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UMUNARA W’INDERETSI NYAKANGA 2014

Bibiliya yitwa Peshitta iratanga umuco kuri kahise k’amabibiliya ya kera

Bibiliya yitwa Peshitta iratanga umuco kuri kahise k’amabibiliya ya kera

Mu 1892, abavukana babiri b’amahasa Agnes Smith Lewis na Margaret Dunlop Gibson barafashe urugendo rw’imisi icenda bari ku ngamiya baca mu bugaragwa baja ku kigo c’abihebeye Imana citiriwe Umweranda Catherine kiri ku mucamo w’Umusozi Sinayi. Kubera iki abo bagore babiri b’imyaka hafi 50 bafashe urwo rugendo kandi kugira ingendo muri Aziya vyari birimwo akaga muri ico gihe? Inyishu y’ico kibazo yoshobora gutuma urushiriza kujijuka yuko Bibiliya itagiramwo amakosa.

Agnes Smith Lewis n’ikigo citiriwe Umweranda Catherine

GATOYI imbere y’uko Yezu asubira mw’ijuru, yarategetse abigishwa biwe kumushingira intahe “i Yeruzalemu n’i Yudaya hose n’i Samariya, no gushika mu karere ka kure rwose k’isi.” (Ivyakozwe 1:8) Abo bigishwa barakoze ico gikorwa babigiranye umwete n’umutima rugabo. Ariko rero, igikorwa baranguye i Yeruzalemu nticatevye gutuma bahamwa cane ku buryo Sitefano yicwa rumaratiri. Benshi mu bigishwa ba Yezu bahungiye i Antiyokiya h’i Siriya. Ico cari kimwe mu bisagara binini vyo mu Nganji y’Uburoma, kikaba cari ku bilometero nka 550 mu buraruko bwa Yeruzalemu.Ivyakozwe 11:19.

Abigishwa barabandanije kwamamaza i Antiyokiya “inkuru nziza” yerekeye Yezu maze abatari Abayuda benshi bacika abemera. (Ivyakozwe 11:20, 21) Naho ikigiriki ari rwo rurimi rwavugwa cane hagati mu gisagara ca Antiyokiya, inyuma yaco no mu ntara cari giherereyemwo, abanyagihugu bavuga igisiriyake.

INKURU NZIZA ISHIRWA MU GISIRIYAKE

Uko abakirisu bavuga ururimi rw’igisiriyake bagenda bongerekana mu kinjana ca kabiri, vyarabonetse ko bakeneye gusoma inkuru nziza mu rurimi rwabo. Biboneka rero ko ibice bimwebimwe vy’Ivyanditswe vy’ikigiriki (ibikunze kwitwa Isezerano rishasha) vyashizwe mu gisiriyake imbere y’uko bishirwa mu kilatini, izo zompi zikaba zari indimi zavugwa n’abanyagihugu.

 Nko mu mwaka wa 170 Inyuma ya Kristu, umwanditsi w’Umusiriya yitwa Tasiyano (yabayeho nko mu 120-173 Inyuma ya Kristu) yarapoperanirije hamwe za Njili zine zemewe. Ashobora kuba yazishize mu kigiriki canke mu gisiriyake. Ico gitabu yateguye gikunze kwitwa Diatessaron, iryo rikaba ari ijambo ry’ikigiriki risobanura ngo “uhuje [za Njili] zine.” Mu nyuma, Umusiriya yitwa Éphrem (yabayeho nko mu 310-373 Inyuma ya Kristu) yaragize ivyo yanditse ku bijanye n’ico gitabu, ivyo bikaba vyemeza ko abakirisu b’Abasiriya bagikoresha cane.

Kumenya ivy’ico gitabu Diatessaron biradufitiye akamaro muri iki gihe. Uti kubera iki? Mu kinjana ca 19, abahinga bamwebamwe mu vya Bibiliya bavuze yuko Injili atari inkuru z’ukuri zivuga ivy’ubuzima bwa Yezu ngo kubera ko zanditswe mu kinjana ca kabiri, hagati y’umwaka wa 130 n’uwa 170 Inyuma ya Kristu. Ariko rero, ivyandikano vya kera vy’igitabu Diatessaron vyubuwe kuva ico gihe vyaremeje yuko ibitabu bigize Injili, ni ukuvuga Matayo, Mariko, Luka na Yohani, vyari bimaze gukwiragira cane hagati mu kinjana ca kabiri. Bitegerezwa rero kuba vyari vyaranditswe imbere y’aho. Vyongeye, igihe Tasiyano yatunganya ico gitabu Diatessaron, yisunze ahanini za Njili zine zemewe. Biboneka rero yuko injili zitari izo muri Bibiliya zabonwa ko zitari iz’ukuri.

