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Abahamya ba Yehova

Ikinyarwanda

30 WERURWE 2016
U BURUSIYA

U Burusiya bukoresha nabi itegeko rikumira ubutagondwa ku Bahamya ba Yehova

U Burusiya bukoresha nabi itegeko rikumira ubutagondwa ku Bahamya ba Yehova

ST. PETERSBURG, mu Burusiya—Hashize imyaka 125 abategetsi bo mu Burusiya birukanye Umuhamya wa Yehova wa mbere wageze muri icyo gihugu, witwa Semyon Kozlitskiy, bamuziza ko yigisha abandi ubutumwa bwo muri Bibiliya. Mu mwaka wa 1891, abayobozi bafashe Kozlitskiy bamwambika amapingu maze bamwohereza muri Siberiya, aho akaba ari na ho yaguye mu mwaka wa 1935.

Mu myaka ijana ishize, uko u Burusiya bwafataga Abahamya ba Yehova ntibyigeze bihinduka. Nk’uko raporo iherutse gukorwa na Komite y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye Yita ku Burenganzira bw’Ikiremwamuntu ibigaragaza, hari ibintu byinshi bigaragaza ko u Burusiya bukomeje “kubuza abantu uburenganzira bwo kuvuga icyo batekereza, . . .  ubwo kujya mu idini bashaka, ariko bugamije kwibasira Abahamya ba Yehova.”

Heiner Bielefeldt, intumwa idasanzwe y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ishinzwe ibibazo birebana n’uburenganzira bw’amadini.

Iyo Komite y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye Yita ku Burenganzira bw’Ikiremwamuntu yahawe kureba niba u Burusiya bwubahiriza Amasezerano Mpuzamahanga Agenga Uburenganzira bw’Ikiremwamuntu n’ubwa Politiki, bwashyizeho umukono. Intumwa idasanzwe y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ishinzwe ibibazo birebana n’uburenganzira bw’amadini, Heiner Bielefeldt yavuze ko “abateguye Amasezerano Mpuzamahanga Agenga Uburenganzira bw’Ikiremwamuntu n’ubwa Politiki, na bo bazi agaciro ko kugira umudendezo mu by’idini cyangwa kuyoborwa n’imyizerere, kandi ko ari uburenganzira butavogerwa (umuntu adakwiriye kwamburwa cyangwa ngo abuvutswe), kabone n’iyo haba ari mu bihe by’umutekano muke (Ingingo ya 4, igika cya 2). Ubu ni bumwe mu burenganzira butavogerwa abantu badakwiriye kuvutswa.” Mu nama ya 113 (reba ifoto ibimburira iyi nkuru), iyo komite yatanze raporo igira icyo ivuga ku Burusiya. Yavuze ko nubwo u Burusiya busa n’aho bwubahiriza uburenganzira abantu bafite mu by’idini bitewe n’uko bwashyize umukono kuri ya masezerano, inkiko zo muri icyo gihugu zikoresha nabi itegeko rikumira ubutagondwa, zigamije kubangamira Abahamya ba Yehova.

Itegeko ryo mu Burusiya rikumira ubutagondwa (No. 114-FZ) ryashyizweho mu mwaka wa 2002. Imwe mu mpamvu zatumye rishyirwaho, ni ukurwanya iterabwoba. Icyakora, nk’uko bigaragara mu ngingo igira iti “Itegeko ry’u Burusiya rikumira ubutagondwa ribangamira uburenganzira bw’ikiremwa muntu,” yasohotse mu kinyamakuru The Moscow Times, u Burusiya bwakoze ubugororangingo kuri iryo tegeko mu mwaka wa 2006, uwa 2007 no mu wa 2008, kugira ngo burihuze n’“ibitekerezo by’ubutagondwa bifitanye isano n’ibikorwa by’iterabwoba.” Nk’uko bivugwa na Derek H. Davis, wahoze ayobora ikigo gikurikirana iby’amadini muri kaminuza ya Baylor mu Burusiya yabivuze, ubu iryo tegeko “ryibanda ku ijambo ‘iterabwoba,’ ryamamaye ku isi hose kuva aho ibyihebe bigabiye ibitero ku miturirwa yo muri Amerika ku itariki ya 11 Nzeri. Icyakora u Burusiya bwo bukoresha iryo jambo bushaka kuvuga amadini yose budashaka. Ni yo mpamvu u Burusiya bwagiye bwita Abahamya ba Yehova intagondwa kandi barengana.”

