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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley

“Turavye ubuhanga butandukanye yari afise, ishaka ryiwe, igikorwa yakoze, ubuntu yerekanye, inyota ikomeye yari afise yo kumenya ibintu vyose, vyaba ari ibiriho, ivy’imico runtu canke ivy’imibano; uruhara yagize muri siyansi, mu nyigisho z’ivy’Imana, filozofiya na politike; ingene yashigikiye yivuye inyuma ya migumuko yo guharanira amahinduka [mu Bufaransa] be n’inkuru ibabaje cane y’amabi yakorewe azira ubusa, twoshobora kuvuga ko yari intwari isumba izindi zose zo mu kinjana ca cumi n’umunani.”—Vyavuzwe n’umufilozofe yitwa Frederic Harrison.

NI IKINTU kidasanzwe ikihe Joseph Priestley yakoze? Ivyo yubuye n’ivyo yanditse vyaragize ico bihinduye ku kuntu abantu babona intwaro, akaranga k’Imana, mbere n’impemu duhumeka.

Haba mu kwandika ibijanye na siyansi canke ivy’idini, Priestley yariyamiriza ivyiyumviro bidafise ivyemeza be n’inyigisho za kera abantu bapfa kwemera, agashira imbere ibintu vy’ukuri. Reka tubirabe.

YARARONDEYE UKURI MU VYA SIYANSI

Joseph Priestley yari asanzwe atohoza ivya siyansi mu buryo bwo kwinezereza gusa. Ariko amaze guhura n’umuhinga mu vya siyansi w’Umunyamerika Benjamin Franklin mu 1765, yaciye atangura kugira ubushakashatsi mu bijanye n’umuyagankuba. Mu mwaka wakurikiye, abanyasiyansi bagenziwe baratangajwe cane n’ivyo yubuye ku buryo bamugena ngo abe mu bagize ikigo gikomeye cane c’ivya siyansi c’i Londres (Royal Society of London).

Priestley yaciye atangura gutohoza siyansi yitwa chimie. Haciye igihe gito, yarubuye imyuka itari mike, nk’uwitwa ammoniaque n’uwitwa oxyde d’azote (uwo batazira umwuka utera agatwengo). Yaranashize mu mazi umwuka witwa gaz carbonique, aba abaye uwa mbere ahinguye amazi arimwo uwo mwuka.

Igihe Priestley yariko agira ubushakashatsi mu bumanuko bw’Ubwongereza mu 1774, yarubuye umwuka udasanzwe  utuma ibuji yaka cane. Mu nyuma, yarashize mililitiro 60 z’uwo mwuka mu kirahuri carimwo akabeba. Ako kabeba kaciye kamara igihe gisumba incuro zibiri ico kari kumara kari mu kirahuri kirimwo akayaga gasanzwe! Priestley ubwiwe yarahemye uwo mwuka, kandi yavuze ko “haciye akanya yumvise yorohewe cane n’uguhema.”

Joseph Priestley yari yubuye umwuka duhema witwa ogisijeni. * Yamara yaciye awuha izina ryerekana ko yibajije yuko yubuye umuyaga usanzwe, ni ukuvuga utarimwo ibintu yiyumvira ko bituma ikintu kidasha. Naho Priestley yihenze, benshi babona ko uwo mwuka yubuye ari co “kintu gikomeye kuruta ibindi vyose yashitseko mu buzima bwiwe.”

YARARONDEYE UKURI MU VY’IMANA

Nk’uko nyene Priestley yabona ko ivyiyumviro bidafise ikivyemeza bibera intambamyi ukuri mu bijanye na siyansi, ni na ko yabona yuko inyigisho abantu bapfa kwemera zibera intambamyi ukuri kujanye n’ivy’Imana. Igitangaje ni uko naho Priestley yarondeye ukuri kwo muri Bibiliya ubuzima bwiwe bwose, hari ivyiyumviro yemera bidahuje n’ivyo Bibiliya yigisha vy’ukuri. Nk’akarorero, yarigeze kuba atemera ko Bibiliya yahumetswe n’Imana ku gitangaro. Yaranse kandi kwemera yuko Yezu yabayeho imbere y’uko aza kw’isi, nk’uko Bibiliya ibivuga.

“Nimba siyansi ari ukurondera ukuri, Priestley rero yari umunyasiyansi koko.”—Vyavuzwe na Katherine Cullen, umuhinga mu vy’ibinyabuzima

Ariko ku rundi ruhande, Priestley yarashize ahabona inyigisho z’ikinyoma n’ubu zicemerwa na benshi mu madini makurumakuru. Yanditse yuko ukuri Yezu n’abayoboke biwe bigishije kwahavuye kwanduzwa n’ibinyoma, nk’inyigisho y’Ubutatu, iy’uko umuntu afise umutima w’ubwenge udapfa be n’ugusenga ibishusho kwiyamirizwa muri Bibiliya.

Ivyo Priestley yemera mu vy’Imana n’ukuntu yashigikira imigumuko yo guharanira amahinduka yabaye muri Amerika no mu Bufaransa, vyarashavuje cane Abongereza bagenziwe. Mu 1791, akagwi kamwe karaturiye inzu ya Priestley n’aho yagirira ubushakashatsi, arahava ahungira muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika. Naho Joseph Priestley yibukirwa cane ku vyo yubuye mu vya siyansi, we yabona ko kumenya ivyerekeye Imana n’umugambi wayo ari vyo “biteye iteka kandi bihambaye gusumba ibindi vyose.”

^ par. 10 Imbere y’aho, umuhinga w’Umunyasuwede Carl Scheele yarubuye uwo mwuka, mugabo ntiyabimenyekanisha. Umuhinga w’Umufaransa Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier ni we yahavuye aha uwo mwuka izina ogisijeni.