Igisomwa c’ibitabu bitanu vya mbere vya Bibiliya co muri Peshitta co mu 464 Inyuma ya Kristu. Ni icandikano kigira kabiri mu vyandikano vya kera cane vya Bibiliya

Nko mu ntango z’ikinjana ca gatanu, Bibiliya yo mu gisiriyake yaratanguye gukoreshwa cane mu buraruko bwa Mezopotamiya. Iyo Bibiliya ishobora kuba yatunganijwe mu kinjana ca kabiri canke ca gatatu Inyuma ya Kristu. Yarimwo ibitabu vyose vyo muri Bibiliya kiretse 2 Petero, 2 Yohani na 3 Yohani, Yuda n’Ivyahishuwe. Yiswe Peshitta, bisobanura ngo “coroshe” canke “cumvikana.” Peshitta ni imwe mu mabibiliya ya kera cane kandi ahambaye kuruta ayandi idufasha kubona ingene igisomwa co muri Bibiliya cagiye kirakwiragizwa kuva kera.

Icandikano kimwe kiriko igisomwa co muri iyo Bibiliya Peshitta canditswe mu mwaka wa 459-460 Inyuma ya Kristu, kikaba rero ari co candikano c’iminwe ca kera kuruta ibindi vyose abahinga bazi neza igihe candikiweko. Iyo Bibiliya yarasubiwemwo nko mu 508 Inyuma ya Kristu, ishirwamwo na vya bitabu bitanu vyabura. Yahavuye yitirirwa Philoxène.

HUBURWA IBINDI VYANDIKANO VY’IGISIRIYAKE

Gushika mu kinjana ca 19, ivyandikano nka vyose vyo mu kigiriki vy’igice ca Bibiliya gitangura kuri Matayo gushika mu Vyahishuwe, vyari ivyo mu kinjana ca gatanu canke inyuma yaho rwose. Ni co gituma abahinga mu vya Bibiliya wasanga bibanda cane kuri Bibiliya za kera cane, nka Bibiliya yo mu kilatini yitwa Vulgate be n’imwe yitwa Peshitta yo mu gisiriyake. Ico gihe, bamwebamwe biyumvira yuko uwatunganije Peshitta yasubiyemwo Bibiliya yo mu gisiriyake yari yarayiboneye izuba. Ariko nta cabemeza ko mwene iyo Bibiliya yabayeho. Kubera ko Bibiliya yashizwe mu gisiriyake kuva mu kinjana ca kabiri, iramutse yubuwe vyari gufasha abantu kumenya ingene igisomwa ca Bibiliya co mu ntango cari kimeze, kandi iyo Bibiliya y’igisiriyake yari kuba kirumara cane ku bahinga mu vya Bibiliya! Bibiliya ya kera yo mu gisiriyake yoba vy’ukuri yari kuboneka? Yoba none yarabonetse?

Ca candikano version syriaque sinaïtique. Ku mubari waco w’iburyo haraboneka amajambo adasomeka neza yo mu Njili cari caranditsweko mu ntango

Ego, yarabonetse! Harabonetse ivyandikano bibiri bihambaye cane vya Bibiliya yo mu gisiriyake. Kimwe muri vyo ni ico mu kinjana ca gatanu. Cari kimwe mu vyandikano vyinshi cane vyo mu gisiriyake Ubushinguro bw’utwa kera bwo mu Bwongereza bwaronse mu 1842. Bwabikuye mu kigo c’abihebeye Imana co mu Misiri kiri mu gace k’ubugaragwa kitwa ouadi Natroun. Ico candikano c’igisiriyake citiriwe Cureton kubera ko uwitwa William Cureton ari we yacubuye yongera arakimenyekanisha. Yari umufasha w’uwujejwe kuzigama ivyandikano muri bwa bushinguro bwo mu Bwongereza. Ico candikano gihambaye cari kigizwe na za Njili zine zakurikirana uku: Matayo, Mariko, Yohani, Luka.