Iyo komite iharanira uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu yasanze umuzi w’icyo kibazo uri mu bisobanuro bitumvikana by’iryo tegeko rikumira ubutagondwa. Umwanditsi witwa Geraldine Fagan, yasobanuriye ikinyamakuru The Washington Post ko uburyo iryo tegeko risobanurwa butagusha ku ngingo, ku buryo inkiko zo muri icyo gihugu zishobora kubiheraho “zikemerera abantu bitwa ko ari inzobere banga Abahamya ba Yehova kubakoraho raporo zigaragaza ko ibitabo byabo birimo ibitekerezo by’ubutagondwa.”—Believing in Russia—Religious Policy After Communism.

Ibyo ni ko byagenze mu ntangiro z’uyu mwaka, igihe umuntu w’inzobere mu by’indimi yatangaga ubuhamya bw’ibinyoma bigatuma umucamanza wo mu Rukiko rw’Umugi wa Vyborg yanzura avuga ko amagazeti abiri y’Abahamya ba Yehova arimo ibitekerezo by’ubutagondwa. Nanone uwo mushinjacyaha yatanze ikirego avuga ko Bibiliya y’Ubuhinduzi bw’isi nshya, yanditswe n’Abahamya ba Yehova, irimo ibitekerezo by’ubutagondwa. Urwo rubanza rwatangiye ku itariki 15 Werurwe 2016.

Ibitabo by’imfashanyigisho za Bibiliya bigenewe igihugu cy’u Burusiya, bibitswe ku biro by’Abahamya ba Yehova byo mu Burayi bwo hagati, biherereye i Selters, mu Budage. Muri Werurwe 2015, ni bwo abakozi ba gasutamo bo mu Burusiya batangiye kwanga ko ibitabo by’Abahamya ba Yehova byinjira muri icyo gihugu.

Ibyabaye ku Bahamya ba Yehova mu mwaka wa 2015, byacaga amarenga y’ibibazo byo mu rwego rw’amategeko barimo muri uyu mwaka wa 2016. Nk’uko Roman Lunkin, umuyobozi w’ikigo gikurikiranira hafi iby’amadini mu Burusiya n’imibereho y’abaturage, yabivuze, “uretse no kuba [Abahamya ba Yehova] barahuraga n’ibitotezo bikaze mu mwaka wa 2015, ibyo bitotezo byarushijeho no gukaza umurego.” Muri Werurwe, abategetsi b’u Burusiya banze ko ibitabo by’Abahamya ba Yehova byongera kwinjira mu gihugu, harimo na bimwe inkiko zo muri icyo gihugu zari zaramaze gusuzuma, zigasanga nta bitekerezo by’ubutagondwa birimo. Muri Nyakanga, abayobozi ba gasutamo banze ko Bibiliya zacapwe n’Abahamya ba Yehova zo mu rurimi rw’ikirusiya zongere kwinjizwa mu gihugu. Nanone muri uko kwezi, u Burusiya bwabaye igihugu cya mbere ku isi hose cyabuzanyije ikoreshwa ry’urubuga rw’Abahamya ba Yehova. Mu kwezi k’Ugushyingo, u Burusiya bwanabujije Abahamya ba Yehova kwinjiza mu gihugu Bibiliya zikoreshwa n’amadini ya gikristo yo muri icyo gihugu, urugero nk’idini ry’Aborutodogisi (La Sainte Bible, Version synodale). Nk’uko ikinyamakuru The Washington Post cyabivuze, muri uwo mwaka ni bwo “igihugu cy’u Burusiya cyaciye imanza zikomeye cyane z’abaregwaga ubutagondwa,” igihe urukiko rwo mu mugi wa Taganrog rwahamyaga ibyaha Abahamya ba Yehova 16, rubaziza gutegura no kujya mu materaniro yo mu rwego rw’idini.

