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UMUNARA W’INDERETSI (INTEGURO Y'UKWIGA) KIGARAMA 2015

Bibiliya y’isi nshasha yasubiwemwo mu congereza mu 2013

Bibiliya y’isi nshasha yasubiwemwo mu congereza mu 2013

UKO imyaka yagiye irengana, Bibiliya y’isi nshasha yarasubiwemwo incuro zitari nke mu congereza, mugabo iyo mu 2013 yoyo yasubiwemwo mu buryo bunogangije kuruta izindi zose. Nk’akarorero, ubu amajambo yaragabanijwe nk’ibice 10 kw’ijana muri iyo Bibiliya. Imvugo nyamukuru zimwezimwe zarasubiwemwo. Ibigabane bimwebimwe vyaranditswe mu buryo bw’ivyese, harongerwamwo n’utundi tujambo tw’epfo dutomora ivyiyumviro. Muri iki kiganiro, ntibishoboka ko duca irya n’ino ibintu vyose vyahinduwe, ariko reka twihweze bikurubikuru mu vyaryohowe.

Ni imvugo nyamukuru izihe zahinduwe? Nk’uko twabivuze mu kiganiro c’imbere y’iki, imvugo “Sheoli,” “Hadesi” be n’“umutima w’ubwenge” zarasubiwemwo. Ariko kandi, hariho ayandi majambo atari make yahinduwe.

Nk’akarorero kugira ntihatangwe iciyumviro kitari co ku bijanye n’ingene Yezu yishwe, ijambo “kumanikwa” ryahinduwe ngo “kwicirwa ku giti” canke “gukomerwa imisumari ku giti.” (Mat. 20:19; 27:31) Ijambo “ubushirasoni” ryahinduwe ngo “inyifato y’akagagazo,” bikaba bitanga iciyumviro c’agasuzuguro giserurwa mu mvugo y’ikigiriki. Ijambo “ukwiyumanganya” nk’uko ryakoreshejwe imbere y’aho, rirashobora gutahurwa ko risobanura kumara igihe kirekire ushikirwa n’imibabaro. Ryasubirijwe n’ijambo “ukwihangana,” rino rikaba ritanga insobanuro y’ukuri. Ijambo “kudandahirwa” ryasubirijwe n’ijambo “ukwidagadura” rishobora kurushiriza gutahurwa neza muri iki gihe. (Gal. 5:19-22) Imvugo ngo “ubuntu bwuzuye urukundo” yarahinduwe neza ngo “urukundo rudahemuka.” Iyo mvugo iraserura insobanuro y’ijambo ryo muri Bibiliya rikunda kujana na yo ari ryo “ubwizigirwa.”Zab. 36:5; 89:1.

Imvugo zimwezimwe zaguma zihindurwa kumwe, ubu zihindurwa hisunzwe ibiba biriko biravugwa. Nk’akarorero, ijambo ry’igiheburayo ʽoh·lamʹ ryahora rihindurwa ngo “igihe kitagira urugero,” rirashobora gusobanura “ibihe bidahera.” Raba ingene ivyo bigira ico bikoze ku kuntu ibivugwa muri Zaburi 90:2 no muri Mika 5:2 vyahinduwe.

Imvugo y’igiheburayo n’iy’ikigiriki zahinduwe ngo “urubuto” zirakunda kuboneka mu Vyanditswe, zompi zikaba zikoreshwa mu bijanye n’uburimyi kandi zikagereranya “uruvyaro.” Integuro za Bibiliya y’isi nshasha za kera zagiye zirakoresha ijambo “urubuto,” ushizemwo no mw’Itanguriro 3:15. Ariko rero, gukoresha ijambo “urubuto” umuntu ashaka kuvuga “uruvyaro” ntibikimenyerewe mu congereza. Ni co gituma Bibiliya yasubiwemwo mu congereza ikoresha ijambo “uruvyaro” mw’Itanguriro 3:15 no mu yindi mirongo bijanye. (Ita. 22:17, 18; Ivyah. 12:17) Mu yindi mirongo, iryo jambo rihindurwa hisunzwe ibiba biriko biravugwa.Ita. 1:11; Zab. 22:30; Yes. 57:3.

