Ja ku birimwo

Ja ku rutonde rw’ibirimwo

Ivyabona vya Yehova

Hitamwo ururimi Ikirundi

Elias Hutter na Bibiliya zidasanzwe yashize mu giheburayo

Elias Hutter na Bibiliya zidasanzwe yashize mu giheburayo

WOBA ushobora gusoma igiheburayo cakoreshejwe mu kwandika Bibiliya? Hari aho utobishobora. Ushobora kuba utaranabona Bibiliya y’igiheburayo. Ariko hamwe womenya ivyerekeye umuhinga yitwa Elias Hutter wo mu kinjana ca 16 be n’integuro zibiri za Bibiliya yasohoye mu giheburayo, hari aho worushiriza guha agaciro Ivyanditswe Vyeranda.

Elias Hutter yavutse mu 1553, mu gasagara kitwa Görlitz, hafi y’urubibe Ubudagi buhana na Polonye be na Republika y’Abaceke. Yarize igiheburayo n’igiharameya kuri kaminuza y’i Lutheran, mu gisagara ca Iéna. Afise imyaka 24 gusa, yarahawe igarade rya profeseri w’igiheburayo i Leipzig. Kubera yari imboneza mu guteza imbere inyigisho, yahavuye ashinga ishure i Nuremberg, aho abanyeshure bashobora kwiga igiheburayo, ikigiriki, ikilatini be n’ikidagi mu myaka ine gusa. Nta rindi shure canke kaminuza vyashobora gukora ikintu nk’ico.

“UBWIZA BW’IYI NTEGURO”

Urupapuro rw’intango rwa Bibiliya y’igiheburayo Elias yasohoye mu 1587

Mu 1587, Elias yarasohoye mu giheburayo integuro y’ico benshi bita Isezerano rya kera. Iyo Bibiliya yayise Derekh ha-Kodesh, rikaba ari izina yakuye muri Yesaya 35:8 risobanura ngo “Inzira y’Ubweranda.” Ubwiza bw’indome zayo bwaratumye umuhinga umwe avuga ati: “Vyose biragaragaza ubwiza bw’iyi nteguro.” Ariko icatuma iyo Bibiliya iba iyidasanzwe ni uko yafasha cane abanyeshure kwiga igiheburayo.

Kugira utahure igituma iyo Bibiliya ya Elias yari kirumara, rimbura ingorane zibiri wasanga abantu bagira igihe baba bashaka gusoma Bibiliya y’igiheburayo. Ubwa mbere, yari mu ndome batari bamenyereye, kuko igiheburayo gisomwa uva iburyo uja ibubamfu. Ubwa kabiri, uduce tw’imbere y’itsitso be n’inyuma yaryo twatuma bitoroha gutora itsitso. Nk’akarorero, rimbura ijambo ry’igiheburayo נפשׁ (ne’phesh), risobanura ngo “umuntu.” Muri Ezekiyeli 18:4, indome zigize ijambo umuntu zikurikira urudome ה (ha), maze zigiye hamwe zigaca zivyara ijambo ry’igiheburayo הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh). Utitegereje neza, ijambo הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) womengo nta co risa risana n’ijambo נפשׁ (ne’phesh).

Kugira ngo Elias afashe abanyeshure, yacapuye iyo Bibiliya ku buhinga budasanzwe. Yakoresheje indome z’igiheburayo zizize be n’izitazize. Itsitso ryaba riri mu ndome zizize, uduce tw’imbere  n’utw’inyuma yaryo tukaba mu ndome zitazize. Ivyo vyatuma abanyeshure bamenya itsitso ry’ijambo bitagoranye, bagaca boroherwa no kwiga igiheburayo. Bibiliya y’isi nshasha yo mu gifaransa ifise utujambo tw’epfo n’amarabiro, na yo nyene irakoresha ubwo buhinga mu tujambo tw’epfo. * Itsitso usanga riri mu ndome zizize, uduce tw’imbere n’utw’inyuma y’itsitso tukaba mu ndome zitazize. Ivyo bicapo ubona birerekana indome Elias yakoresheje muri Ezekiyeli 18:4 be n’izakoreshejwe mu tujambo tw’epfo muri uwo murongo nyene, muri iyo Bibiliya y’isi nshasha.