Muri urwo rubanza rwo mu mugi wa Taganrog, kimwe no mu zindi, zaranzwe n’uburiganya. Lunkin, twigeze kuvuga haruguru, agira ati “hari Abahamya ba Yehova bo hambere bakurikiranywe n’inkiko, nyamara bafite ibyemezo bigaragaza ko batabangamiye umutekano w’igihugu.” Mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bw’Abasoviyeti, Abahamya ba Yehova babarirwa mu bihumbi barafunzwe. Mu mwaka wa 1990, ni bwo u Burusiya bwafunguye aba nyuma muri bo. Abo bahamya bigeze gufungwa, bahanaguweho ibyaha, kandi buri wese yahawe icyemezo kivuga ko atari “umwanzi w’igihugu,” ahubwo ko yari yararenganyijwe. Ku bw’ibyo, Lunkin yagize ati “ubutegetsi bw’u Burusiya burimo gukoresha itegeko rihana ubutagondwa, buvuguruza umwanzuro wari wafashwe wo gusubiza abo bantu mu buzima busanzwe.”

Icyakora ku itariki ya 27 Gicurasi 2015, hari urubanza Abahamya ba Yehova batsinze n’ubwo bidasanzwe, kuko Minisiteri y’Ubutabera yabashubije ubuzima gatozi bubemerera gukorera i Moscou. Ubwo burenganzira bari barabutakaje ku itariki ya 26 Werurwe 2004, igihe umuryango bakoreshaga mu rwego rw’amategeko i Moscou waseswaga. Icyo gihe, Abahamya ba Yehova bajuririye uwo mwanzuro mu Rukiko rw’u Burayi Ruharanira Uburenganzira bw’Ikiremwamuntu, kandi ku itariki ya 10 Kamena 2010, urwo rukiko rwategetse u Burusiya kubasubiza ubwo burenganzira kandi bukabaha impozamarira.

Aha hari ku itariki ya 11 Ugushyingo 2015, ubwo Abahamya ba Yehova bitwa Lyubov na Alexey Koptev, bahoberanaga bari mu busitani bwabo i Taganrog, mu Burusiya. Ku itariki ya 30 Ugushyingo 2015, Koptev n’abandi Bahamya 15 bahamijwe ibyaha n’Urukiko rw’Umugi wa Taganrog, rubaziza gutegura amateraniro yo mu rwego rw’idini no kuyajyamo. Uwo musaza uri mu kiruhuko cy’iza bukuru, ubundi ni umuntu leta yigeze guha ishimwe bitewe n’uko yamaze imyaka 38 yose akorera uruganda ruzwi cyane muri icyo gihugu (‘Krasnyy Kotelshik’).

Intumwa idasanzwe y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yagize iti “nanjye nemeranya n’uwo mwanzuro. Kwambura Abahamya ba Yehova uburenganzira bwabo bwo kwishyira kuri gahunda bakurikije imyizerere yabo, byari ‘ugukabya’ kandi ‘ntibikwiriye’ kuko bibangamiye uburenganzira bw’idini.” Umwanzuro w’urwo rukiko watumye guverinoma y’u Burusiya itanga amande, icyakora muri Gicurasi, ni bwo icyo gihugu cyashubije Abahamya ba Yehova ubuzima gatozi, nyuma y’imyaka hafi itanu Urukiko rw’u Burayi Ruharanira Uburenganzira bw’Ikiremwamuntu rufashe uwo mwanzuro.

