Gushikira ivyo urondera

Hitamwo ururimi

Ja ku rutonde rw'ibirimwo rwa kabiri

Ja ku rutonde rw’ibirimwo

Ja ku birimwo

Ivyabona vya Yehova

Ikirundi

UMUNARA W’INDERETSI NYAKANGA 2013

Indimi tuvuga zoba zakomotse kuri wa Munara w’i Babeli?

Indimi tuvuga zoba zakomotse kuri wa Munara w’i Babeli?

“Yehova abasanzaza ku buringanire bwose bw’isi abakuye ng’aho, maze buhorobuhoro bagenda baraheba ivyo kwubaka nya gisagara. Ni co gituma ciswe Babeli, kuko aho ari ho Yehova yari yavurunganirije ururimi rw’isi yose.”Itanguriro 11:8, 9.

ICO kintu Bibiliya ivuga coba vy’ukuri carabaye? Abantu boba batanguriye rimwe kuvuga indimi zitandukanye nk’uko iyo nkuru ibivuga? Bamwe baragaya iyo nkuru yo muri Bibiliya ivuga ingene indimi zatanguye mu bantu n’ingene zakwiragiye. Umwanditsi umwe avuga ati: “Inkuru y’umunara w’i Babeli ni imwe mu nkuru zitumvikana na gato zigeze kuvugwa.” Hari mbere n’umwigisha umwe w’idini ry’Abayuda yavuze yuko iyo nkuru “ari yo abantu ata co bazi bisunga mu kugerageza gusigura aho ibihugu bitandukanye vyakomotse.”

Kubera iki abantu batemera iyo nkuru ivuga ivyabereye i Babeli? Muri make, ni kubera ko idahuza n’ivyiyumviro bimwebimwe bishikirizwa ku bijanye n’inkomoko y’indimi. Nk’akarorero, abahinga bamwebamwe batanga iciyumviro c’uko indimi zitabayeho bukwi na bukwi, ariko ko zagiye ziratera imbere zivuye ku rurimi rwa mbere na mbere. Abandi bavuga yuko indimi zo mu ntango zagiye ziratera imbere rumwerumwe ukwarwo, ko kera abantu baniha nk’ibikoko gushika aho bagira ururimi rwikwije. Ivyo vyiyumviro be n’ibindi vyiyumviro bivuguruzanya, vyaratumye abantu benshi bemera ivyo umuhinga W. T. Fitch yanditse mu gitabu ciwe (The Evolution of Language) ati: “Ntituraronka inyishu zijijura vy’ukuri.”

Ni ibiki abacukuzi b’ivya kera n’abandi bashakashatsi bubuye ku bijanye n’ingene indimi z’abantu zatanguye be n’ingene zagiye ziratera imbere? Ivyo bubuye vyoba bishigikira iciyumviro na kimwe muri ivyo vyashikirijwe? Canke vyoba bishigikira inkuru ivuga ivyabereye i Babeli? Reka tubanze twihweze neza iyo nkuru yo muri Bibiliya.

VYABEREYE HEHE KANDI RYARI?

Bibiliya ivuga yuko ukuvurunganya indimi n’ugushwiragira kw’abantu vyabereye “mu gihugu ca Shinari,” ahahavuye hitwa Babiloni. (Itanguriro 11:2) None ivyo vyabaye ryari? Bibiliya ivuga yuko “isi [ni ukuvuga abantu bayibako] yagabuwe” mu misi ya Pelegi,  uwavutse nk’imyaka 250 imbere y’uko Aburahamu abaho. Biboneka rero yuko ubu haheze nk’imyaka 4.200 ivy’i Babeli bibaye.Itanguriro 10:25; 11:18-26.

Abahinga bamwebamwe bavuga yuko indimi za none zavuye ku rurimi rumwe rwo mu ntango bita ngo ni ururimi rwa mbere na mbere, urwo biyumvira ko ari rwo abantu bahoze bavuga, ubu hakaba haheze imyaka nka 100.000. * Abandi bavuga yuko indimi z’ubu zifitaniye isano n’indimi zo mu ntango zavugwa kera, ubu hakaba haheze n’imiburiburi imyaka 6.000. None abahinga mu vy’indimi basigura gute ingene indimi zitakibaho zateye imbere? Ikinyamakuru kimwe (Economist) kivuga giti: “Biragoye kumenya. Abahinga mu vy’indimi baratandukanye n’abahinga mu vy’ibinyabuzima, kuko abo bahinga mu vy’indimi badafise ibisigarira vya kera vyobafasha gusigura ivya kahise k’indimi.” Ico kinyamakuru congerako yuko umuhinga umwe yihweza ingene indimi zagiye ziratera imbere, wewe “apfa gutomboza afatiye ku biharuro kanaka.”

