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Be maso!  |  Munyonyo 2014

Imigende y’Abaroma—Igikorwa c’ubuhinga bw’agatangaza

Imigende y’Abaroma—Igikorwa c’ubuhinga bw’agatangaza

MU BINTU vy’ubuhinga bukomeye vyubatswe kera, harimwo imigende y’Abaroma itwara amazi. “Iyo migende ihambaye cane yatwara amazi menshi, nta ho ihuriye na ya mapiramide yo mu Misiri ata co yakora canke ibintu rurangiranwa ata co bimaze Abagiriki bubatse.” Ivyo vyavuzwe na Sextus Julius Frontinus (yabayeho mu 35 gushika nko mu mwaka wa 103 Inyuma ya Kristu), akaba yari buramatari n’uwujejwe ivy’amazi i Roma. *

Kubera iki iyo migende yubatswe?

Kera ibisagara bakunda kuvyubaka ahantu haboneka amazi menshi. Igisagara ca Roma na co nyene cari cubatswe ahantu nk’aho. Mu ntango ico gisagara cikora ku mazi y’Uruzi Tibure, ku mbizi n’amariba vyari mu micungararo. Ariko rero, kuva mu kinjana ca kane Imbere ya Kristu, caratanguye kwaguka ningoga, gitangura no gukenera amazi menshi.

Kubera ko amazi yo mu nzu yari afise abantu bake, Abaroma barubatse ubwogero amajana n’amajana, bumwe muri bwo bukaba bwari ubwogero rusangi. Ubwogero rusangi bwa mbere bwubatswe mu gisagara ca Roma, bwakoresha amazi y’umugende witwa Aqua Virgo watanguye gukoreshwa icese mu mwaka wa 19 Imbere ya Kristu. Uwo mugende wubatswe n’umugenzi somambike wa Sezari Ogusito yitwa Marcus Agrippa. Uwo mugabo yarakoresheje ubutunzi bwiwe bwinshi mu gutunganya neza imigende y’amazi i Roma no mu kuyigwiza.

Ubwo bwogero rusangi bwahavuye bucika ahantu abantu bakorera ibindi bikorwa uretse ukwoga gusa. Nk’akarorero, ahari ubwogero buninibunini barahatunganije imirima y’amashurwe be n’ahantu ho gusomera ibitabu. Amazi yo muri iyo migende ntiyashobora kwugarwa. Avuye muri ubwo bwogero, yaca aca mu kuzimu agakukumura imicafu, ushizemwo n’imyanda yava mu tuzu twa surwumwe twaba dufatanye n’ubwo bwogero.

Ingene yari yubatswe n’ingene yabungabungwa

None iyo migende y’Abaroma yari imeze gute? Ibice bidashika 20 kw’ijana vy’iyo migende vyaca hejuru. Mwene iyo migende yari imeze nk’ibitarurwa birebire cane bifise ahantu hihese nk’umuheto. Ariko imigende myinshi yaca mu kuzimu. Kuyicisha mu kuzimu vyatuma hadakoreshwa uburyo bwinshi cane  bikongera bigatuma iyo migende idasaza ningoga. Vyaratuma kandi iyo migende idatera umwaga mu matongo canke mu karere yubatswemwo. Nk’akarorero umugende witwa Aqua Marcia wubatswe mu mwaka wa 140 Imbere ya Kristu. Wari ufise uburebure bw’ibilometero nka 92, ukagira igice gica hejuru n’igica mu kuzimu. Ariko igice caca hejuru cari kimeze nk’igitarurwa, kikagira uburebure bw’ibilometero nka 11 gusa.

Imbere yo kwubaka umugende, abahinga babanza kuraba ukuntu amazi bipfuza gucisha muri uwo mugende ameze. Bararaba ko asa neza, uko angana be n’akanovera kayo. Bararaba n’ingene amagara y’abanywa ayo mazi ameze. Bamaze kwemererwa kwubaka uwo mugende, abahinga mu vy’ubutaka baca biga inzira wocamwo, umumanuko bowuha, ubwaguke bwawo n’uburebure bwawo. Abaja barakoreshwa mu kwubaka imigende. Iyo migende yarashobora kumara imyaka itari mike yubakwa, bigatuma hakoreshwa uburyo bwinshi, canecane igihe vyaba bikenewe ko bayubaka nk’ibitarurwa bifise ahantu hihese nk’umuheto.

Vyongeye, iyo migende bategerezwa kuyibungabunga no kuyikingira. Igisagara ca Roma carigeze gukoresha abantu nka 700 mu kuyibungabunga. Mu gutegura imigero y’iyo migende, hariyumvirwa n’ingene izobungabungwa. Nk’akarorero, mu kwubaka imigende ica mu kuzimu, barategekanya ibinogo bashobora kwururukiramwo kugira bayishikire. Igihe haba hari igice c’umugende cononekaye cane, abahinga baca babanza gukevya amazi kugira bahakore.

Imigende yatwara amazi mu gisagara ca Roma

Mu ntango z’ikinjana ca gatatu Inyuma ya Kristu, imigende 11 mikurumikuru ni yo yaronsa amazi igisagara ca Roma. Uwa mbere witwa Aqua Appia, ukaba wubatswe mu 312 Imbere ya Kristu. Wari ufise uburebure bw’ibilometero birenga gato 16, ukaba hafi wose waca mu kuzimu. Hariho n’ibisigarira vy’uwundi mugende witwa Aqua Claudia. Kera wari ufise ibilometero nka 69 vy’uburebure. Igice cawo gica hejuru cari gifise ibilometero nka 10 vy’uburebure. Ahihese h’uwo mugende hatari hake, hari hafise imetero 27 z’amahagarara!

None imigende yatwara amazi angana gute mu gisagara? Menshi cane! Nk’akarorero, wa mugende witwa Aqua Marcia washikana i Roma nk’amalitiro imiliyoni 190 y’amazi buri musi. Amazi yaramanuka agashika mu gisagara. Agezeyo, yashikira mu matangi, agaca yigabura akaja mu yandi matangi canke mu bindi bibanza. Ibiharuro bimwebimwe vyerekana ko amazi yashika i Roma yongerekanye cane ku buryo umunyagihugu wese ashobora kuba yararonka amalitiro arenga 1.000 ku musi.

Igitabu kimwe kivuga ivy’iyo migende y’amazi, cavuze yuko aho Inganji y’Uburoma yashitse hose, “yajanyeyo ubwo buhinga bwo kwubaka imigende.” Ingenzi zija gutembera muri Tirkiya, mu Bufaransa, muri Espanye no muri Afrika ya Ruguru zirashobora gutamarira ivyo bintu vy’igitangaza vya kera vyubatswe mu buhinga bukomeye.

^ par. 2 Abaroma si bo batanguye kwubaka imigende itwara amazi. Abashuri, Abanyamisiri, Abahindi, Abaperesi n’abandi bantu ba kera barabitangiye imbere.