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Papa yoba ari “umusubirizi wa Petero Mweranda”?

Papa yoba ari “umusubirizi wa Petero Mweranda”?

 Papa yoba ari “umusubirizi wa Petero Mweranda”?

MU 2002, Papa Yohani Paulo wa kabiri yarandikiye umusenyeri w’i Limburg mu Budagi ikete rivuguruza ingingo uno yari yafashe ijanye n’ivyo gukorora inda. Mu gutanga ubwo buyobozi, uwo mupapa yatanguye avuga yuko ajejwe “ineza n’ubumwe vy’amashengero yose ata na rimwe rivuyemwo hisunzwe ukugomba kwa Yezu Kristu.” Yerekanye yuko afise ububasha bwo kuvuguruza ingingo y’uwo musenyeri kubera ko ku bw’ibanga afise ryo kuba papa, yitwa ko ari “umusubirizi wa Petero Mweranda.”

Twisunze uko Ekeleziya Gatolika y’i Roma ibivuga, “Kristu yagize Petero Mweranda umukuru w’intumwa zose.” Ekeleziya Gatolika irongera ikemeza yuko “Kristu yashinze yuko hogumye hariho abasubirira Petero muri iryo banga ry’ubukuru, be n’uko abasenyeri b’i Roma ari bo basubirizi biwe.”​—New Catholic Encyclopedia (2003), Igitabu ca 11, urupapuro rwa 495-496.

Ayo majambo arahambaye. Woba none umaze kwisuzumira yuko ari ay’ukuri? Rimbura inyishu z’ibi bibazo bitatu: (1) Bibiliya yoba ishigikira iciyumviro c’uko Petero ari we yabaye papa wa mbere? (2) Kahise kerekana ko ivy’ugukurakuranwa kw’abapapa vyakomotse he? (3) Inyifato y’abapapa n’ivyo bigisha vyoba bishigikira ivyo bavuga vy’uko ari abasubirizi ba Petero?

Petero yoba ari we yabaye papa wa mbere?

Mu kwemeza ko Ekeleziya ishingiye kuri Petero, abagatolika bamye bafatira ku majambo Yezu yavuze dusanga muri Matayo 16:18, akaba agira ati: “Uri Petero, kandi kuri ico gitandara nzohubaka ishengero ryanje.” Ayo majambo aranditse mu kilatini ku gisenge c’umuzingi c’urusengero amahero rwitiriwe Petero Mweranda rw’i Roma.

Augustino, akaba ari umwe mu bubahwa cane batanguje Ekeleziya, yarigeze kuvuga yuko ishengero ryubakiye kuri Petero. Ariko amaja mu mpera z’ubuzima bwiwe, yarahinduye ukuntu yatahura ayo majambo ya Yezu. Mu gitabu citwa Ukwisubirako (mu congereza), Augustino yarerekanye neza ko ishengero rya gikirisu ridashingiye kuri Petero, ahubwo ko rishingiye kuri Yezu. *

Ni ivy’ukuri yuko intumwa Petero avugwa cane mu Njili. Yezu yararobanuye batatu mu ntumwa ziwe, ari bo Yohani, Yakobo na Petero, ngo babe bari kumwe na we mu bihe bimwebimwe bidasanzwe. (Mariko 5:37, 38; 9:2; 14:33) Yezu yarashinze Petero “impfunguruzo z’ubwami bwo mw’ijuru.” Petero yazikoresheje mu kwugurura inzira ija mu Bwami, ubwa mbere ku Bayuda be n’abahindukiriye ugusenga kw’Abayuda, ubukurikira ku Basamariya, mu nyuma na ho ku banyamahanga. (Matayo 16:19; Ivyakozwe 2:5, 41; 8:14-17; 10:45) Kubera ko Petero yari umuntu akunda guserura iryo agona, mu bihe bimwebimwe yarabereye umuvugizi intumwa zose. (Ivyakozwe 1:15; 2:14) Ariko none ivyo vyose duhejeje kuvuga vyoba bituma Petero yitwa ko ari we yari umukuru w’ishengero ryo mu ntango?

Intumwa Paulo ubwiwe yaranditse ko Petero yajejwe “ibanga ryo kuba intumwa ku bagenyerewe.”  (Abagalatiya 2:8) Ariko rero, ivyo Paulo yariko aravuga mu kwandika ayo majambo biragaragaza yuko atariko yerekana ko Petero ari we yayobora ishengero. Ahubwo Paulo yariko yerekana uruhara rwa Petero mu bijanye no kubwira inkuru nziza Abayuda.

Naho Petero yari ajejwe amabanga ahambaye, nta na hamwe muri Bibiliya avuga yuko ari we mukuru w’ishengero, gutyo ngo abe ari we afata ingingo ziraba abigishwa bose uko bagize umugwi. Mw’ikete yanditse, avuga gusa ko ari “intumwa” n’“umugabo w’inararibonye.”​—1 Petero 1:1; 5:1.

Kahise kerekana ko ivy’ubupapa vyakomotse he?