Ariko rero, mu vy’ukuri hariho ibisigarira vya kera vyerekana kahise k’indimi. Ivyo bisigarira ni ibihe, kandi bihishura iki ku bijanye n’inkomoko y’indimi z’abantu? Igitabu kimwe c’inkoranyabumenyi (The New Encyclopædia Britannica) gisigura giti: “Ivyandikano vya kera cane, ari na vyo bisigarira vyonyene vya kera umuntu ashobora kuronka vyerekana kahise k’indimi, ni ibimaze imyaka itarenga 4.000 canke 5.000.” None ni hehe abacukuzi b’ivya kera bubuye ivyo vyandikano? Muri Mezopotamiya yo hepfo, akarere kahozemwo Shinari ya kera. * Gutyo, ivyo bimenyamenya vyubuwe birashigikira ivyo Bibiliya ivuga.

UKO INDIMI ZITANDUKANYE, NI KO N’IVYIYUMVIRO BITANDUKANYE

Inkuru yo muri Bibiliya yerekeye Babeli ivuga ko Imana ‘yavurunganije ururimi rwabo kugira ntibumvikane mu rurimi.’ (Itanguriro 11:7) Ivyo vyatumye “ba[heba] ivyo kwubaka nya gisagara” c’i Babeli maze bashwiragira “ku buringanire bwose bw’isi.” (Itanguriro 11:8, 9) Bibiliya rero ntivuga yuko indimi zose za none zakomotse ku rurimi rumwe rwitwa urwa mbere na mbere. Ahubwo, irigana ingene habonetse bukwi na bukwi indimi nshasha zikwije, rumwerumwe rwose rukaba rwari rushoboye gufasha umuntu gushikiriza ivyiyumviro vyiwe n’ukuntu yiyumva kandi rukaba rwari rutandukanye n’urundi.

Igisate c’ibumba co muri Mezopotamiya canditsweko indome za kera zitwa cunéiformes, kimaze imyaka irenga 4.000

Tuvuge iki ku migwi y’indimi iri kw’isi muri iki gihe? Iyo migwi y’indimi yoba isa cane canke iratandukanye cane? Lera Boroditsky, umuhinga atohoza ukuntu ubwenge bukora, yanditse ati: “Igihe abahinga mu vy’indimi basuzuma bitonze indimi zivugwa mw’isi (zino zikaba ari nka 7.000, mugabo bakaba basuzumye nkeyi cane muri zo), barabonye amatandukaniro menshi cane batari biteze.” Egome, naho indimi n’indimirimi bisangiye umugwi bishobora kuba bifitaniye isano, nk’akarorero ikirundi n’ikinyarwanda, usanga bitandukanye cane n’indimi be n’indimirimi vyo mu wundi mugwi, nk’akarorero igifaransa.

Indimi ziratuma abantu biyumvira mu buryo butandukanye, bakadondora n’ibibakikije mu buryo butandukanye, nk’amabara, ukuntu ibintu bingana, aho biri be n’amerekero. Nk’akarorero, mu rurimi rumwe umuntu arashobora kuvuga ati: “Hari igihere  ku kuboko kwawe kw’iburyo.” Ariko mu rundi rurimi, uwundi yovuga ati: “Hari igihere ku kuboko kwawe kwo mu bumanuko bushira uburengero.” Vy’ukuri, amatandukaniro nk’ayo arashobora kuvuruga ubwenge. Ntibitangaje rero kubona abariko barubaka i Babeli vyarabananiye kubandanya ico gikorwa.

KWOBA KWARI UKUNIHA NK’IBIKOKO CANKE ZARI INDIMI ZIKWIJE?

Ururimi abantu bavuga mu ntango rwari rumeze gute? Bibiliya ivuga yuko umuntu wa mbere Adamu yashoboye kwiyumvira amajambo mashasha igihe yaha amazina ibikoko vyose, harimwo n’ibiguruka. (Itanguriro 2:20) Adamu yarashoboye kandi gutunganya amajambo ndyoshamvugo aserura ukuntu yiyumva ku vyerekeye umugore wiwe, kandi umugore wiwe yarashoboye gusigura neza itegeko Imana yari yabahaye n’ingaruka vyogize baramutse bayigambarariye. (Itanguriro 2:23; 3:1-3) Ururimi rwa mbere rero rwarashoboza abantu kuganira mu buryo bukwiye no kwiyumvira amajambo mashasha bokoresha.

