo cyari kigizwe n’imigani y’imihimbano ishingiye ku migenzo gakondo. Nanone cyarimo tewolojiya n’amategeko arwanya ubupfumu, kandi cyatangaga amabwiriza ajyanye no gutahura abapfumu no kubatsemba. Hari abavuze ko ari cyo “gitabo kirimo ubugome . . .  kandi cyangiza kurusha ibindi byose ku isi.”

Igitabo kirwanya ubupfumu cyavuzweho ko ari cyo “gitabo kirimo ubugome . . .  kandi cyangiza kurusha ibindi byose ku isi”

 Gushinja umuntu ubupfumu ntibyasabaga ibimenyetso bimwemeza icyaha. Hari igitabo cyavuze ko imanza zari zigamije “gutuma bemera icyaha ku bushake, kukibemeza hakoreshweje amayeri, kotswa igitutu cyangwa ingufu.” Uburyo bwo kubabaza urubozo ni bwo bwakoreshwaga cyane.Hexen und Hexenprozesse.

Icyo gitabo kirwanya ubupfumu hamwe na ya nyandiko ya Papa Innocent wa VIII, cyatumye abapfumu bo mu Burayi bahigishwa uruhindu. Nanone kandi, ababahigaga babifashijwemo n’ikoranabuhanga ryari rigezweho, urugero nk’imashini zicapa, rikaba ryarabafashije gukwirakwiza urwo rwango hirya no hino, ku buryo barugejeje no hakurya ya Atalantika muri Amerika.

Ni ba nde bahigwaga?

Abarenga 70 ku ijana mu bahigwaga bari abagore, cyane cyane abapfakazi, akenshi babaga badafite kirengera. Habaga harimo abakene, abageze mu za bukuru n’abagore bavuraga bakoresheje imiti gakondo, cyane cyane iyo bavuraga umuntu ntakire. Mu by’ukuri nta n’umwe bareberaga izuba, yaba umukene cyangwa umukire, umugabo cyangwa umugore, uworoheje cyangwa ukomeye.

Abakekwagaho ubupfumu bashinjwaga ibibi by’ubwoko bwose. Hari igitabo cyo mu Budage cyavuze ko bashinjwaga ko ari bo “batezaga urubura n’ibyorezo by’ibinyamushongo n’ibihore byangizaga imyaka n’imbuto byo ku isi” (Damals). Iyo urubura rwicaga imyaka, inka ikabura amata, umugabo akaba ikiremba cyangwa umugore akaba ingumba, abapfumu ni bo babiryozwaga.

Abakekwagaho ubupfumu bapimwaga ku munzani kuko abantu bibwiraga ko abapfumu babaga bafite ibiro bike cyangwa nta n’ibyo bafite

Abapfumu batahurwaga bate? Bamwe barababohaga bakabaroha mu mazi akonje yitwaga ko ari ay’umugisha. Iyo bibiraga babaga ari abere, bityo bagahita babavana muri ayo mazi. Iyo bakomezaga kureremba bafatwaga nk’abapfumu. Icyo gihe bahitaga bicwa cyangwa bakajyanwa mu nkiko. Abandi bapimwaga ku munzani, kuko abantu bibwiraga ko abapfumu babaga bafite ibiro bike cyangwa nta n’ibyo bafite.

Hari igitabo cyavuze ko ikindi kintu baheragaho ari ukureba niba umuntu afite “ikimenyetso cya Satani,” icyo kikaba cyari “ikimenyetso kigaragara umupfumu yahabwaga na Satani kigaragaza imishyikirano afitanye na we” (Witch Hunts in the Western World). Kugira ngo abategetsi babone icyo kimenyetso “bogoshaga umusatsi w’uwakekwagaho ubupfumu bakawumaraho, maze bakagenzura umubiri we wose” kandi bigakorerwa mu ruhame. Nyuma yaho bajombaga urushinge ahantu hose ku mubiri babonye akantu kadasanzwe, urugero nk’ikibibi, agaheri, cyangwa inkovu. Iyo umuntu atababaraga cyangwa ngo ave amaraso, bahitaga bumva ko ako kantu kari ku mubiri we ari ikimenyetso cya Satani.

Abategetsi b’Abagatolika n’Abaporotesitanti bashyigikiye uwo mugambi mubisha wo guhiga abapfumu. Mu turere tumwe na tumwe, abategetsi b’Abaporotesitanti babikoranaga ubugome kurusha Abagatolika. Icyakora nyuma y’igihe, abantu batangiye gusubiza ubwenge ku gihe. Urugero, mu wa 1631 Friedrich Spee, umupadiri w’Umuyezuwiti wari washoreye abantu benshi bashinjwaga ubupfumu kugira ngo batwikwe bamanitswe ku giti, yaje kwandika avuga ko nta n’umwe wahamwaga n’icyaha. Yavuze ko iyo abapfumu bakomeza guhigwa, igihugu cyari kuzasigara cyambaye ubusa. Amaherezo abaganga batangiye kubona ko indwara zitandukanye, urugero nk’igicuri, ari indwara zisanzwe kandi ko zitaterwaga n’abadayimoni. Mu kinyejana cya 17, imanza z’abapfumu zatangiye kugabanuka, ku buryo ibikorwa byo kubahiga byarangiranye n’icyo kinyejana.

Ni iki twakwigira ku mahano nk’ayo? Isomo ry’ingenzi ni iri: igihe abiyita Abakristo barekaga inyigisho z’ukuri za Yesu Kristo, bakazisimbuza ibinyoma by’amadini n’imigenzo yayo, batumye habaho amarorerwa atagira ingano. Bibiliya yari yaratanze umuburo ku byerekeye ibyo bikorwa byakozwe mu izina ry’Ubukristo bitewe n’abigisha b’ibinyoma, igira iti “bazatukisha inzira y’ukuri.”2 Petero 2:1, 2.

^ par. 2 Mu bihugu byakoronizwaga n’u Burayi harimo n’ibyo muri Amerika.