Gushikira ivyo urondera

Hitamwo ururimi

Ja ku rutonde rw'ibirimwo rwa kabiri

Ja ku rutonde rw’ibirimwo

Ja ku birimwo

Ivyabona vya Yehova

Ikirundi

Ubwami bw’Imana buraganza!

 IKIGABANE CA 5

Umwami atanga umuco ku Bwami

Umwami atanga umuco ku Bwami

IVYO IKI KIGABANE CIBANDAKO

Abasavyi b’Imana batahura ukuri guhambaye kwerekeye Ubwami, abatware n’abatwarwa babwo, be n’uko kuba intahemuka ari igisabwa

1, 2. Yezu yerekanye gute ko ari umurongozi w’inkerebutsi?

DUFATE ko hari umuntu amenyereye kurōngōra abantu agira abatembereze mu gisagara ciza cane kandi kiryoheye ijisho. Mwe n’abo muri kumwe ntimwari bwigere mubona ico gisagara. Murumviriza rero mwitonze ivyo ababwira vyose. Birashika wewe na bagenzawe mukibaza n’akamwemwe kenshi bimwebimwe mu bintu mutarabona biranga ico gisagara. Mugize ngo murabimubaza, nta co ababwira gushika igihe kibereye kigeze, akenshi akabibabwira ari uko hari ico mubonye. Mu nyuma, murarushiriza gukorwa ku mutima n’ubukerebutsi afise, kuko ababwira ivyo mukeneye kumenya ku gihe nyene mukeneye kubimenya.

Abakirisu b’ukuri bameze nk’abo bantu bariko baratemberezwa. Turiko turiga tubishashaye ibijanye n’igisagara ciza cane kuruta ibindi vyose, “igisagara gifise imishinge nyayo,” na co kikaba ari Ubwami bw’Imana. (Heb. 11:10) Igihe Yezu yari kw’isi, yararōngōye abayoboke biwe, aratuma barushiriza kumenya ivy’ubwo Bwami. Yoba yarishuriye icarimwe ibibazo vyose bamubajije kuri ubwo Bwami kandi akababwirira icarimwe ibintu vyose bijanye na bwo? Oya. Yavuze ati: “Ndacafise ibintu vyinshi vyo kubabwira, mugabo ntimushobora kuvyihanganira ubu.” (Yoh. 16:12) Yezu we murongozi w’inkerebutsi kuruta abandi bose ntiyigeze aremereza abigishwa biwe ubumenyi batari biteguriye kwihanganira.

3, 4. (a) Yezu yabandanije gute kwigisha abantu b’intahemuka ivyerekeye Ubwami bw’Imana? (b) Ni ibiki twihweza muri iki kigabane?

3 Yezu yavuze ayo majambo yo muri Yohani 16:12 mw’ijoro rya nyuma ry’ubuzima bwiwe bwo kw’isi. None amaze gupfa yobandanije gute kwigisha abantu b’intahemuka ivy’Ubwami bw’Imana? Yasubirije umutima mu nda intumwa ziwe ati: “Ya mpwemu y’ukuri . . . [i]zobarongora mu kuri kwose.” * (Yoh. 16:13) Hari aho twokwiyumvira ko impwemu nyeranda ari umurongozi yihangana. Iyo mpwemu ni uburyo Yezu akoresha mu kwigisha abayoboke biwe ivyo bakeneye kumenya ku Bwami bw’Imana, akabibigisha ku gihe nyene bakwiye kubimenya.

4 Reka twihweze ukuntu impwemu nyeranda ya Yehova imaze igihe irōngōra abakirisu b’inziraburyarya igatuma bamenya vyinshi ku bijanye n’Ubwami. Ubwa mbere, turaza kwihweza  ingene twamenye igihe Ubwami bw’Imana bwatanguye kuganza. Maze turihweza abatware n’abatwarwa b’ubwo Bwami abo ari bo, be n’ivyizigiro bafise. Tuza gusozera tubona ukuntu abayoboke ba Kristu barushirije gutahura ico kudahemukira ubwo Bwami bisaba.

Batahura umwaka uhambaye

5, 6. (a) Ni ivyiyumviro bitari vyo ibihe Abatohoji ba Bibiliya bari bafise ku bijanye n’ishingwa ry’Ubwami bw’Imana be n’iyimbura? (b) Kubera iki ivyo vyiyumviro bitari vyo bidatuma umuntu akekeranya nimba Yezu yariko ararōngōra abayoboke biwe?