 Kubera iki imvugo nyinshi zari zihinduwe ijambo ku rindi zasubiwemwo? Mu Munara w’Inderetsi wo ku wa 1 Rusama 2008, urupapuro rwa 22 havuga ko Bibiliya ihinduye neza “[ishikiriza] insobanuro y’ukuri y’ijambo rinaka canke imvugo yinaka igihe ivyo guhindura ijambo ku rindi imvugo yo mu rurimi rw’intango vyohava bihindura insobanuro yayo canke bigatuma idatomoka.” Igihe imvugo ncakagani zo mu rurimi rw’intango zitahurika mu zindi ndimi, zica zihindurwa ijambo ku rindi. Twisunze ubwo buryo, imvugo ngo “asesangura . . . imitima” dusanga mu Vyahishuwe 2:23 iratahurika mu ndimi nyinshi. Ariko rero, imvugo ngo “asesangura amafyigo” iri muri uwo murongo nyene yoshobora kudaca yumvikana. Ni co gituma ijambo “amafyigo” ryasubirijwe n’imvugo “ivyiyumviro vy’ibwina,” igaca itanga insobanuro yo mu ntango. Muri ubwo buryo nyene, imvugo ncakagani yahinduwe ijambo ku rindi mu Gusubira mu vyagezwe 32:14 ngo “ikinure co kw’ifyigo c’ingano”, ihindurwa mu buryo butomoye kuruta ngo “ingano nziza kuruta izindi zose.” Ku bw’iyo mvo nyene, imvugo ngo “Ndi uw’iminwa itagenyerewe” hari ukuntu idatomoye neza mu ndimi nyinshi nk’imvugo ngo “birangora kuvuga.”Kuv. 6:12.

Kubera iki imvugo ngo “abahungu ba Isirayeli” be n’imvugo ngo “uduhungu tutagira se” zakoreshejwe muri Bibiliya y’icongereza ya kera ubu zihindurwa ngo “Abisirayeli” na “impfuvyi”? Mu giheburayo, igitsina-gabo canke igitsina-gore akenshi birerekana uwuriko aravugwa uwo ari we. Ariko rero, amajambo amwamwe yoshobora kwerekeza ku bagabo no ku bagore. Nk’akarorero, ivyanditswe bikikuje imirongo imwimwe vyerekana ko mu “bahungu ba Isirayeli” harimwo abagabo n’abagore. Iyo mvugo rero ubu ikunda guhindurwa ngo “Abisirayeli.”Kuv. 1:7; 35:29; 2 Abm. 8:12.

Muri ubwo buryo nyene, ijambo ry’igiheburayo “abahungu” ryaboneka mw’Itanguriro 3:16 ryahinduwe ngo “abana” mu nteguro za kera za Bibiliya y’isi nshasha. Muri Kuvayo 22:24, na ho nyene iryo jambo nyene ryarasubiwemwo, ubu hakaba hagira hati: “Abana [mu giheburayo, “abahungu”] banyu na bo bagacika impfuvyi.” Twisunze ubwo buryo mu guhindura ibindi vyanditswe, ijambo “agahungu katagira se” rica riba “akana katagira se” canke “impfuvyi.” (Gus. 10:18; Yobu 6:27) Ukwo nyene ni ko vyahinduwe muri ya Bibiliya y’ikigiriki yitwa Septante. Ivyo vyatumye mu Musiguzi 12:1 hahindurwa ngo “mu misi y’ubuto bwawe” aho guhindurwa ngo “mu misi y’ubusore bwawe.”