Icyemezo gihabwa umuntu wahanaguweho ibyaha. Iyo Abahamya ba Yehova bigeze gufungwa mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bw’Abasoviyeti bazira ukwizera kwabo babaga bafunguwe, bahabwaga icyangombwa kigaragaza ko atari “abanzi b’igihugu.”

Yaroslav Sivulskiy, umuvugizi w’Abahamya ba Yehova mu Burusiya, agira ati “i Moscou hari Abahamya ba Yehova basaga 9.600, kandi mu gihugu hose hari Abahamya bagera ku bihumbi 175.000. Abahamya bose bo mu Burusiya, kimwe n’abandi bo hirya no hino ku isi basaga miriyoni 8, biringiye ko ubwo buzima gatozi bwahawe bagenzi babo bo mu murwa mukuru w’u Burusiya, ari ikimenyetso cyiza kigaragaza ko idini ryabo rishobora kuzahabwa umudendezo mu gihugu hose.” Icyakora, nk’uko abahanga bamwe na bamwe babivuga, urugero nka Davis, n’“ubwo kugira umudendezo mu by’idini ari ikintu cy’ingenzi cyane, ibyo u Burusiya bwakoze bishobora gusa n’intambwe ishimishije mu bya politiki, hagamijwe gucecekesha amahanga ngo adakomeza kubwotsa igitutu.”

Mu mwaka wa 2015, Komite y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yita ku Burenganzira bw’Ikiremwamuntu yasubiyemo imyanzuro yafashe mu wa 2003 no mu wa 2009, ivuga ko u Burusiya bwagombye “gusubiramo mu maguru mashya itegeko ryabwo rihana ibikorwa by’ubutagondwa, ” bugasobanura mu buryo bwumvikana icyo “ibikorwa by’ubutagondwa” ari cyo. Nanone iyo komite yavuze ko bugomba kugaragaza muri iryo tegeko ibyo umuntu yaba yakoze, urugero nk’urugomo cyangwa kugaragaza urwango kandi bukagaragaza igishingirwaho ngo ikintu runaka gifatwe nk’igishyigikira ubutagondwa. Ikigeretse kuri ibyo, iyo komite yasabye u Burusiya “gufata ingamba zihamye kugira ngo iryo tegeko ridakoreshwa nabi kandi bugasubiramo urutonde rw’ibintu buvuga ko birimo ibitekerezo by’ubutagondwa.”

Nikolay Trotsyuk (uwa kabiri uturutse iburyo) yafunzwe imyaka itatu mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bw’Abasoviyeti, azira ko umutimanama we utamwemerera kujya mu gisirikare. Ku itariki ya 30 Ugushyingo 2015, yongeye guhamywa ibyaha, icyo gihe bwo yari kumwe n’umwuzukuru we Andrey Goncharov (uri ku ruhande rw’ibumoso), umukobwa we Oksana Goncharova (uwa gatatu uturutse ibumoso), umuhungu we Sergey Trotsyuk (uri ku ruhande rw’iburyo) n’abandi Bahamya 12 bo mu mugi wa Taganrog.

Lunkin agira ati “ivangura rikorerwa Abahamya ba Yehova rikwiriye gufatwa nk’igikorwa cyeruye cyo gutoteza abayoboke b’idini, mu gihe andi madini yo ashobora gukora nk’ibyo Abahamya ba Yehova bakora ariko ntahanwe.” Lunkin yakomeje avuga ko nubwo Abahamya bagiye baregwa kandi bagaharabikwa n’ibinyamakuru kenshi, bakomeje kuba “umuryango wunze ubumwe mu rwego rw’igihugu, kandi abagana idini ryabo bakomeje kwiyongera.”

Ushinzwe amakuru:

Ku rwego mpuzamahanga: David A. Semonian, Urwego rushinzwe amakuru, tel. +1 718 560 5000

Mu Burusiya: Yaroslav Sivulskiy, tel. +7 812 702 2691