5 Nk’uko twabibonye mu kigabane ca 2 c’iki gitabu, Abatohoji ba Bibiliya bǎramaze imyaka mirongo berekana ko umwaka wa 1914 wobaye uhambaye mu bijanye n’iranguka ry’ubuhanuzi bwo muri Bibiliya. Ariko ico gihe babona ko ukuhaba kwa Kristu kwatanguye mu 1874, ko yatanguye kuganza mw’ijuru mu 1878, be n’uko Ubwami bw’Imana bwoshinzwe neza muri Gitugutu 1914. Iyimbura ryotanguye mu 1874 rigashika mu 1914 rikarangirana n’ugutororokaniriza mw’ijuru abarobanuwe. Ivyo vyiyumviro bitari vyo vyoba bituma umuntu akekeranya nimba Yezu yariko arōngōra abo bantu b’abizigirwa akoresheje impwemu nyeranda?

6 Habe namba! Subira uzirikane ka karorero ko mu ntango. Ivyo abagira batemberezwe biyumvira imbere y’igihe be n’ibibazo bibaza bashaka kumenya, vyoba bituma umuntu akekeranya ko uwugira abatembereze yoba ari umwizigirwa? Ihibambewe! N’abasavyi b’Imana, naho bishika bakagerageza gutahura ibintu bijanye n’umugambi wa Yehova hataragera ko impwemu nyeranda ibibarongoramwo, biribonekeza ko Yezu aba ariko arabarōngōra. Ku bw’ivyo, abantu b’intahemuka baremera gukosorwa kandi bakicisha bugufi bagahindura ukuntu bahora babona ibintu.Yak. 4:6.

7. Ni umuco wo mu vy’impwemu uwuhe abasavyi b’Imana barabirijweko?

7 Mu myaka y’inyuma ya 1919, abasavyi b’Imana bararushirije kurabirizwako umuco wo mu vy’impwemu. (Soma Zaburi 97:11.) Mu 1925, Umunara w’Inderetsi warasohotsemwo ikiganiro c’intibagirwa cavuga ngo “Ivuka ry’ihanga.” Ico kiganiro caratanze ibimenyamenya bijijura vyo mu Vyanditswe vyerekana ko Ubwami burongowe na Mesiya bwavutse mu 1914, biba bishikije bimwe Yohani yerekwa imbere y’igihe aho yabonye umugore w’Imana wo mw’ijuru ariko aravyara, bino bikaba vyanditswe mu Vyahishuwe ikigabane ca 12. * Ico kiganiro carerekanye kandi ko uruhamo n’ingorane vyashikiye abasavyi ba Yehova muri iyo myaka y’intambara vyari ibimenyetso bitomoye vyerekana ko Shetani yari yarajugunyiwe hasi akuwe mw’ijuru, “afise ishavu ryinshi, azi ko afise igihe gito.”Ivyah. 12:12.

8, 9. (a) Umunara w’Inderetsi werekanye gute ko Ubwami bw’Imana buhambaye cane? (b) Ni ibibazo ibihe tugiye kwihweza?

8 Ubwami bw’Imana buhambaye ukungana iki? Mu 1928, Umunara w’Inderetsi waratanguye kwerekana ko ubwo Bwami bwari buhambaye cane kuruta ukuronka ubukiriro biciye ku ncungu. Nakare, Ubwami burongowe na Mesiya ni bwo Yehova azokoresha mu kweza izina ryiwe, mu kwemeza ubusegaba bwiwe, no mu gushitsa imigambi yiwe yose yerekeye abantu.

 9 Ni bande bofatanije na Kristu kuganza muri ubwo Bwami? Ni bande bobaye abatwarwa b’ubwo Bwami bo kw’isi? Kandi ni igikorwa ikihe abayoboke ba Kristu bobwirijwe gukora?

Igikorwa c’iyimbura cibanda ku barobanuwe

10. Ni igiki abasavyi b’Imana bari bamaze igihe baratahuye ku bijanye na bamwe 144.000?

10 Mu myaka mirongo y’imbere ya 1914, abakirisu b’ukuri bari baratahuye ko abayoboke ba Kristu b’intahemuka 144.000 bofatanije na we kuganza mw’ijuru. * Abo Batohoji ba Bibiliya barabonye ko ico gitigiri cari gikwiye gufatwa uko kiri, be n’uko catanguye kwuzuzwa mu kinjana ca mbere Inyuma ya Kristu.

