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1918​—Imyaka 100 irarangiye

1918​—Imyaka 100 irarangiye

Umunara w’Inderetsi wo ku wa 1 Nzero 1918 (mu congereza), watanguye uvuga uti: “Umwaka wa 1918 utubikiye iki?” Naho Intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yari ikibica bigacika i Buraya, ivyabaye mu ntango z’uwo mwaka vyasa n’ivyerekana ko imbere ari heza ku Batohoji ba Bibiliya no kw’isi yose muri rusangi.

KW’ISI HAVUGWA AMAHORO

Mw’ijambo Perezida Woodrow Wilson yashikirije Inama nshingamateka ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ku wa 8 Nzero 1918, yaratanze ivyiyumviro 14 yabona ko vyotumye haba “amahoro nyayo kandi arama.” Yarasavye ko hoba umwumvikano hagati y’ibihugu, ukugabanya ibirwanisho be n’ugushinga “ishirahamwe mpuzamahanga” ryofashije “ibihugu bibayabaye n’ibikomakomeye.” Ivyo vyiyumviro 14 yashikirije ni vyo vyahavuye vyisungwa mu gushinga wa Muhari w’amahanga no muri ya Masezerano y’i Versailles mu Bufaransa, bica bituma ya Ntambara y’isi yose ihagarara.

ABAGARARIJE BARATSINZWE

Naho umwaka w’imbere y’uwo waranzwe n’imidurumbanyo, * vyaboneka ko n’Abatohoji ba Bibiliya bari bagiye kuronka agahengwe uravye ivyabaye mu nama Ishirahamwe Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society ryagira buri mwaka.

Muri iyo nama yabaye ku wa 5 Nzero 1918, abagabo batari bake bahoze bafise amabanga akomakomeye muri Beteli imbere yuko birukanwa, baragerageje kwigarurira ishirahamwe. Umucungezi w’ingenzi w’umwizigirwa yitwa Richard Barber, ni we yatuye isengesho ritangura. Hamaze gutangwa raporo y’ingene igikorwa cagenze mu mwaka wari uheze, haciye hatorwa abayobozi b’ishirahamwe. Umuvukanyi Barber yatanze urutonde ruriko Joseph Rutherford n’abandi batandatu. Uwuserukira abo bagararije na we yaciye atanga urutonde ruriko abagabo indwi, harimwo na bamwe birukanwa muri Beteli. Abo bagararije baratsinzwe. Benshi cane mu batoye bahisemwo umuvukanyi Rutherford be na ba bavukanyi batandatu bandi b’abizigirwa ngo babe abayobozi.

Abavukanyi benshi bari muri iyo nama, bavuze ko “ari ryo koraniro riteye umunezero kuruta ayandi yose bari bamaze kwitaba.” Ariko rero, uwo munezero wabo wamaze akanya gato.

UKO ABANTU BAKIRIYE IGITABU AKAYOBERA KARANGIZWA

Abatohoji ba Bibiliya bari bamaze amezi atari make batanga igitabu Akayobera karangizwa. Abasomyi b’umutima nziraburyarya barashimishijwe n’ukuri gushingiye muri Bibiliya kwari muri ico gitabu.

Umucungezi w’ingenzi wo muri Kanada yitwa Edward Crist, yaravuze ibijanye n’abubakanye basomye ico gitabu baca baremera ukuri mu ndwi zitanu gusa! Yavuze ati: “Uwo mugabo n’umugore bafise umwete mwinshi kandi bariko baratera imbere neza.”

Umugabo umwe amaze kuronka ico gitabu yaciye abwira abagenzi biwe ibiri muri co. Yari yakozwe ku mutima n’ubutumwa buri muri co. Yigana ati: “Nariko ndamanukana ibarabara rya gatatu nca numva ikintu kimeze nk’itafari kinguye ku bitugu, ariko nasanze ari igitabu ‘Akayobera karangizwa.’  Naciye ndagitahana muhira maze ndagisoma cose. . . . Nahavuye menya ko yari umuvugabutumwa . . . yari yashangashiwe yagitaye agicishije mw’idirisha . . . Ndemera ntakeka ko ico kintu yakoze cafashije abantu benshi kuronka icizigiro kuruta ibindi bintu vyose yakoze. . . . Ishavu ry’uwo muvugabutumwa ryaratumye tumenya Imana.”