Ukuvurunganya indimi kwabereye i Babeli kwatumye abantu bibagora guhuriza hamwe ubwenge bwabo n’inguvu zabo. Yamara, nk’uko vyari bimeze ku rurimi rwa mbere, izo ndimi nshasha na zo nyene zari zikwije. Mu binjana bikeyi gusa, abantu barashoboye kwubaka ibisagara bikorerwamwo vyinshi, barakoranya ingabo zikomakomeye, bongera barakora urudandaza mpuzamakungu. (Itanguriro 13:12; 14:1-11; 37:25) Boba bari gushobora kugira amaterambere nk’ayo badakoresheje ururimi rufise amajambo n’indimburo bikwiye? Twisunze Bibiliya, ururimi abantu bakoresha mu ntango be n’indimi zatanguriye i Babeli ntikwari ukuniha nk’ukw’ibikoko, ahubwo zari indimi zikwije.

Ubushakashatsi bwagizwe mu gihe ca none burashigikira ico ciyumviro. Igitabu kimwe (The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language) kivuga giti: “Imico kama yose yatohojwe, naho yoba idateye imbere, usanga ifise ururimi rukwiye kandi rwikwije cokimwe n’indimi zo mu bihugu vyitwa ko biteye imbere.” Mu buryo busa n’ubwo, umwigisha Steven Pinker wo kuri kaminuza y’i Harvard yanditse mu gitabu ciwe (The Language Instinct) ati: “Nta rurimi na rumwe rutikwije.”

KAZOZA K’INDIMI

Tumaze kwihweza imyaka ibisigarira vya kera vyerekana kahise k’indimi bimaze be n’ahantu vyubuwe, n’ingene imigwi y’indimi usanga itandukanye cane, hamwe n’ukuntu indimi za kera zari zikwije, ni ikihe ciyumviro cumvikana twoshikako? Benshi bashika ku ciyumviro c’uko ya nkuru yo muri Bibiliya ivuga ivyabereye i Babeli itanga insobanuro yumvikana koko ku bijanye n’aho indimi zakomotse.

Bibiliya itubwira yuko Yehova Imana yavurunganije ururimi rw’abantu b’i Babeli kubera yuko bamugararije. (Itanguriro 11:4-7) Ariko rero, yasezeranye ati: “Nzohindura ururimi rw’ibisata vy’abantu rube ururimi rutyoroye, kugira ngo bose bambaze izina rya Yehova, kugira ngo bamukorere bahuje inama.” (Zefaniya 3:9) Muri kino gihe, urwo “rurimi rutyoroye,” ari kwo kuri kwo mw’Ijambo ry’Imana, rurahuza abantu bo hirya no hino kw’isi. Bisa n’ivyumvikana ko muri kazoza Imana izotuma abantu barushiriza kwunga ubumwe mu kubaha ururimi rumwe, gutyo ikureho umuvurungano yateje i Babeli.

^ par. 8 Ivyiyumviro abantu batanga ku bijanye n’ingene indimi zabayeho kenshi bifatira ku ciyumviro basanganywe c’uko abantu bakomotse ku nkende. Wipfuza kumenya ivyerekeye ivyo vyiyumviro, raba urupapuro rwa 27-29 rw’agatabu Cinq questions à se poser sur l’origine de la vie, kasohowe n’Ivyabona vya Yehova.

^ par. 9 Abacukuzi b’ivya kera barubuye hafi y’i Shinari iminara yo gusengeramwo imeze nk’amapiramide ifise ingazi zo kudondagirako. Bibiliya ivuga yuko abubatse umunara w’i Babeli batakoresheje amabuye ahubwo bakoresheje amatafari, bakoresha n’ikaburimbo mu gishingo c’ubudongo. (Itanguriro 11:3, 4) Igitabu kimwe c’inkoranyabumenyi (The New Encyclopædia Britannica) kivuga yuko i Mezopotamiya amabuye “yaboneka gake canke mbere ntanaboneke,” mu gihe ikaburimbo yoyo yari yuzuye.