11. Abobaye mu bagize umugeni wa Kristu barushirije gute gutahura igikorwa yabashinze kw’isi?

11 None abo bazoba mu bagize umugeni wa Kristu bashinzwe gukora igikorwa ikihe bakiri kw’isi? Barabonye ko Yezu yari yarashimitse ku gikorwa co kwamamaza, arerekana ko gifitaniye isano n’igihe c’iyimbura. (Mat. 9:37; Yoh. 4:35) Nk’uko twabibonye mu kigabane ca 2, baramaze igihe biyumvira ko igihe c’iyimbura comaze imyaka 40, kikarangirana n’ugutororokaniriza mw’ijuru abarobanuwe. Ariko rero, kubera ko ico gikorwa cabandanije n’inyuma y’iyo myaka 40, hari hakenewe ko ibintu birushiriza gutomorwa. Ubu turazi ko igihe c’iyimbura, ari co gihe co gutandukanya ingano n’icatsi kibi, ni ukuvuga abakirisu barobanuwe b’intahemuka n’abiyita abakirisu, catanguye mu 1914. Hari hageze kwitwararika ibijanye no gutororokanya igitigiri gisigaye c’abo muri uwo mugwi w’abaja mw’ijuru!

Umwaka wa 1914 wabaye intango y’igihe c’iyimbura (Raba ingingo ya 11)

12, 13. Ca kigereranyo ca Yezu c’inkumi cumi n’ic’italanto vyarangutse gute mu misi ya nyuma?

12 Kuva mu 1919, Kristu yagumye arōngōra umushumba w’umwizigirwa kandi w’ubwenge kugira ashimike ku gikorwa co kwamamaza. Yatanze ico gikorwa mu kinjana ca mbere. (Mat. 28:19, 20) Yarerekanye kandi kamere abayoboke biwe barobanuwe bokeneye, kugira ngo barangure ico gikorwa yabashinze co kwamamaza. Yavyerekanye gute? Muri ca kigereranyo yatanga c’inkumi cumi, yarerekanye ko abarobanuwe bobwirijwe kuguma bari maso kandi bagavye mu vy’impwemu nimba bipfuza gushika kw’ihangiro ryabo rihambaye ryo kuja mu rubanza ruhambaye rw’ubugeni bwo mw’ijuru, igihe Kristu yokwabiranye n’ “umugeni” wiwe agizwe na bamwe 144.000. (Ivyah. 21:2) Maze muri ca kigereranyo ciwe c’italanto, Yezu yarigishije ko abasuku  biwe barobanuwe bokoranye umwete igikorwa co kwamamaza yabashinze.Mat. 25:1-30.

13 Muri iki kinjana giheze, abarobanuwe barerekanye ko bagavye kandi ko bafise umwete. Nta gukeka ko boronse impera kubera baguma bari maso! Ariko none, igikorwa gihambaye c’iyimbura coba cogarukiye ku gutororokanya abasigaye bo muri bamwe 144.000 bazofatanya na Kristu kuganza?

Ubwami butororokanya abatwarwa babwo bo kw’isi!

14, 15. Ni imigwi ine iyihe yavuzwe mu gitabu Akayobera karangizwa?

14 Abagabo n’abagore b’intahemuka baramaze igihe kirekire bashashaye kumenya rya “sinzi rinini” rivugwa mu Vyahishuwe 7:9-14 iryo ari ryo. Ntibitangaje kubona hataranagera ko Kristu ahishura uwo mugwi munini uwo ari wo, ibintu vyinshi vyavuzwe kuri ico kintu vyari bihushanye rwose n’ukuri gutomoye kandi gusanzwe tuzi kandi twikundira muri iki gihe.