“ISEZERANO RISHASHA” MU GIHEBURAYO

Elias yarasohoye n’integuro y’igice ca Bibiliya benshi bita Isezerano rishasha, ikaba yarimwo indimi 12. Iyo Bibiliya yayisohoreye i Nuremberg mu 1599, ikaba ikunze kwitwa ngo Polyglotte de Nuremberg. Elias yaripfuza gushiramwo n’igiheburayo. Ariko naho “yari yiteguriye gutanga ibitagenda” kugira aronke igisomwa c’igiheburayo, yavuze ko ata ho yari kugikura. * Yaciye ahitamwo kuvyikorera ubwiwe, akura Isezerano rishasha mu kigiriki arishira mu giheburayo. Yabanje gushira ku ruhande ibindi bikorwa vyose, maze mu mwaka umwe gusa aba ararangije ico gikorwa!

None iryo Sezerano rishasha Elias yashize mu giheburayo ryari rifise ubwiza nyabaki? Umuhinga w’Umuheburayo yitwa Franz Delitzsch wo mu kinjana ca 19 yanditse ati: “Iyi Bibiliya yashize mu giheburayo irerekana ko ari umwe mu bakirisu imparurwa batahura neza urwo rurimi, kandi irabereye gukoreshwa, kuko yagiye arakoresha amajambo akubita neza ku ciyumviro.”

IRACARI NGIRAKAMARO

Ico gikorwa co gushira Bibiliya mu giheburayo, nticigeze gitungisha Elias. Biboneka ko izo Bibiliya zitaguzwe cane. Naho ari ukwo, igikorwa yakoze caragize akamaro kanini gushika n’ubu. Nk’akarorero, rya Sezerano rishasha yasohora mu giheburayo ryararyohowe n’uwitwa William Robertson, aca aricapura mu 1661. Mu 1798 na ho, uwitwa Richard Caddick yarariryohoye yongera araricapura. Igihe Elias yakura igisomwa mu kigiriki agishira mu giheburayo, aho yasanga amazina y’icubahiro Kyʹri·os (Umukama) be na The·osʹ (Imana) yahashira izina “Yehova” (יהוה, JHVH). Yarishira aho yasanga igisomwa gisubiramwo amajambo yo mu Vyanditswe vy’igiheburayo, canke aho ubwiye yabona ko ayo mazina yerekeza kuri Yehova. Ivyo birashimishije, kuko naho Bibiliya nyinshi zidakoresha izina ry’uruharo ry’Imana mw’Isezerano rishasha, iyo Bibiliya ya Elias ni ikindi kimenyamenya c’uko bibereye gusubiza izina ry’Imana mu Vyanditswe vy’ikigiriki, ivyo benshi bita Isezerano rishasha.

Ubutaha niwabona izina ry’Imana Yehova mw’Isezerano rishasha canke ukaraba akajambo k’epfo muri ya Bibiliya y’isi nshasha ifise amarabiro, uzoce wibuka igikorwa ca Elias Hutter be n’izo Bibiliya zidasanzwe yashize mu giheburayo.

^ ing. 7 Raba akajambo k’epfo kagira kabiri kajanye na Ezekiyeli 18:4, be n’inyongera ya 3B muri iyo Bibiliya y’isi nshasha.

^ ing. 9 Mu bisanzwe, hari abahinga bari baramaze gushira Isezerano rishasha mu giheburayo. Umwe muri bo ni Simon Atoumanos, umumonaki w’i Bizanse, yabikoze nko mu 1360. Uwundi ni umuhinga w’Umudagi yitwa Oswald Schreckenfuchs, yabigize nko mu 1565. Ariko Bibiliya zabo ntizigeze zisohorwa, kandi nta wuzi iyo zakamanganiye.