Kubera iki amavuga menshi y’igiheburayo yahinduwe mu buryo bworoheje? Imyanya ikoreshwa cane ku mavuga y’igiheburayo ni uwerekana ko igikorwa kibandanya be n’uwerekana ko igikorwa carangiye. Integuro za kera za Bibiliya y’isi nshasha zaguma zifata amavuga ari mu mwanya werekana ko igikorwa kibandanya zikayasubiriza n’irivuga riri kumwe n’akajambo kariherekeza, nka “itangura” canke “yongera” kugira zerekane ko igikorwa kibandanya canke cisubiriza. * Imvugo zo gushimika nka “ata kabuza,” “uze” na “koko” zarakoreshwa mu kwerekana ko amavuga ari mu mwanya werekana ko igikorwa carangiye.

Muri ya Bibiliya yasubiwemwo mu 2013, utwo tujambo duherekeza irivuga ntidukoreshwa kiretse gusa hari ico twongera ku nsobanuro. Nk’akarorero, ntibikenewe ko tuvuga dushimitse yuko Imana yavuze yisubiriza ngo “Nihabeho umuco”. Ni co gituma muri iyo Bibiliya irivuga ryerekana ko igikorwa kibandanya ari ryo “kuvuga” ridahindurwa nk’aho igikorwa coba kibandanya. (Ita. 1:3) Ariko rero, biragaragara ko Yehova yaza arahamagara Adamu, akaba ari co gituma ivyo bigishimikwako mw’Itanguriro 3:9, ahahinduwe ngo “aguma ahamagara.” Muri  rusangi amavuga ahindurwa mu buryo burushirije kworoha, mu gushimika ku gikorwa aho gushimika ku kuba kikibandanya canke carangiye nk’uko biri mu giheburayo. Ikindi ciza kijanye n’ivyo ni uko bifasha gutahura ku rugero runaka igituma igiheburayo gikoresha amajambo magufi.

Ibigabane vyinshi ubu vyanditswe mu mero y’ivyese kugira bigume biri uko vyari vyanditse mu ntango

Ni kubera iki ubu ibigabane bitari bike vyanditswe mu buryo bw’ivyese? Ibice vyinshi vya Bibiliya mu ntango vyanditswe mu buryo bw’ivyese. Mu ndimi za none, akenshi ivyese bigaragarira ku majwi ahamagarana, magingo ivyese vy’igiheburayo ahanini birangwa n’imvugo zerekana amasano n’amatandukaniro. Mu vyese vy’igiheburayo, uburyohe ntibuserurwa n’amajambo ahamagarana mugabo buserurwa n’ukuntu ivyiyumviro bitondetse.

Mu nteguro za Bibiliya y’isi nshasha za kera, igitabu ca Yobu n’ica Zaburi vyanditswe mu mero y’ivyese kugira berekane ko mu ntango vyari bikwiye kuririmbwa canke gusubirwamwo ku mutwe. Iyo mero irashira ahabona ibintu bikwiye gushimikwako maze igafasha umuntu gufata ku mutwe igisomwa. Muri Bibiliya yasubiwemwo mu 2013, igitabu c’Imigani, ic’Indirimbo ya Salomo be n’ibigabane vyinshi vyo mu bitabu vy’ubuhanuzi, ubu na vyo nyene vyanditswe mu mero y’icese kugira vyerekane ukuntu vyari vyanditse mu ntango no kugira hashirwe ahabona imvugo zisanisha be n’izihushanya ibintu. Akarorero kavyerekana kari muri Yesaya 24:2, aho usanga buri murongo urimwo imvugo ihushanya ibintu, kandi umurongo umwe ukaba wubakiye ku wundi kugira werekane neza ko ata n’umwe atari gushikirwa n’urubanza rw’Imana. Kumenya ko iyo mirongo yanditswe mu buryo bw’icese birereka umusomyi yuko uwo mwanditsi wa Bibiliya atariko arasubiramwo gusa ivyo yavuze, ahubwo ko yariko akoresha ubuhinga bw’icese kugira ashimike ku butumwa Imana yariko irashikiriza.

