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BE MASO! RUSAMA 2014

Uruhigi rw’abapfumu i Buraya

Uruhigi rw’abapfumu i Buraya

HARAHEZE ibinjana bikeyi Abanyaburaya bagize isekeza ryo guhiga buhongo abapfumu maze bakabica kubera ukubatinya. Iryo sekeza ryabaye canecane mu Bufaransa, mu Budagi, mu buraruko bw’Ubutaliyano, mu Buswise no mu karere kari kagizwe n’Ububiligi, Luxembourg n’Ubuholande. Igitabu kimwe (Witch Hunts in the Western World) kivuga giti: “Abantu ibihumbi mirongo b’i Buraya no mu ntara Abanyaburaya bari bagerereyemwo barapfuye . . . , abandi amamiliyoni barasinzikarizwa ubuzima, barafatwa, barasambishwa, barankwa urunuka, baragirizwa canke babaho mu bwoba.” * None ukwo gutinya abapfumu birenze urugero kwatanguye gute? Kwatewe n’iki?

Sentare ya Gatolika be n’igitabu Inyundo yo guhasha abapfumu

Sentare ya Gatolika yaragize uruhara rukomeye muri ivyo. Igitabu citwa Der Hexenwahn (bisobanura ngo Ugutinya abapfumu) gisigura ko Ekleziya Gatolika ya Roma yashinze iyo Sentare mu kinjana ca 13 mu ntumbero yo “kuzimurura abahuni no kubuza abandi kuzimira.” Iyo Sentare yakora nk’igipolisi ca Ekleziya.

Ku wa 5 Kigarama 1484, Papa Inosenti w’umunani yarasohoye icete ciyamiriza ubupfumu. Vyongeye, yarahaye uruhusha abantu babiri bakorera iyo Sentare, ari bo Jakob Sprenger na Heinrich Kramer (uwitwa kandi Henricus Institoris mu kilatini) ngo bahagurukire ico kibazo. Abo bagabo babiri barasohoye igitabu citwa Malleus Maleficarum, bisobanura ngo Inyundo yo guhasha abapfumu. Baba abagatolika canke abaporoti, bose babonye ko ico ari co gitabu co kwizigirwa gishira ahabona ivy’ubupfumu. Ico gitabu carimwo inkuru zitabaho zerekeye abapfumu zishingiye ku migani n’ibitito. Cariyamiriza ubupfumu cishimikije inyigisho z’ivy’Imana be n’amategeko, kikerekana n’uburyo bwo kumenya abapfumu no kubahonya. Ico gitabu vyavuzwe ko ari “co gitabu  kibi kandi . . . cakweze akarambaraye gusumba ibindi vyose vyanditswe kw’isi.”

Igitabu ciswe ngo Inyundo yo guhasha abapfumu vyavuzwe ko ari “co gitabu kibi kandi . . . cakweze akarambaraye gusumba ibindi vyose vyanditswe kw’isi”

Mu kwagiriza umuntu ubupfumu ntibirirwa bararaba ko hari ivyemeza. Igitabu citwa Hexen und Hexenprozesse (bisobanura ngo Abapfumu n’ukuntu basambishwa) kivuga yuko umuntu yasambishwa “kugira gusa yature ko ari umupfumu abanje kuvyemezwa, guterwa ubwoba canke guhatwa.” Kenshi abantu barasinzikarizwa ubuzima.

Ca gitabu bise ngo Inyundo yo guhasha abapfumu na ca cete Papa Inosenti w’umunani yandika vyatumye i Buraya hatangura uruhigi rukomeye rw’abapfumu. Hari n’ubuhinga bushasha bwagize ico buterera, bukaba ari ubuhinga bwo gucapura bwafashije gukwiragiza iryo shaka rirenze urugero gushika no hakurya y’Ibahari Atlantike muri Amerika.

Ni bande bagirizwa?