Uwo muvugabutumwa si we wenyene yagize inyifato nk’iyo. Ku wa 12 Ruhuhuma 1918, abategetsi bo muri Kanada barabujije ico gitabu, bitwaje ko carimwo amajambo agumura abantu kandi akiyamiriza intambara. Budakeye na kabiri, abategetsi bo muri Amerika na bo nyene barabujije ico gitabu. Barasatse Beteli n’amabiro i New York, muri Pensilivaniya be no muri Kaliforniya, barondera ivyo bokwagiriza abari bahagarikiye ishirahamwe. Ku wa 14 Ntwarante 1918, ubushikiranganji bw’ubutungane bwa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika bwarabujije igitabu Akayobera karangizwa, bwitwaje ko isohorwa ry’ico gitabu be n’ikwiragizwa ryaco vyabuza abantu gushigikira intambara.

BATABWA MW’IBOHERO

Ku wa 7 Rusama 1918, ubushikiranganji bw’ubutungane bwararonse umutahe wo guhagarika Giovanni DeCecca, George Fisher, Alexander Macmillan, Robert Martin, Frederick Robison, Joseph Rutherford, William Van Amburgh na Clayton Woodworth. Babagiriza ko “baremesha abantu n’akagagazo kenshi kugarariza abategetsi, guhemukira igihugu no kutaja mu gisirikare ca Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.” Urubanza rwabo rwatanguye itariki 5 Ruheshi 1918, ariko vyaragaragara ko batotsinze. Uti ku ki?

Umushingwamanza mukuru wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika yavuze ko bagirwa no guhonyanga itegeko ryiyamiriza abansi b’igihugu, rikaba ryari “igikoresho ruhasha co kurwanya amayeri yabo.” Ku wa 16 Rusama 1918, Inama nshingamateka yariyamirije impinyanyuro y’iryo tegeko, iyokingiye Abatohoji ba Bibiliya bari basohoye “ibintu vy’ukuri, babigiranye imvo nziza kandi ku bw’intumbero ibereye.” Ca gitabu Akayobera karangizwa ni co caje kw’isonga ry’ivyizwe mu Nama nshingamateka. Raporo yavuye muri iyo nama yavuze iti: “Kimwe mu bintu biteye akaga kuruta kirimwo amayeri y’abansi ni igitabu citwa ‘Akayobera karangizwa’ . . . Nta yindi ntumbero gifise atari ugutesha abasoda bacu ico twiyemeje no kubuza . . . abandi kwinjira mu gisoda.”

Ku wa 20 Ruheshi 1918, sentare yavuze ko ba bavukanyi umunani bakubiswe intahe mu gahanga. Bukeye, umucamanza yarasomye nya rubanza. Yavuze ati: “Ibintu abo banyedini bigishije bongera barakwiragiza bivuye inyuma . . . biteye akaga kuruta umugwi munini w’abasoda b’Abadagi. . . . Barakwiye guhanwa vy’akarorero.” Inyuma y’indwi zibiri, abo bavukanyi umunani barashizwe mw’ibohero rikuru ry’i Atlanta muri Jeworojiya, bakatirwa umunyororo w’imyaka iri hagati ya 10 na 20.

BABANDANIJE KWAMAMAZA

Muri ico gihe, Abatohoji ba Bibiliya barahuye n’uruhamo rukaze. Ibiro bikuru vy’iperereza (FBI)  vyarakurikiraniye hafi ibikorwa vyabo, birategura amaraporo ibihumbi. Ayo maraporo arerekana ko abavukanyi bacu bari biyemeje kubandanya bamamaza.

Mw’ikete umukuru w’ibiro vya posita vy’i Orlando muri Floride yandikiye ibiro vy’iperereza, yagize ati: “[Abatohoji ba Bibiliya] baramamaza inzu ku nzu muri iki gisagara kandi akenshi babigira mw’ijoro. . . . Biboneka ko biyemeje kuguma bamamaza naho boshikirwa n’iki.”

