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  INGINGO YO KU GIFUBIKO

Ese wakwizera ibivugwa mu itangazamakuru?

Ese wakwizera ibivugwa mu itangazamakuru?

ABANTU benshi bashidikanya ku byo basoma n’ibyo bumva mu makuru. Urugero, mu mwaka wa 2012, isosiyete yo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ikora iperereza, yakoze ubushakashatsi kuri iyo ngingo. Abantu babajijwe niba bizera ko amakuru atangazwa mu binyamakuru, kuri televiziyo no kuri radiyo ahuje n’ukuri, atabogamye cyangwa ko yuzuye. Abagera kuri 6 ku 10, baravuze bati “icyizere ni gike,” cyangwa bati “nta na gike.” Ese kuba abantu batizera ibivugwa mu makuru, byaba bifite ishingiro?

Abanyamakuru benshi n’ibigo bakorera bagirana amasezerano yo gutangaza amakuru y’ukuri kandi yuzuye. Ariko hari impamvu zishobora gutuma tutizera ayo makuru. Reka dusuzume zimwe muri zo.

  • IBIGO BY’ITANGAZAMAKURU. Hari ibigo bike ariko bikomeye biba bifite amakuru y’ingenzi. Ibyo bigo bigira uruhare rukomeye ku birebana n’ubwoko bw’amakuru atangazwa, uko atangazwa n’urugero atangazwamo. Kubera ko ibyinshi muri ibyo bigo biba bigamije inyungu, amakuru bitanga aba ashingiye ahanini ku nyungu z’amafaranga bifitemo. Inkuru zishobora gutuma ba nyir’ibyo bigo bahomba, zishobora kudatangazwa.

  • UBUTEGETSI. Amakuru menshi yibanda ku banyapolitiki n’ibyo za leta zikora. Leta ziba zishaka gushishikariza abaturage kwitabira gahunda zayo no gushyigikira abategetsi bazo. Kubera ko ibigo by’itangazamakuru bikura amakuru mu bategetsi, hari igihe abanyamakuru n’abategetsi bakorana.

  •  AMATANGAZO YAMAMAZA. Mu bihugu byinshi, kugira ngo ibigo by’itangazamakuru bikomeze gukora bigomba kuba bibona amafaranga, kandi hafi ya yose ava mu matangazo yo kwamamaza. Muri Amerika, amatangazo yamamaza yinjiriza ibinyamakuru bimwe na bimwe amafaranga ari hagati ya 50 na 60 ku ijana by’amafaranga yose byinjiza. Mu bindi binyamakuru ho, ayo matangazo yinjiza 80 ku ijana naho kuri radiyo na televiziyo z’ubucuruzi akinjiza 100 ku ijana. Birumvikana kandi ko abamamaza baba badashaka gutera inkunga ibiganiro cyangwa porogaramu byahesha isura mbi ibicuruzwa byabo cyangwa isosiyete yabo. Iyo batishimiye ibiganiro cyangwa amakuru bitangazwa n’ikigo runaka, bashobora kwamamariza ahandi. Ku bw’ibyo, abayobozi b’ibigo by’itangazamakuru ntibasohora inkuru ishobora guhesha isura mbi abaterankunga babyo.

  • UBURIGANYA. Abanyamakuru bose si ko ari inyangamugayo. Bamwe muri bo bahimba inkuru. Urugero, mu myaka mike ishize, umunyamakuru wo mu Buyapani yashatse kwerekana ukuntu abaturage bo mu mugi wa Okinawa bangiza ibibuye byo mu nyanja biba byarakomotse ku bisigazwa by’inyamaswa. Amaze kubona ko nta na kimwe muri byo cyangiritse, yangije bimwe muri byo arangije arabifotora. Nanone, abanyamakuru bashobora kugira ibyo bahindura ku mafoto kugira ngo bajijishe abantu. Ikoranabuhanga mu guhindura amafoto ryateye imbere cyane, ku buryo hari ibyo bahindura ukaba rwose udashobora kubitahura.

  • KUGOREKA UKURI. Nubwo ukuri kw’amakuru runaka kuba kwigaragaza, abanyamakuru bashobora kuyerekana cyangwa bakayavuga bakurikije uko babona ibintu. Bashobora kwemeza ibiri bushyirwe mu makuru n’ibyo bari buvanemo. Urugero, ikipe y’umupira w’amaguru ishobora kuba yatsinzwe ibitego bibiri. Uko ni ukuri udashobora kugira icyo uhinduraho. Ariko umunyamakuru ni we ubwe ushobora gusobanura impamvu zitandukanye zatumye iyo kipe itsindwa.