Ibice birenga 70 kw’ijana vy’abagirizwa wasanga ari abagore, na canecane abapfakazi, bano kenshi bakaba batagira uwubavugira. Haba harimwo aboro, abageze mu zabukuru n’abagore batanga imiti y’ikirundi, na canecane igihe iyo miti yaba itakoze. Yaba umutunzi canke umworo, umugabo canke umugore, umuntu muto canke uwuhambaye, bose barashobora kwagirizwa.

Abiyumvirwa ko ari abapfumu wasanga bagirizwa amabi y’ubwoko bwose. Nk’uko ikinyamakuru kimwe co mu Budagi (Damals) kibivuga, abapfumu ngo ni bo “batuma hagwa urubura hagatera n’ivyago vy’ibifyera n’ibinyabwoya kugira bihonye imbuto n’ivyimburwa vyo kw’isi.” Bishitse urubura rukonona ibiterwa, inka ntikamwe, umugabo ntavyare canke umugore akaba ari ingumba, vyaca bigwa ku gatwe k’abapfumu!

Abikekwako ubupfumu wasanga bashirwa ku munzane, kubera vyiyumvirwa ko abapfumu bafise ibilo bike cane canke ntibagire namba

None abo bapfumu babamenya gute? Abikekwa ko ari abapfumu barabohwa bagaca bashirwa mu mazi akanye yitwa ko ahezagiye. Baramutse bibiye, baca bambikwa izera, bagakurwa mu mazi. Bagumye bareremba na ho, baca bitwa abapfumu bakicirwa aho nyene canke bakajanwa gucirwa urubanza. Abandi wasanga bashirwa ku munzane, kubera vyiyumvirwa ko abapfumu bafise ibilo bike cane canke ntibagire namba.

Ubundi buryo bakoresha kwari ukurondera icitwa ngo ni “ikimenyetso ca Shetani,” ngo kikaba cari “ikimenyetso kiboneka Shetani yaba yarashize ku mupfumu igihe bagirana amasezerano,” nk’uko bisigurwa na ca gitabu twavuga mu ntango (Witch Hunts in the Western World). Ababijejwe barondera ico kimenyetso “mu kumwa icitwa umushatsi cose kiri ku mubiri w’uwagirizwa, bagaca basuzuma agace kose k’umubiri wiwe,” bakabigira bene umurango babona! Baca bazibura agashinge ku kantu kose babonye, nk’akarorero ikibibi, agasununu canke inkovu. Hadaciye hava amaraso canke ngo hababare, haca hitwa ko ari ikimenyetso ca Shetani.

Vyaba ibihugu vy’abagatolika canke ivy’abaporoti, vyose vyarakora urwo ruhigi rw’abapfumu, kandi mu ntara zimwezimwe abategetsi b’abaporoti wasanga bakaze gusumba bagenzi babo b’abagatolika. Ariko rero, abantu bahavuye batangura kugarura akenge. Nk’akarorero mu 1631, umupatiri w’umujezwite yitwa Friedrich Spee yari yarajanye abantu batari bake bagirizwa ubupfumu mu kibanza baturirirwamwo babona, yanditse yuko ku bwiwe abo bose bazize ubusa. Yaragabishije kandi yuko urwo ruhigi ruramutse rubandanije ukuraho, ata muntu n’umwe yosigaye mu gihugu! Ariko kandi, abaganga baratanguye gutahura yuko umuntu yashobora gufatwa n’intandara bivuye ku ngorane y’amagara, bitavuye ku madayimoni. Mu kinjana ca 17, abacirwa urubanza baragabanutse cane. Mu mpera z’ico kinjana hoho basa n’abatakibaho.

None ico kiringo kibabaje kitwigisha iki? Kimwe mu vyigwa bihambaye tuhakura ni iki: Igihe abiyita abakirisu batangura gufata inyigisho zityoroye za Yezu Kristu bakazisubiriza inyigisho z’ikinyoma n’ibintazi, vyatumye haba amabi atagira izina. Ku bijanye n’iceyi abantu b’ibihemu nk’abo bosize ubukirisu bw’ukuri, Bibiliya yari yaravuze iti: “Inzira y’ukuri izotukwa.”2 Petero 2:1, 2.

^ par. 2 Muri izo ntara harimwo na Amerika.