15 Mu 1917, igitabu Akayobera karangizwa cavuze ko hari “ingero zibiri canke ubwoko bubiri bw’ubukiriro bwo mw’ijuru, be n’ingero zibiri canke ubwoko bubiri bw’ubukiriro bwo kw’isi.” Ni bande bari bagize iyo migwi ine y’abantu bafise ivyo vyizigiro bitandukanye vyo kuronka ubukiriro? Uwa mbere wari bamwe 144.000 bofatanije na Kristu kuganza. Uwa kabiri wari rya sinzi rinini. Ico gihe vyiyumvirwa ko bano bari abavuga ko ari abakirisu bari bakiri mu madini y’abiyita abakirisu. Bari bafise ukwizera, ariko ntikwari guhagije ku buryo bokwumira ku gutungana. Ku bw’ivyo, mw’ijuru bohawe ibibanza biri munsi y’ivy’abo 144.000. Ku bijanye n’isi na yo, vyiyumvirwa ko hari umugwi ugira gatatu ugizwe “n’abubahwa ba kera,” nk’akarorero abantu b’abizigirwa nka Aburahamu, Musa, n’abandi, wogize ubukuru ku mugwi ugira kane ugizwe n’abantu muri rusangi.

16. Ni umuco wo mu vy’impwemu uwuhe warabije mu 1923 no mu 1932?

16 Impwemu nyeranda yarōngōye gute abayoboke ba Kristu ku gutahura twikundira muri iki gihe? Vyabaye buhorobuhoro, biciye ku muco wo mu vy’impwemu wagiye uraravya. Kuva mu 1923, Umunara w’Inderetsi warerekanye ko hari umugwi udafise icizigiro co kuja mw’ijuru wobaye kw’isi irongowe na Kristu. Mu 1932, Umunara w’Inderetsi waravuze ivya Yonadabu (Yehonadabu), uwifatanije n’Umwami Yehu w’Umwisirayeli yarobanuwe n’Imana kugira amushigikire mu ntambara yo kurwanya ugusenga kw’ikinyoma. (2 Abm. 10:15-17) Ico kiganiro caravuze ko mu bihe vya none hari umugwi w’abantu bameze nka Yonadabu, gica congerako yuko Yehova yofashije uwo mugwi “kurengana ingorane zo kuri Harumagedoni” kugira ube hano kw’isi.

17. (a) Mu 1935, ni umuco uwuhe wo mu vy’impwemu ukayangana warabije? (b) Abakirisu b’intahemuka bakiriye gute ico kintu gishasha batahuye ku bijanye na rya sinzi rinini? (Raba uruzitiro ruvuga ngo “ Bariruhukije rwose.”)

17 Mu 1935, hari umuco wo mu vy’impwemu ukayangana warabije. Kw’ihwaniro ryabereye i Washington, D.C., vyaramenyekanye ko rya sinzi rinini ari umugwi w’abazoba kw’isi, bano bakaba ari bo za ntama zivugwa mu mugani wa Yezu w’intama n’impene. (Mat. 25:33-40) Iryo sinzi rinini ryobaye riri mu bagize “izindi ntama,” izo Yezu yavuze ati: “Na zo nyene ntegerezwa kuzizana.” (Yoh. 10:16) Igihe umushikirizansiguro Joseph  F. Rutherford yavuga ati: “Abantu bose bafise icizigiro co kuba kw’isi ibihe bidahera turabasavye muhaguruke,” abarenga ica kabiri c’abari ng’aho baciye bahaguruka! Yaciye avuga ati: “Ng’iryo rero rya sinzi rinini!” Benshi barakozwe ku mutima cane no kuba bari bagiye batahura icizigiro bafise ku bijanye na kazoza.

18. Abayoboke ba Kristu bituniye ku ki mu busuku, kandi vyavuyemwo iki?

18 Kuva ico gihe, Kristu yararōngōye abayoboke biwe kugira bitunire ku gutororokanya abobaye bagize iryo sinzi rinini ryorokotse ya makuba akomeye ridora. Mu ntango, ico gikorwa casa n’aho atari kinini. Mbere igihe kimwe umuvukanyi Rutherford yavuze ati: “Biboneka ko rya ‘sinzi rinini’ ritazoba rinini cane.” Ariko ntiwumve, ubu turazi ko kuva ico gihe Yehova yahezagiye cane iyimbura! Abarobanuwe be na bagenzi babo bo mu “zindi ntama”, bayobowe na Yezu be n’impwemu nyeranda, barabaye “ubusho bumwe” bukorera hamwe burongowe n’ “umwungere umwe,” nk’uko nyene Yezu yari yarabivuze.