None iciyumviro c’ubupapa caje gute kandi ryari? Iciyumviro c’uko atari bibi umuntu arondeye kuba hejuru y’abo basangiye ukwizera catanguye gushinga imizi igihe intumwa zari zikiriho. Intumwa zabona gute ico ciyumviro?

Intumwa Petero ubwiwe yabwiye abagabo baja imbere abandi mw’ishengero yuko badakwiye “gukandamiza abari intoranwa y’Imana.” Bari bakwiye gukenyera ukwiyorosha kwo mu muzirikanyi mu vyo bagiriranira. (1 Petero 5:1-5) Intumwa Paulo yaragabishije yuko hagati mw’ishengero hohagurutse abagabo “ba[kavuga] ibigoramanze kugira ngo bakwegere abigishwa inyuma yabo.” (Ivyakozwe 20:30) Amaja mu mpera y’ikinjana ca mbere G.C. (G.C. bisobanura mu Gihe Cacu), intumwa Yohani yaranditse ikete, muri ryo akaba yarateye ivyatsi umwigishwa yitwa Diyotirefe. Kubera iki uwo mugabo yahambariwe? Impamvu imwe ni uko uwo mugabo ‘yakunda ivyo kugira ikibanza ca mbere’ mw’ishengero. (3 Yohani 9) Impanuro mwene izo intumwa zatanga zaramaze igihe ari intambamyi zitangira ivyipfuzo vy’abahahamira ubukuru.​—2 Abatesalonika 2:3-8.

Gatoyi inyuma y’aho uwa nyuma mu ntumwa apfiriye, abantu bamwebamwe baratanguye kwironderera ubukuru. Igitabu kimwe kivuga ivya kahise k’ubukirisu (The Cambridge History of Christianity) kivuga giti: “Imbere y’uko ikinjana ca kabiri gishika hagati, i Roma hashobora kuba ata musenyeri n’umwe yariho yitwa ko ari we kizigenza.” Mu kinjana ca gatatu, umusenyeri w’i Roma yarigize kizigenza, n’imiburiburi ku mashengero amwamwe ya Ekeleziya. * Kugira ngo iciyumviro c’uko musenyeri w’i Roma ari we kizigenza kirushirize kuboneka ko gifise ishingiro, hari abatunganije urutonde rw’abagiye barasubirira Petero.

Ariko rero, urwo rutonde ntirushigikira vy’ukuri ico ciyumviro. Kubera iki? Kimwe coco, amwamwe muri ayo mazina ntashobora kwemezwa ko ari ay’ukuri. N’igihambaye kuruta ni uko ivyo bisunze mu kugira urwo rutonde birimwo amahinyu. Uti gute? Naho Petero yoba yaramamaje i Roma nk’uko ibitabu bimwebimwe bidashingiye kuri Bibiliya vyo mu kinjana ca mbere  n’ica kabiri bisa n’ibivyerekana, nta cemeza yuko ari we yari umukuru w’ishengero ryaho.

Kimwe mu vyerekana ko Petero atari umukuru w’ishengero ry’i Roma ni uko igihe intumwa Paulo yandikira Abaroma, yashizemwo urutonde rurerure rw’amazina y’abakirisu baho. Ariko ntiyacishijemwo na gato izina rya Petero. (Abaroma 16:1-23) Iyo Petero aza kuba ari umukuru w’iryo shengero, wibaza ko Paulo yari kumwirengagiza canke kumwinuba?

N’ikindi kandi, igihe Petero yandika ikete ryiwe rya mbere ahumekewe n’Imana, nko muri ico gihe nyene Paulo yarandikiye Timoteyo ikete rigira kabiri. Muri iryo kete, Paulo ntiyaretse kuvuga ivyerekeye Roma. Mu vy’ukuri, Paulo yanditse amakete atandatu ari i Roma, ariko muri ayo yose ntiyigeze acishamwo Petero.

Haciye nk’imyaka 30 Paulo yanditse amakete yiwe, intumwa Yohani yaranditse amakete atatu n’igitabu c’Ivyahishuwe. Muri ivyo vyose, nta na hamwe Yohani yavuze ko ishengero ry’i Roma ari ryo ryari rihambaye kuruta ayandi yose, eka kandi ntiyigeze avuga umukuru w’ishengero yari hejuru y’abandi bose yitwa ko ari umusubirizi wa Petero. Yaba Bibiliya canke ibimenyamenya bishingiye kuri kahise, nta na kimwe gishigikira iciyumviro c’uko Petero yigize umusenyeri wa mbere w’ishengero ry’i Roma.

Inyifato y’abapapa n’ivyo bigisha vyoba bishigikira ivyo bavuga?

