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Ja ku rutonde rw'ibirimwo rwa kabiri

Ja ku rutonde rw’ibirimwo

Ja ku birimwo

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Ikirundi

BE MASO! NTWARANTE 2015

Akayaga n’akazuba vyoba vyica imigera?

Akayaga n’akazuba vyoba vyica imigera?

IGIHE abahinga mu vya siyansi bubura imiti yica imigera hagati mu kinjana ca 20, abaganga baciye bizigira yuko iyo miti yotumye indwara zimwezimwe zituzwa. Mu ntango, iyo miti yasa n’iyikora neza ico bari bayitezeko. Ariko rero, abantu baratanguye kuyikoresha cane, bituma imigera itangura kumenyera iyo miti.

Mu ntumbero yo kurondera uburyo bushasha bwo kurwanya indwara ziterwa n’imigera, abahinga bamwebamwe bariko barasubira kwihweza uburyo bwakoreshwa kera mu kurwanya mwene izo ndwara. Bumwe muri ubwo buryo ni ukwungukira ku kazuba no ku kayaga keza kuko bifasha kugira amagara meza.

Ico twigira ku b’aho hambere

Hari abahinga ba kera bo mu Bwongereza berekanye yuko akazuba n’akayaga keza bifasha kuvura indwara. Nk’akarorero, umuganga John Lettsom (uwabayeho mu 1744-1815), abana barwaye igituntu yabandikira kuja gusama akayaga ku kiyaga no kwota akazuba. Mu 1840, umuganga abaga yitwa George Bodington yarabonye yuko abantu bakorera hanze, nk’abarimyi n’aborozi, abungere n’abandi, batarwara cane igituntu. Ariko abakorera ahantu hugaye bobo yasanze basa n’abakunda kurwara iyo ndwara.

Florence Nightingale (uwabayeho mu 1820-1910) yarabaye rurangiranwa kubera uburyo bushasha bwo gufasha abarwayi yatanguje igihe yariko aravura abasoda b’Abongereza, mu ntambara yabereye ahitwa Crimée. Yavuze ati: “Vyoba bishika ukinjira mu vyumba vy’abantu . . . mw’ijoro, canke mu gitondo batarugurura amadirisha, ukumva hapfunganye, hari impemu zitameze neza?” Yavuze yuko akayaga ko mu cumba c’umurwayi gakwiye kuguma kameze neza nk’ako hanze, ariko ntigatume umurwayi akanya. Yongeyeko ati: “Igihe cose namaze mfasha abarwayi, nariboneye neza yuko mu vyo abarwayi bakeneye, havuye akayaga keza haca hakurikira umuco . . . Ariko umuco bakeneye si umuco uwo ari wo wose,  ni umuco w’izuba.” Abantu benshi bo muri ico gihe babona kandi yuko kwanikira ibisaswa n’udupfuko tw’imisego be n’impuzu bituma umuntu agira amagara meza.

Naho ubuhinga bwateye imbere tugereranije n’iyo myaka ya kera, ivyigwa vyagizwe mu bihe vya none vyarashigikiye ivyiyumviro vy’abo bahinga ba kera. Nk’akarorero, icigwa kimwe cagizwe mu Bushinwa mu 2011 cerekanye yuko mu mashure y’indaro, abanyeshure barara mu vyumba ari benshi kandi ntibaronke akayaga gakwiye, ari “bo bakarirwa n’indwara zijanye n’uguhema.”

Ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu ryitaho amagara y’abantu (OMS) ryerekana yuko akayaga gasanzwe, ushizemwo n’akinjira mu nzu kavuye hanze, gafasha cane kurwanya imigera. Ni co gituma mu 2009 ryaremesheje amavuriro gukoresha ako kayaga kugira ngo abafatwa n’indwara ziterwa n’imigera bagabanuke. *

Hari aho woca uvuga uti: ‘Ivyo ni vyiza. Ariko abahinga mu vya siyansi babisigura gute? Bigenda gute ngo akazuba n’akayaga bidukingire imigera?’

Birica imigera

Ivyigwa vyagizwe mu kigo kimwe c’Ubushikiranganji bwo kwivuna abansi bwo mu Bwongereza biradufasha kubitahura. Abahinga bo muri ico kigo baripfuje kumenya ikiringo umuyaga womara uteye akaga, haramutse haturikijwe ikirwanisho gicira imigera mu gisagara ca Londres. Kugira bamenye ikiringo imigera yomara mu muyaga itarapfa, abo bashakashatsi barafashe imigera yitwa colibacille bayishira ku tugozi tw’inzu y’igitangurirwa, baca bayishira hanze. Ivyo babikoze mw’ijoro, kubera bizwi ko umuco w’izuba wica iyo migera. Uti none babonye iki?

Haciye amasaha nk’abiri, iyo migera nka yose yari yapfuye. Ariko igihe bafata iyo migera bakayishira mu gisandugu cugaye aho hanze nyene, ubushuhe n’akabombera k’umuyaga ari vya bindi nyene, myinshi muri iyo migera yagumye ikomeye inyuma y’amasaha abiri. Kubera iki? Biboneka ko hari ikintu kiba mu muyaga cica imigera. Abahinga ntibaramenya neza na neza ico kintu ico ari co. Ariko rero, abashakashatsi bavuga ko hari uruvange rw’ibintu ruba mu muyaga “rukora nk’umuti wica imigera iba mu muyaga.”

Umuco w’izuba na wo nyene urica imigera. Ikinyamakuru kimwe (Journal of Hospital Infection) gisigura yuko “myinshi mu migera itera indwara usanga itarinda umuco w’izuba.”

None wokwungukira gute kuri ivyo bintu? Woshobora kuja hanze, ukamara umwanya utarenze urugero wota akazuba canke usama akayaga. Ivyo vyoshobora kukugirira akamaro.

^ par. 8 Hari ibintu bishobora gutuma umuntu adasiga amadirisha yuguruye. Twovuga nk’umuyaga umeze nabi, urwamo, umutekano n’ugukinga kugira ngo umuriro wokwaduka ntukwiragire.