Umuvukanyi Rutherford ntiyabona ko rya sinzi rinini ryobaye rinini cane (Uva ibubamfu uja iburyo: Nathan H. Knorr, Joseph F. Rutherford, na Hayden C. Covington)

19. Twogira uruhara gute mu bijanye no kwagura rya sinzi rinini?

19 Benshi cane mu bantu b’intahemuka bazokwibera ibihe bidahera kw’isi y’iparadizo izoba irongowe na Kristu na bamwe 144.000 bazofatanya na we kuganza. Ntibihimbaye none kwibonera ukuntu Kristu yarōngōye abasavyi b’Imana kugira batahure ico cizigiro co mu Vyanditswe gitomoye cerekeye kazoza? Emwe, turafise agateka ntangere ko kubwira ico cizigiro abantu duhura mu busuku! Nimuze tugire umwete uko dushoboye kwose kugira ngo rya sinzi rinini rigume ryongerekana, turushirize kuduza akamo ko gushemeza izina rya Yehova!—Soma Luka 10:2.

Rya sinzi rinini riguma ryongerekana

Ico kuba intahemuka ku Bwami bw’Imana bisaba

20. Ishirahamwe rya Shetani rigizwe n’ibiki, kandi abakirisu berekana gute ko badahemuka?

20 Uko abasavyi b’Imana bǎbandanya kumenya ivyerekeye Ubwami bw’Imana, bari bakeneye kandi gutahura neza ico kuba intahemuka kuri iyo ntwaro yo mw’ijuru bisobanura. Ku bijanye n’ivyo, mu 1922, Umunara w’Inderetsi warerekanye ko hari amashirahamwe abiri ariko arakora: irya Yehova n’irya Shetani, irya Shetani rikaba rigizwe n’ivy’ubudandaji, ivy’amadini, n’ivya politike. Abadahemuka ku Bwami bw’Imana burongowe na Kristu bategerezwa kuguma bari intahemuka mu kwirinda kwisuka mu buryo butabereye mu muce uwo ari wo wose w’ishirahamwe rya Shetani. (2 Kor. 6:17) Ivyo bisobanura iki?

21. (a) Wa mushumba w’umwizigirwa yagabishije gute abasavyi b’Imana ku vyerekeye urudandaza rukomeye? (b) Mu 1963, Umunara w’Inderetsi wahishuye iki ku bijanye na “Babiloni Akomeye”?

21 Imfungurwa zo mu vy’impwemu zitangwa na wa mushumba w’umwizigirwa zagumye zerekana ko urudandaza rukomeye rwononekaye, ziguma kandi zigabisha abasavyi b’Imana kudatwarwa n’agatima kiraye ko guhahamira amaronko karangwa muri rwo. (Mat. 6:24) Vyongeye, ibisohokayandikiro vyacu vyagumye bishira ahabona umuce w’ivy’idini w’ishirahamwe rya Shetani. Mu 1963, Umunara w’Inderetsi warerekanye neza ko “Babiloni Akomeye” atagereranya gusa amadini y’abiyita abakirisu, ariko kandi ko agereranya inganji y’isi yose y’idini ry’ikinyoma. Ku bw’ivyo, nk’uko tuzobibona neza mu kigabane ca 10 c’iki gitabu, abasavyi b’Imana bo mu bihugu vyose no mu mico  kama yose barafashijwe ‘kuva iwe,’ barihumanura ibikorwa vyose vy’idini ry’ikinyoma.Ivyah. 18:2, 4.

22. Mu Ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose, benshi mu basavyi b’Imana batahura gute impanuro iri mu Baroma 13:1?

22 Bite ho ku bijanye n’umuce w’ivya politike w’ishirahamwe rya Shetani? Abakirisu b’ukuri boba bari bakwiye kugira uruhara mu ntambara no mu matati vy’amahanga? Mu Ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose, muri rusangi Abatohoji ba Bibiliya baratahuye ko abayoboke ba Kristu badakwiye kugira uruhara mu vyo kwica abantu nka bo. (Mat. 26:52) Ariko abenshi babona ko impanuro iri mu Baroma 13:1 yo kugamburukira “abakuru bari hejuru” yasobanura ko bakwiye kuja mu gisirikare, bakambara umwambaro wa gisirikare, mbere bagatwara n’ibirwanisho, ariko basabwe kwica umwansi bakarasa hejuru.

23, 24. Mu gihe c’Intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose, twatahura gute ibivugwa mu Baroma 13:1, kandi impwemu nyeranda yafashije abayoboke ba Kristu gutahura gute ico kintu?