Icandikano ca kabiri co mu gisiriyake kikiriho gushika uno musi ni iciswe version syriaque sinaïtique. Ukuntu cubuwe birafitaniye isano na rwa rugendo rurimwo akaga ya mahasa twavuga mu ntango yagira. Naho Agnes ata kaminuza yari yarize, yari azi indimi  umunani z’inyamahanga, rumwe muri zo rukaba ari igisiriyake. Mu 1892, Agnes yarubuye ikintu gikomeye mu kigo c’abihebeye Imana co mu Misiri citiriwe Umweranda Catherine.

Agnes ari aho muri ico kigo, yarabonye icandikano kiri mu gisiriyake ahantu h’ubushinguro hatabona. Yigana ati: “Nticari kiryoshe kuraba kuko cari gicafuye cane, kandi impapuro zaco nka zose zari zarafatanganye kubera ko cari kimaze [imyaka amajana] kitazinguruwe.” Ivyari vyaranditswe kuri ico candikano mu ntango, vyari vyarafuswe maze impapuro zaco zandikwako igisomwa co mu gisiriyake kivuga ivyerekeye abagore beranda. Ariko rero, Agnes yagiye abona ibicebice vy’amajambo bitaboneka neza munsi y’ico gisomwa, kandi hejuru ku mutwe w’impapuro hari amajambo avuga ngo “ya Matayo,” “ya Mariko,” “ya Luka.” Ico candikano yari afise mu minwe cari icandikano nka cose c’Injili zine mu rurimi rw’igisiriyake! Abahinga mu vya Bibiliya ubu babona ko ari kimwe mu vyandikano vy’iminwe vyanditswe mu mpera z’ikinjana ca kane.

Ico candikano version syriaque sinaïtique Agnes yubuye, kibonwa ko ari kimwe mu vyandikano bihambaye cane vya Bibiliya vyubuwe, cokimwe n’ivyandikano vy’iminwe vy’ikigiriki nk’icitwa Codex Sinaiticus be na Codex Vaticanus. Ubu abahinga muri rusangi babona yuko ca candikano c’iminwe citiriwe Cureton be n’ico Agnes yubuye, ari amakopi akiriho y’Injili za kera zo mu gisiriyake zanditswe mu mpera z’ikinjana ca kabiri canke mu ntango z’ikinjana ca gatatu.

‘IJAMBO RY’IMANA YACU RIGUMAHO IBIHE BIDAHERA’

Ivyo vyandikano hoba hari ico vyofasha abiga Bibiliya muri iki gihe? Ego cane! Raba nk’akarorero imirongo iri munsi ya Mariko 16:8 muri Bibiliya zimwezimwe. Iyo mirongo iboneka mu candikano c’ikigiriki citwa Codex Alexandrinus co mu kinjana ca gatanu, muri Bibiliya y’ikilatini yitwa Vulgate be n’ahandi. Ariko rero, ivyandikano bibiri vy’ikigiriki vyo kwizigirwa vyo mu kinjana ca kane, ari vyo Codex Sinaiticus na Codex Vaticanus, vyompi bigarukira kuri Mariko 16:8. Ca candikano version syriaque sinaïtique na co nyene kigarukira aho nyene. Ico ni ikindi kimenyamenya cemeza yuko iyo mirongo yongeweko mu nyuma, mu ntango ikaba itari mu Njili ya Mariko.

Raba akandi karorero. Mu kinjana ca 19, Bibiliya nka zose zarimwo amajambo ashigikira Ubutatu yongewe ku canditswe co muri 1 Yohani 5:7. Yamara, ayo majambo yongeweko ntaboneka mu vyandikano vy’ikigiriki vya kera. Ntaboneka no muri ya Bibiliya yiswe Peshitta, ivyo bikaba vyerekana rero yuko ayo majambo atari mu gisomwa ca Bibiliya co mu ntango.

Biribonekeza rero yuko Yehova Imana yazigamye Ijambo ryiwe ryeranda nk’uko yabisezeranye. Ridukura amazinda riti: “Ivyatsi bitoto vyumye, ishurwe ryakabiranye; mugabo ijambo ry’Imana yacu ryoryo, rizogumaho igihe kitagira urugero.” (Yesaya 40:8; 1 Petero 1:25) Bibiliya yiswe Peshitta yaraterereye agacumu k’ubumwe mu bijanye no gutuma abantu bose bashobora kuronka ubutumwa bwo muri Bibiliya butarimwo amakosa.

Raba n'ibindi

Bibiliya ni igitabu kiva ku Mana

Bibiliya ishobora gute kugufasha kwihanganira ingorane zigushikira? Ni kubera iki wokwizigira ubuhanuzi buri muri yo?