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BE MASO! NYAKANGA 2015

 KAHISE KATWIGISHA IKI?

Herodote

Herodote

MU MYAKA ibihumbi iheze ubuzima bwari bumeze gute? Ni imigenzo iyihe abantu bakurikiza? Ivyubuwe birashobora kuturonsa inyishu z’ibibazo bimwebimwe mugabo si vyose. Hamwe tworonka igitabu c’umuntu yanditse inkuru zo muri ico gihe vyodufasha gutahura ingene abantu ba kera babona ibintu. Haraciye imyaka 2.400 uwo muntu abayeho. Yitwa Herodote, akaba yari umwanditsi w’ivya kahise w’Umugiriki wo mu kinjana ca gatanu imbere ya Kristu. Yanditse igitabu citwa Inkuru za kahise (The Histories).

Herodote yaratanguye kurondera amakuru y’icatuma Abagiriki barwana. Yaranarondeye canecane kumenya icatumye Abaperesi bagaba igitero gikomeye mu 490 no mu 480 imbere ya Kristu. Ico gitero co mu 480 cabaye Herodote akiri agahungu gatoyi. Uretse ivyo, yaranditse amakuru yose yaronse yerekeye ibihugu ico gitero c’Abaperesi cakozeko.

NTIYANDITSE GUSA INKURU ZA KAHISE

Herodote yari umwanditsi adasanzwe. Yaritwararika cane ivyo yandika, agashiramwo ikintu cose yabona ko gikenewe mu nkuru ariko arandika. Ico gikorwa Herodote yakoze ntigisanzwe kubera ko atisunze inyandiko za Leta zerekana ingene ivyabaye vyagiye birakurikirana narirya izo nyandiko zari nke cane.

Ico gihe ni bake bitaho kwandika ivya kahise kiretse bashaka guhayagiza ivyo bakoze, na ho nyene bakavyandika ku vyibutso. Herodote yategerezwa kwisunga ivyo yabona, imico kama be n’ivyo yabwirwa n’abandi bantu ku bijanye n’inkuru yaba ashaka kwandika. Kugira yegeranye ayo makuru yose, yaragenze mu bihugu bitari bike. Yakuriye mu gisagara citwa Halicarnasse cari kigwiriyemwo Abagiriki (ubu citwa Bodrum, kiri mu bumanuko bwa Tirkiya) kandi yaragiye ahatari hake mu Bugiriki.

Kugira Herodote yegeranye amakuru yose, yaragenze mu bihugu bitari bike

 Yaragize ingendo zitoroshe aja mu buraruko bw’Ikiyaga Cirabura be n’i Sikite, araja mu karere ubu kitwa Ukraine, mu bumanuko bwa Palestina no mu buraruko bwa Misiri. Mu buseruko bishoboka ko yashitse i Babiloni kandi ashobora kuba yarangirije ubuzima bwiwe mu burengero ahantu hari hagwiriye Abagiriki, ubu hakaba haherereye mu bumanuko bw’Ubutaliyano. Aho yaja hose yarihweza ibintu, akabaza maze akegeranya amakuru ayakuye ku bantu yabona ko ari abo kwizigirwa.

IVYO HERODOTE YANDITSE NI IVY’UKURI

Icandikano c’urufunzo co muri ca gitabu Inkuru za kahise

Ivyo Herodote yanditse ni ivy’ukuri ku rugero rungana iki? Ivyo yanditse ku bijanye n’ibihugu yagiyemwo be n’ibintu yiboneye, bifatwa ko ari ukuri. Uravye ukuntu yadondoye imigenzo itari izwi mu Bagiriki, nk’iyijanye no guhamba abami b’i Sikite be n’iyijanye no gutimbisha ibiziga mu Misiri, hari ukuntu bihuye n’ivyo abacukuzi bubuye. Bivugwa ko amakuru yanditse ku bijanye na Misiri “aruta kure n’iyo ayandi yose yanditswe kera ku bijanye n’ico gihugu.”

Ariko rero vyarashika Herodote agafatira ku makuru atari ayo kwizigirwa cane. Vyongeye, abantu bo mu gihe ciwe baremera cane ko imana z’abapagani zabafasha. Rero ivyo yanditse vyose ntivyakurikije amategeko agenga abanditsi b’ivya kahise b’iki gihe. Naho ari ukwo, Herodote yaragerageje gutandukanya inkuru z’ukuri n’izitari iz’ukuri. Yarivugiye ko atemera ivyo yabwiwe vyose. Yandika ivyiyumviro yabanje gusuzuma neza.

Biboneka ko Herodote yari yarihebeye koko ico gitabu. Uravye uburyo yari afise, ico gikorwa yakoze kiratangaje.