23 Igihe Intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose yaduka mu 1939, Umunara w’Inderetsi warimwo ikiganiro caca irya n’ino ibijanye n’ukutagira aho duhengamiye. Ico kiganiro carerekanye neza ko abakirisu badakwiye kugira uruhara mu ntambara zose n’amatati yose vy’amahanga y’iyi si ya Shetani. Emwe, bwari ubuyobozi buje hageze! Gutyo abayoboke ba Kristu barakingiwe ukwagirwa n’amaraso guteye ikinya kwagiriye amahanga muri iyo ntambara. Ariko kuva mu 1929, ibisohokayandikiro vyacu vyari vyaravuze kandi ko abakuru bari hejuru bavugwa mu Baroma 13:1 atari abategetsi bo muri iyi si, ahubwo ko ari Yehova na Yezu. Hari hagikenewe ko ico kintu gitahurwa mu buryo burushirije kutabamwo amakosa.

 24 Impwemu nyeranda yararōngōye abayoboke ba Kristu baratahura neza ico kintu mu 1962, igihe ibiganiro vy’intibagirwa bishingiye ku Baroma 13:1-7 vyasohorwa mu Munara w’Inderetsi wo ku wa 15 Munyonyo n’uwo ku wa 1 Kigarama. Abasavyi b’Imana bagiye batahura ya ngingo ngenderwako ijanye n’ukuyoboka kuri n’aho kugarukira Yezu yari yarahishuye muri ya majambo rurangiranwa yiwe agira ati: “Nimwishure Sezari ivya Sezari, mugabo ivy’Imana muvyishure Imana.” (Luka 20:25) Ubu abakirisu b’ukuri baratahura ko abakuru bari hejuru ari abategetsi b’iyi si be n’uko bategerezwa kubayobokera. Ariko ukwo kuyoboka kuri n’aho kugarukira. Igihe abakuru bo mw’isi badusavye kugambararira Yehova Imana, duca twishura nka kumwe kw’intumwa duti: “Dutegerezwa kugamburukira Imana nka yo mutware aho kugamburukira abantu.” (Ivyak. 5:29) Mu kigabane ca 13 n’ica 14 vy’iki gitabu, tuzorushiriza kubona ukuntu abasavyi b’Imana bashize mu ngiro ingingo ngenderwako y’ukutagira aho bahengamiye.

Ni agateka kubwira abandi icizigiro co muri Bibiliya c’ubuzima budahera!

25. Kubera iki dushima cane ukuntu impwemu nyeranda yadufashije gutahura Ubwami bw’Imana?

25 Zirikana ibintu vyose abayoboke ba Kristu bigishijwe ku bijanye n’Ubwami bw’Imana muri iki kinjana giheze. Twaramenye igihe Ubwami bw’Imana bwashinzwe mw’ijuru n’ukuntu buhambaye. Ubu turatahura neza ivyizigiro bibiri abantu b’abizigirwa bafise: hari abizigiye kuba mw’ijuru n’abizigiye kuba kw’isi. N’ikindi kandi, turazi ingene twokwerekana ko turi intahemuka ku Bwami bw’Imana ariko kandi tukayobokera abakuru bo muri iyi si mu buryo buri n’aho bugarukira. Niwibaze uti: ‘Ubwo mba nzi ukwo kuri kw’agaciro iyo Yezu Kristu atarōngōra umushumba wiwe w’umwizigirwa wo kw’isi kugira atahure ukwo kuri maze akwigishe?’ Ese ukuntu ari umuhezagiro kuba turōngōrwa na Kristu be n’impwemu nyeranda!

^ ing. 3 Igitabu kimwe kivuga ko ijambo ry’ikigiriki ryahinduwe ngo “kurōngōra” muri uwo murongo risobanura “kwereka inzira.”

^ ing. 7 Imbere y’aho, vyiyumvirwa ko iryo yerekwa ryerekeza ku ntambara yobaye hagati ya Roma y’ubupagani na Roma ya pāpa.

^ ing. 10 Muri Ruheshi 1880, Umunara w’Inderetsi w’i Siyoni wavuze ko bamwe 144.000 ari Abayuda bo ku mubiri bogiye baraba abakirisu gushika mu 1914. Ariko mu mpera za 1880, harasohowe ugutahura guhuje rwose n’ukwo dufise kuva ico gihe gushika n’ubu.

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