Umuntu avuga ko ari “umusubirizi wa Petero Mweranda” akaba n’“Icariho ca Kristu” twokwitega ko akurikira inyifato n’inyigisho vya Petero na Kristu. Nk’akarorero, Petero yoba yaremera ko abo basangiye ukwemera bamufata mu buryo budasanzwe? Eka data. Yaranse ko bamugaragariza icubahiro kidasanzwe. (Ivyakozwe 10:25, 26) Yezu we? Yavuze ko ataje gukorerwa, ahubwo ko yaje gukorera abandi. (Matayo 20:28) Ariko ba papa bo bite? Boba banka kwitwa abantu bahambaye, guhabwa amazina y’icubahiro akomakomeye, bakirinda no kwiyerekana ko ari abatunzi n’abanyabubasha?

Petero na Kristu bompi bari abantu bigenza mu buryo bugororotse baremesha amahoro. Nugereranye inyifato yabo n’ivyo igitabu kimwe c’inkoranyabumenyi c’abagatolika (Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche) kivuga kuri Papa Léon wa cumi: “Léon wa cumi yarisutse mu vy’urudandaza rurimwo politike akenshi rukaba rwarimwo n’ivy’ukugira nkunzi, yongera akurikirana cane ibinezereza vy’isi vy’umurengera, ntiyitaho ibikorwa vyihutirwa bijanye n’ivy’Imana.” Umupatiri wo muri gatolika akaba n’umwigisha w’ivya kahise k’idini yitwa Karl Amon avuga yuko amakuru yasuzumwe neza yerekeye Papa Alegizandere wa gatandatu yerekana yuko “yabaye umuntu ata co yibanga, akoresha nabi ubukuru, aja mu vyo kugurisha ibibanza muri Ekeleziya no mu buhumbu, ku rugero ruteye ubwoba.”

Tuvuge iki ku bijanye n’ivyo abapapa bigisha? Boba bigisha nk’ivyo Petero na Kristu bigishije? Petero ntiyemera yuko abeza bose baja mw’ijuru. Ku bijanye na wa Mwami Dawidi yari ameze neza, Petero yavuze atomora ati: “Dawidi ntiyaduze mw’ijuru.” (Ivyakozwe 2:34) Eka kandi Petero ntiyigishije ko inzoya zikwiye kubatizwa. Ahubwo riho yigishije ko ibatisimu ari intambwe uwemera atera yabanje kuzirikana mu mutima wiwe.​—1 Petero 3:21.

Yezu yigishije abigishwa biwe ko ata n’umwe muri bo akwiye kugerageza kuba uwuhambaye kuruta abandi. Yavuze ati: “Nimba umuntu ashaka kuba uw’imbere, ategerezwa kuba uw’inyuma ya bose n’umusuku wa bose.” (Mariko 9:35) Gatoyi imbere y’uko apfa, yahaye abigishwa biwe ubu buyobozi butomoye bugira buti: “Ntimukitwe Rabi, kuko umwigisha wanyu ari umwe, nayo mwebwe mwese muri abavukana. Vyongeye, ntihakagire umuntu n’umwe mwita so kw’isi, kuko So ari umwe, Umwe wo mw’ijuru. Eka mbere ntimukitwe ‘indongozi,’ kuko Indongozi yanyu ari imwe, ni Kristu.” (Matayo 23:1, 8-10) Woba wibaza ko abapapa bagendeye ivyo Petero na Kristu bigishije?

Hari abavuga yuko abapapa boguma bakurakuranwa naho batoba babaho rukirisu. Wewe wumva ivyo vyumvikana? Yezu yavuze ati: “Igiti ciza cose cama ivyamwa vyiza, mugabo igiti cose kibi cama ivyamwa ata co bimaze; igiti ciza ntigishobora kwama ivyamwa ata co bimaze, eka n’igiti kibi ntigishobora kwama ivyamwa vyiza.” Ufatiye ku bimenyamenya bihari, woba wibaza ko Petero canke Kristu boshima kwitirirwa ivyamwa abapapa bamye?​—Matayo 7:17, 18, 21-23.

[Utujambo tw’epfo]

^ ing. 7 Ikiyago Yezu yagiranye na Petero cari gishingiye ku kumenya Kristu uwo ari we be n’uruhara rwiwe, nticari gishingiye ku ruhara Petero yoranguye. (Matayo 16:13-17) Petero ubwiwe yahavuye avuga yuko Yezu ari we gitandara ishengero ryari ryubatsweko. (1 Petero 2:4-8) N’intumwa Paulo yaremeje ko Yezu ari we “buye ry’umushinge rigumya imfuruka” ry’ishengero rya gikirisu, ntiyavuze ko ari Petero.​—Abanyefeso 2:20.

^ ing. 14 Yezu n’intumwa baragabishije yuko ishengero rya gikirisu ryotewe n’abantu bigisha inyigisho z’ubuhuni. (Matayo 13:24-30, 36-43; 2 Timoteyo 4:3; 2 Petero 2:1; 1 Yohani 2:18) Ivyo vyarangutse igihe ishengero ryo mu kinjana ca kabiri ryatangura gukurikiza imigenzo y’abapagani no kuvanga inyigisho ya Bibiliya na filozofiya y’Abagiriki.

[Amafoto ku rup. 25]

Ibimenyamenya vyoba vyerekana ko abapapa bakurikiye akarorero ka Petero?