  • INKURU ITUZUYE. Akenshi iyo abanyamakuru bashaka ko inkuru ishishikaza abantu, hari ibintu bimwe na bimwe bakuramo, bishobora kuba bitumvikana cyangwa bigateza urujijo. Ibyo bituma inkuru ibamo amakabyankuru cyangwa ugasanga ituzuye. Amakuru y’ingenzi ashobora kwirengagizwa, bitewe n’uko hari igihe abanyamakuru baba basabwa kuvuga inkuru mu munota umwe cyangwa urengaho gato.

  •  GUPIGANWA. Kubera ko umubare wa za televiziyo wagiye wiyongera mu myaka mirongo ishize, igihe abantu bamara bareba umurongo runaka wa televiziyo cyaragabanutse cyane. Kugira ngo televiziyo zimwe na zimwe zikomeze gushishikaza abantu bazireba, zihatira guhitisha ibiganiro cyangwa imyidagaduro utasanga ku zindi televiziyo. Hari igitabo cyagize icyo kibivugaho kigira kiti “ibiganiro byo kuri televiziyo bisigaye bigizwe ahanini n’amafoto cyangwa amashusho y’ibintu bikura abantu umutima cyangwa bikabashishikaza, n’inkuru ziba ari ngufi cyane ku buryo zirangira uzireba atararambirwa.”

  • AMAKOSA. Abanyamakuru na bo bakora amakosa nk’abandi bantu bose. Amagambo yanditswe nabi, akitso katari mu mwanya wako n’amakosa y’ikibonezamvugo, bishobora gutuma interuro yumvikana uko itari. Hari n’igihe batagenzura inkuru babyitondeye. Kubera gusiganwa n’igihe, hari ubwo umunyamakuru ashobora kwibeshya ku mibare, wenda aho kwandika 10.000 akandika 100.000.

  • KWIBESHYA. Mu buryo bunyuranye n’uko abantu bamwe babyibwira, kubara inkuru nta kwibeshya ntibyoroshye. Ushobora gusanga ikintu iki n’iki ari ukuri uyu munsi, ejo hakagira ukivuguruza. Urugero, kera abantu bibwiraga ko izuba n’indi mibumbe bigaragiye isi. Ariko ubu tuzi ko isi ari yo izenguruka izuba.

 Gushyira mu gaciro ni ngombwa

Nubwo byaba byiza tudahise twizera ibivuzwe mu makuru byose, ibyo ntibisobanura ko ibivugwamo byose biba ari ibinyoma. Ibanga nta rindi, ni ugushungura ibyo tubwirwa mu makuru, ari na ko twirinda gukabya kubijora.

Bibiliya igira iti “mbese ugutwi si ko kugerageza amagambo, nk’uko urusenge rw’akanwa rwumva ibyokurya?” (Yobu 12:11). Reka turebe bimwe mu bintu byadufasha gushungura ibyo twumva cyangwa dusoma.

  • UWATANGAJE INKURU: Ese iyo nkuru yavuye ahantu hizewe, ku muntu uzwi cyangwa ikigo kizwi? Ese iyo porogaramu cyangwa ikinyamakuru bizwiho gutangaza inkuru zitabogamye cyangwa bishyiramo amarangamutima? Ni nde wishyura abatangaje ayo makuru?

  • INKOMOKO: Ese iyi nkuru yakorewe ubushakashatsi? Ese haba hari abandi bayemeza? Ese abayitanze barizewe kandi birinda kubogama? Ese ibyo bavuga bishyize mu gaciro cyangwa byagiye bihindurwa kugira ngo bishyigikire igitekerezo kimwe?

  • INTEGO: Ibaze uti “ese intego y’ibanze y’iyi nkuru ni ukugira icyo itwungura cyangwa ni ukuturangaza gusa? Ese aho ntiyaba igamije gushyigikira ikintu runaka cyangwa gutuma kigurishwa?”

  • UKO INKURU ITEYE: Iyo utangaza inkuru avuze arakaye cyangwa ajora, biba byumvikanisha ko ifite uwo yibasira kandi ko ibogamye.

  • KUTAVUGURUZANYA: Ese ibimenyetso bitangwa kuri iyo nkuru, bihuje n’ibyatanzwe mu bindi binyamakuru? Mu gihe inkuru zivuguruzanya ugomba kuba maso.

  • IGIHE INKURU IMAZE: Ese amakuru yavuzwe ni aya vuba aha ku buryo yakwemerwa? Ikintu cyafatwaga nk’ukuri mu myaka 20 ishize, gishobora kutabonwa nk’ukuri muri iki gihe. Ku rundi ruhande, iyo amakuru agishyushye, hari igihe aba atuzuye cyangwa aburamo ibisobanuro by’ingenzi.

None se usanze ushobora kwizera ibivugwa mu makuru? Hari inama yatanzwe n’umunyabwenge Salomo, igira iti “umuntu wese utaraba inararibonye yizera ijambo ryose rivuzwe, ariko umunyamakenga yitondera intambwe ze.”—Imigani 14:15.