Umukoloneli umwe yarandikiye ivyo biro abimenyesha ivyo Frederick Franz akora, uno akaba yahavuye aba mu bagize Inama Nyobozi. Yanditse ati: “Frederick Franz . . . aramaze kugurisha ibitabu ‘Akayobera karangizwa’ bishika ku bihumbi.”

Charles Fekel, na we nyene akaba yahavuye aja mu bagize Inama Nyobozi, yarashikiwe n’uruhamo rukaze. Abategetsi baramufashe kubera yariko aratanga igitabu Akayobera karangizwa bongera barakurikiranira hafi ingene ahanahana amakuru n’abandi. Yaramaze ukwezi apfungiwe i Baltimore muri Maryland, bakaba bamwita ngo ni “Umwansi aturuka muri Ostraliya.” Igihe yariko arabwira inkuru nziza abariko baramusambisha abigiranye umutima rugabo, yaributse amajambo Paulo yavuze mu 1 Abakorinto 9:16, agira ati: “Noba ngowe hamwe ntomenyesha inkuru nziza!” *

Uretse ko abo Batohoji ba Bibiliya bamamaza n’umwete, baratembereje urwandiko rwo gusaba ko abo bavukanyi bari bapfungiwe i Atlanta borekurwa. Anna Gardner yavuze ati: “Twama tugira ico dukoze. Igihe abo bavukanyi bari mw’ibohero, igikorwa twaciye dukora kwari ukurondera abadusinyira kuri urwo rwandiko. Twaja ku nzu n’inzu. Twararonse abantu ibihumbi bemera gusinya! Twababwira yuko nya bagabo ari abakirisu b’ukuri kandi ko bapfungiwe ubusa.”

AMAHWANIRO

Muri ico kiringo kigoye, twaragize amahwaniro menshi yo gukomeza abavukanyi mu vy’impwemu. Umunara w’Inderetsi wavuze uti: “Amahwaniro arenga mirongo ine . . . yarabaye muri uwo mwaka . . . Twararonse amaraporo aremesha yavuye muri ayo mahwaniro yose. Kera amahwaniro yose yaba mu mpera z’ici canke mu ntango z’agatasi. Ubu hoho, buri kwezi haraba amahwaniro.”

Abantu b’umutima nziraburyarya bagumye bakira inkuru nziza. Ihwaniro rimwe ryabereye i Cleveland muri Ohio ryari ryitabwe n’abantu nka 1.200, kandi 42 barabatijwe, harimwo n’agahungu kari “karakunze cane Imana kongera karayihebera, bikaba vyotumye abakuze benshi batitaho ivy’Imana bamaramara.”

NI IBIKI VYOKURIKIYE?

Uko umwaka wa 1918 wegereza ku nsozero, Abatohoji ba Bibiliya ntibabona ico kazoza kababikiye. Igice c’ikibanza c’i Brooklyn caragurishijwe, icicaro gikuru na co cimurirwa i Pittsburgh muri Pensilivaniya. Igihe abaja imbere abandi bari bakiri mw’ibohero, harateguwe iyindi nama ya buri mwaka, yohuje abari bashigikiye ishirahamwe mu bijanye n’uburyo, ku wa 4 Nzero 1919. None vyogenze gute?

Abavukanyi barumiye ku gikorwa cabo. Barizigira cane ko vyobagendeye neza ku buryo icanditswe bacaguye c’umwaka wa 1919 cavuga ngo: “Ikirwanisho cose gikorewe kukurwanya ntikizorama.” (Yes. 54:17, Bibiliya Nyeranda) Bari biteguriye neza rero ihinduka rikomeye ry’ibintu, bikaba vyotumye ukwizera kwabo gukomera, bikabaronsa n’inguvu zo kurangura igikorwa kidasanzwe cari kibarindiriye.

^ ing. 6 Raba ikiganiro kivuga ngo “Haraciye imyaka ijana kuva mu 1917,” mu Gitabu c’umwaka c’Ivyabona vya Yehova 2017, rup. 172-176.

^ ing. 22 Raba inkuru y’ubuzima ya Charles Fekel ifise umutwe ugira uti: “Ivyiza biva mu kuguma ukora igikorwa ciza wihanganye,” mu Munara w’Inderetsi (mu gifaransa) wo ku wa 15 Munyonyo 1970.