Itandukaniro riri hagati y’igiheburayo canditswe mu buryo busanzwe be n’icanditswe mu buryo bw’icese ryoshobora kutama ryigaragaza. Ku bw’ivyo, Bibiliya zahinduwe usanga zitandukanye uravye imirongo yanditswe mu buryo bw’icese. Bisaba ko abahinduzi baba maso mu bijanye no guhitamwo imirongo bakwiye kwandika mu buryo bw’icese. Imirongo imwimwe usanga yanditswe mu buryo busanzwe mugabo ikamera nk’icese uravye amajambo yakoreshejwe, ntiyitinye gukoresha imvugo ngereranyo, imvugo ziryoshe be n’imvugo zo gusanisha ibintu kugira ishire ahabona iciyumviro.

Hariho umuce mushasha, ni ukuvuga Urucacagu rw’ibirimwo ruri mu ntango ya buri gitabu co muri Bibiliya, ufasha na canecane mu kwerekana ukuntu abavuga bagenda barahinduka mu cese ca kera c’Indirimbo ya Salomo.

Ivyigwa vyagizwe ku vyandikano vy’iminwe vyo mu ntango vyafashije gute igihe Bibiliya yasubirwamwo? Bibiliya y’isi nshasha yo mu ntango yahinduwe hisunzwe igisomwa c’igiheburayo c’Abamasoreti be n’igisomwa c’ikigiriki cubahwa cane canditswe na Westcott hamwe na Hort. Ivyigwa vyagizwe ku vyandikano vy’iminwe vyo mu ntango birabandanya gutuma imirongo imwimwe yo mu gisomwa co mu ntango irushiriza gutahurwa. Hahavuye haboneka imizingo yo ku Kiyaga c’Umunyu. Ibindi vyandikano vy’iminwe vy’ikigiriki vyarasuzumwe. Ibimenyamenya bitari bike bishingiye ku vyandikano vy’iminwe vya vuba biraboneka biciye ku buhinga bwa none, bigaca bituma birushiriza kworoha gusuzuma aho ivyandikano vy’iminwe bitandukaniye kugira bamenye ibisomwa vy’igiheburayo canke ivy’ikigiriki vyemerwa kuruta ibindi. Komite ijejwe guhindura Bibiliya y’isi nshasha yarakoresheje iryo terambere kugira isuzume imirongo imwimwe, bikaba vyatumye igira ivyo ihinduye.

Nk’akarorero muri 2 Samweli 13:21, Bibiliya y’ikigiriki yitwa Septante irimwo amajambo agira ati: “Mugabo yanka kubabaza Amunoni umuhungu wiwe, kubera yamukunda, kuko yari imfura yiwe.” Integuro za Bibiliya y’isi nshasha za kera ntizashiramwo ayo majambo kubera mu gisomwa c’Abamasoreti atayarimwo. Ariko mu mizingo yo ku Kiyaga c’Umunyu ayo majambo arimwo, akaba yarashizwe no muri Bibiliya yasubiwemwo mu 2013. Kubera iyo mvo nyene, izina ry’Imana ryarasubijwe mu kibanza caryo incuro zitanu mu gitabu ca Samweli wa mbere. Kwihweza ibisomwa vy’ikigiriki na vyo nyene vyaratumye haba ihinduka mu kuntu ivyiyumviro bitondetse muri Matayo 21:29-31. Amahinduka amwamwe rero yisunze ingene ibimenyamenya vyo mu vyandikano vy’iminwe bihambaye aho kwumira ku gisomwa c’ikigiriki c’ishimikiro kimwe conyene.

Ayo ni makeyi gusa mu mahinduka yatumye benshi boroherwa gusoma no gutahura Bibiliya y’isi nshasha, iyo babona ko ari ingabirano iva kuri ya Mana iyaga n’abasavyi bayo.

^ ing. 10 Raba Bibiliya Les Saintes Écritures — Traduction du monde nouveau — avec notes et références Inyongera ya 3C ivuga ngo “Verbes hébreux exprimant l’action continue ou en cours.”